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THE PHILIPPINE 

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

ALVIN J. COX, M.A., Ph.D. 

GENERAL EDITOR 

Section D 

general biology, ethnology, 

and anthropology 

EDITED WITH THE COOPERATION OF 

M. L. MILLER, Ph. D. ; R. P. COWLES, Ph. D. ; C. S. BANKS, M. S. 
ALVIN SEALE, A. B. ; C. F. BAKER, A. M. 

RICHARD c. McGregor, a. b. 

Volume IX 

1914 

With 56 Plates, and 46 Text Figures 




180429 



MANILA 

BUREAU OP printing 

1914 



CONTENTS 

No. 1, February, 1914 

Page. 

Seale, Alvin. Preservation of commercial fish and fishery products 

in the tropics 1 

Two plates. 

Day, Artemas L. The osseous system of Ophiocephalus striatus 

Bloch 19 

Nineteen plates and 7 text figures. 

Worcester, Dean C. Note on the occurrence of a flying crustacean 

in the Philippine Islands 57 

Seale, Alvin. Pishes of Hongkong 59 

Two plates. 

Kerremans, Ch. Buprestides recueillis aux iles Philippines par C. F. 

Baker, I 83 

Une figure dans le texte. 

SCHULTZE, W. Notes on the Malay pangolin, Manis javanica Des- 

marest ...- 93 

Two plates. 

No. 2, April, 1914 

Christie, Emerson B. Notes on irrigation and cooperative irrigation 

societies in Ilocos Norte 99 

One plate. 

Christie, Emerson B. Notes on the pottery industry in San Nicolas, 

Ilocos Norte 117 

Three plates. 

Cain, Andrew W. History of the Spanish normal school for men 

teachers in Manila, 1865-1905 123 

Four plates. 

Melichar, L. Neue Homopteren von den Philippinen 173 

Eine Tafel. 

Kieffer, J. J. Nouveaux cynipides des Philippines 183 

Day, Artemas L. Two new cyprinoid fishes of the genus Barbus 

from Lake Manguao, Palawan, P. 1 187 

One plate. 

No. 3, June, 1914 

Light, S. F. Some Philippine Scyphomedusse, including two new 

genera, five new species, and one new variety 195 

Sixteen text figures. 

iii 



285804 



iv Contents 

Pagre. 
Light, S. F. Notes on Philippine Alcyonaria. Part II: Lemnalioi- 
des kiikenthali, a new genus and species of Alcyonaria from the 
Philippines and a discussion of the systematic position of the new 
genus 233 

One plate and 8 text fii?ures. 

WiLEMAN, A. E. Notes on Japanese Lepidoptera and their larvae: 

Part I 247 

Three colored plates. 

Meuchar, L. Neue Fulgoriden von den Philippinen: I. Theil 269 

Eine Tafel. 

KiEFFER, J. J. Enumeration des serphides (proctotrupides) des lies 
Philippines avec description de genres nouveaux et d'especes nou- 
velles 285 

SCHULTZE, W. Notes on a nesting place of Crocodilus palustris 

Lesson .-. 313 

One plate. 

No. 4, August, 1914 

COWLES, R. P. Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 319 

Three plates and 1 text figure. 

Banks, Charles S. A new Philippine malaria mosquito 405 

No. 5, September, 1914 

Baker, C. F. Studies in Philippine Jassoidea: I. Some remarkable 

Tettigoniellida 409 

Eleven text fij?ures. 

BiCKHARDT, H. Philippinische Histeriden: 1 423 

Eine Tafel. 

Melichar, L. Neue Fulgoriden von den Philippinen : II 433 

Eine Tafel. 

Fleutiaux, Ed. Elateridae des lies Philippines 441 

Rapfray, a. Catalogue des pselaphides (coleopteres) des iles Philip- 
pines 451 

Crawford, J. C. New Philippine Hymenoptera 457 

No. 6, November, 1914 

Robertson, James A. The Igorots of Lepanto 465 

Nine plates and one map. 

McGregor, Richard C. Description of a new Prionochilus from the 

highlands of Luzon 531 

One colored plate. 

Grouvelle, a. Nitidulidae des Philippines recoltes par C. F. Baker.... 535 
Index 543 



THE PHILIPPINE 

Journal of Science 

D. General Biology, Ethnology, 
AND Anthropology 



Vol. IX FEBRUARY, 1914 No. 1 



PRESERVATION OF COMMERCIAL FISH AND FISHERY 
PRODUCTS IN THE TROPICS 

By Alvin Seale 

{From the Section of Ichthyology, Biological Laboratory, Bureau of 
Science, Manila, P, L) 

Two plates 
PRESERVING BY DRYING AND SALTING 

Almost every country has its own methods for drying and 
salting fish due to local conditions. 

In the provinces of the Philippine Islands almost all of the 
fish for home consumption are simply sundried with but a 
sprinkling of salt or without salt. This economy of salt is 
probably due to the difficulty of securing it and to the fact that 
the fish are not to be kept for a great length of time. However, 
in some places, like Sitanki Island, where the salting of fish is 
the most important industry and the work is chiefly in the 
hands of Chinese, the following method is employed: The 
fish are caught by the Moro fishermen who clean them promptly, 
usually while still on the fishing ground. The fish is placed in 
front of the operator with the belly uppermost and the head 
inward ; a cut is made along the side of the backbone from the 
base of the tail to near the head. The fish is then turned over, 
and a similar cut is made on the other side of the backbone to 
the tip of the snout, the skin on the belly alone remaining intact. 
The fish is then opened by cutting the upper or head end of the 

123716 



2 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

backbone and the posterior end of the body cavity. This enables 
the operator to spread the fish out flat in three united sections, 
the backbone constituting one section. If the fish is very large, 
two gashes are cut in the thickest part of the flesh on each side 
so that the salt may penetrate more quickly. The entrails are 
then removed. The entire operation requires less than half a 
minute by an experienced Moro using a bolo. The fish are then 
sold to Chinese, who place them at once in a large vat of brine 
sufficiently strong to float a potato. About 1 sack of salt to 3 
picules of fish (418.5 pounds) is used, but this brine is too 
weak. The fish are usually left in these vats for three or four 
days ; then they are placed on platforms to dry ; each evening, or 
when rain threatens, they are gathered up and piled in kenches. 
This process is continued until they are thoroughly dry and ready 
for the market. Dried fish from Sitanki are said to spoil very 
readily. I believe this to be chiefly due to the lack of care in 
keeping the brine sufficiently strong and the vat sanitary. 

In Manila, where a very large quantity of small fish is cured, 
especially sardines and young herring, the process is as follows : 
The fish are washed in sea water when they are removed from 
the boat, placed in strong brine for from two to three hours, 
and spread on flakes until thoroughly sundried (Plate I). 
They are then ready for packing and shipping. These fish are 
dried in the round, and are covered each night and during 
showers. Owing to the fact that frequently fish of from 20 to 
22 centimeters were included in the lot, they were not cured 
properly. Consequently, a city ordinance was passed requiring 
the evisceration of fish of more than 15 centimeters in length, 
when they were to be sundried. This was purely a sanitary 
measure. 

During the dry months in the Philippines, it is much better to 
depend upon sundrying with a minimum amount of salting for 
preserving fish. On the Grand Banks of the Newfoundland 
coast, the fish are stored in kenches on shipboard. About 11.4 
hectoliters (1.5 bushels) of salt for 45.30 kilograms (100 pounds) 
of fish are used for these. When the fishermen reach the shore, 
however, they cure the fish by pickling or by a combination of 
drying and pickling. 

PICKLING 

In pickling fish it is customary to use either a rectangular 
trough or a large hogshead which will hold about 193.05 liters 
(51 gallons). This is called a butt. A thick layer of salt is 
sprinkled on the bottom of the butt, then the fish are placed in 



ix,D, 1 Seale: Fish and Fishery Products 3 

the butts in layers, the split surface up. Salt is sprinkled 
over each layer so that all parts of the fish are well covered, 
and a half bushel of salt is placed on top to make a strong pickle. 
The amount of salt required for each hogshead is from 1.4 to 
2.5 hectoliters (4 to 6 bushels). When the fish settle, they are 
covered with strong brine, and in this condition they will keep 
until needed. 

When the fish are taken from the butts, they are carefully 
stacked in piles from 0.9 to 1.2 meters (3 to 4 feet) high called 
kenches. This is to allow the brine to drain oflf. With the 
exception of the lower layer, they are stacked with the cut side 
down. At the end of from twenty-four to forty-eight hours 
they are put out to dry on bamboo racks about a meter from the 
ground, being spread cut side up. After one day of drying they 
are replied or kenched for from twenty-four to forty-eight 
hours and then dried again for two days or until perfectly dry. 
I strongly advise that they then be packed in large cooking bags 
or oilpaper, made up into neat packages, and stored in a dry 
place. Fish prepared in this manner will keep in good condition 
in the Philippines for months. 

Regarding the quantity of salt used in curing iced or fresh 
fish in the United States, A. W. Bitting writes: ^ 

About half a pound of salt is used to the pound of iced fish in the regular 
course of curing the full salted fish; for export fish about three-eighths of 
a pound is used, and for slack salted one-fourth of a pound. As the cured 
fish contains only from 14 to 20 per cent of salt, it is evident that about 
33 per cent of the amount used serves as a preservative while the remainder 
acts as a drying agent, and it would seem that improved methods might 
effect a marked saving in this part of the process, * ♦ ♦ sufficient 
drying and retention of that dryness under varying weather conditions will 
assist in preventing spoilage. 

It is in this connection that we urge the use of oilpaper or 
large cooking bags for packing fish, as this tends to prevent the 
entrance of dampness which would cause the fish to mold — and 
this is the greatest difficulty we have to contend with in pre- 
serving dried fish in the Philippines. 

SALTED SHRIMPS OR PRAWNS 

At certain times of the year very young prawns from 2 to 3 
centimeters in length are sold in the Manila markets. These 
are preserved by being mixed with a liberal quantity of coarse 
salt and then placed in kerosene tins. They find a ready sale. 

'Bull U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur, Chem. (1911), 133, 27, 29. 



4 The Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

SALTED CRABS 

During the rainy season, great quantities of small crabs are 
caught in the brackish waters of the esteros near Manila. They 
are usually lightly sprinkled with salt and offered for sale the 
next morning in the Manila markets. This crab, Varuna lit- 
ter ata (Fabr.), is apparently not taken in large numbers at any 
other season. 

MULLET ROES 

There are at least 16 species of mullets or banak found in 
Philippine waters. They are good food fishes and usually abun- 
dant in all parts of the Islands. Several thousands have been 
caught at one haul of a big seine. The roes of these fish are a 
great delicacy, but I am not aware that they are conserved in 
any manner in the Philippines. The following is an abstract 
of one method ^ for preparing mullet roes : 

The fish are split open and the roes removed, care being taken to avoid 
breaking the roe bags or bruising the eggs. They should be separated 
carefully from the surrounding viscera. The roes are placed in tubs with 
holes in the bottom so that the water can run off. The roes, still in the 
roe bags, are then placed in boxes or kegs with fine salt sprinkled over 
and between them. An excess of salt must be avoided as it will cause the 
egg sacs to break. About 1 peck of Liverpool, or any fine, salt should be 
used to 160 pounds of eggs. 

On removal from the salt, the roes are spread on boards and exposed to 
the sun for about one week, being covered at night. They are turned over 
each morning and protected from rain. Sometimes, after one day's exposure, 
other boards are laid on top of the roes to compress them slightly. When 
properly cured they are from 4 to 8 inches long, from 2 to 4 inches wide, 
and from one-half to two-thirds of an inch thick. They vary in color from 
yellowish to dark red. These are now ready to be packed in small boxes 
and marketed. 

In Italy the hard roes of mullet are converted into cakes termed 
bolarge or bolargo, which are prepared by washing and sprin- 
kling with salt and pressing between two boards. They are then 
smoked or sundried, and are a good appetizer in that they 
promote thirst. In India these roes are considered excellent for 
curries. 

BAGOOSe 

Bagoofig is the most common fish preparation in the Philip- 
pines. In almost every native home it is more or less of a staple. 
It is prepared by mixing 2 parts of young or small fish — anchovies 

'Bull, U. S. Fish Comm. (1898), 18, 546. 



IX.D.1 Seale: Fish and Fishery Products 5 

preferred — with 3 parts of salt. This is placed in stone jars, 
covered to exclude flies and dirt, and allowed to ferment for one 
month. It is then ready for use, the liquid portion being used 
as a sauce and the solid fried or mixed with rice. Care should 
be taken to prevent flies from depositing their eggs in this 
mixture as otherwise it becomes filled with larvae and is most 
unappetizing. However, it is sometimes eaten in this condition. 

PRESERVING BY SMOKING 

In its simplest form, the preservation of fish by smoking is 
as follows: The fish are first dressed. If large, they are split 
down the belly from head to tail so that they lie flat. The head 
and most of the backbone are removed. Usually the flesh is 
gashed in several places to allow the salt to penetrate. The 
fish are next placed in vats or barrels with 22.66 kilograms 
(50 pounds) of No. 2 salt and from -2.27 to 4.54 kilograms 
(5 to 10 pounds) of granulated sugar to 91 kilograms (200 
pounds) of fish. On the second day, brine made by dissolving 
13.61 kilograms (30 pounds) of salt in 18.9 liters (5 gallons) 
of water is added. After the fifth or sixth day, the fish are 
removed and soaked in fresh water for three hours. They are 
trussed out flat, hung on sticks or bamboos, and permitted to 
dry for from two to three hours in the open air. They are then 
hung in the upper part of the smokehouse away from the heat, 
but not so high as to be in the hot air which accumulates at the 
top. The smoking is continued for from eighteen to thirty-six 
hours, twenty-four of which are usually required to complete the 
process. When low smokehouses are used, in which the fish are 
hung within from 2.5 to 3 meters (8 to 10 feet) of the fire, the 
smoking is usually completed in less time than this. The smoke 
must be even throughout and with little fire. When sufficiently 
smoked, the fish are permitted to cool and are then packed with 
paper wrapped about them. The price in the United States for 
fish prepared in this way is usually from 36 to 40 centavos per 
pound. 

The smokehouse may be of almost any shape or size, from an 
inverted barrel to the elaborate brick house with outside fur- 
naces. A common form is one with three or four chambers, 
ranged side by side, from 1.83 to 4.27 meters (6 to 14 feet) 
high, 1.22 to 1.52 meters (4 to 5 feet) wide, and 1.83 to 3.66 
meters (6 to 12 feet) deep. Hardwood or hardwood sawdust 
is used for producing the smoke. 



6 The Philippine Journal of Science i^h 

Variations from the above method are innumerable, and depend 
largely upon the variety of smoked product to be prepared, and 
the size and variety of the fish to be smoked must be taken into 
consideration. 

For the smoking of small fish such as young herring or sar- 
dines, the Chinese of Manila have very extensive smokehouses 
and drjring yards, and a large business is carried on by them. 
This business has increased wonderfully within the past six 
years. In 1909 there were but 14 houses and yards for drying 
and smoking fish; in 1911 I counted 36 such establishments all 
owned by Chinese, who were preparing the fish, not only 
for local consumption, but for export to China as well. In 
1912 almost all of these establishments were destroyed in the 
great Tondo fire, but at this date (1913) many have resumed 
operations. 

The method of their operation, which is effective and eco- 
nomical although rather crude, is as follows: The fish — usually 
herring or sardines — are landed at Tondo beach (Plate I). 
They are dipped in salt water and washed, but not eviscerated. 
They are then put in strong brine for from two to three hours 
(very small or young fish for less time) and then dipped in 
boiling water for a few moments (Plate II). For the latter 
purpose, large kettles over a crude earthen furnace are used. 
The fish are then drained and spread in the sun for about one 
hour to dry (Plate I). They are next placed in round baskets 
about 40 centimeters in diameter, 100 fish to the basket 
(Plate II). These baskets are placed over one of the openings 
in the furnace to smoke. The furnace (Plate II) is usually 
constructed of stone or cement, and is about 1 meter high 
and 1 meter wide, while the length usually is limited only 
by the length of the house. There may be two or more rows of 
these furnaces in each house. The furnaces are supplied with 
holes in the top about 50 centimeters apart for the smoke to pass 
out; otherwise they are entirely closed. A smoke of hardwood 
sawdust is started, and the basket of fish is placed over one of the 
holes of which there are from 5 to 40 in each furnace. Usually 
several baskets are placed one above another, and over the top 
basket is always placed a tightly woven basket cover (Plate II) . 
After smoking for ten hours the lowest basket in shifted to 
the top and the smoking is continued until the fish are properly 
cured. The length of time necessary for this process depends 
largely upon the size of the fish. The fish intended for sale in the 
local markets are usually smoked for twenty-four hours. Small 



ix,D,i Seale: Fish and Fishery Products 7 

fish require less smoking, export fish more. These baskets retail 
for 60 centavos each. 

If the fish are placed at a distance from the fire so that the 
temperature is never above 26°. 7 C, the product is called **cold 
smoked," but if the fish are hung very near the fire and are more 
or less cooked it is called **hot smoked.*' The latter method 
requires only about two hours, but the product will keep but a 
very short time. 

The "cold smoked" is the better product. The smoking may 
last from a few hours to two or three weeks, depending upon 
the product desired. Hardwood or hardwood sawdust makes 
the best smoke, but I have succeeded in making a very good prod- 
uct by using half-dry and green coconut husks. 

I have conducted a number of experiments in smoking fish, 
using the following, all of which are very common in the Phil- 
ippines: Barracuda, sea bass, mullets, cavalla, snappers, and 
porgies. The fish were thoroughly cleaned and washed, and the 
backbones removed. Some of the larger ones were cut in strips. 
They were put in strong brine for one day, allowed to drain and 
dry two days in the sun and wind, and then transferred to the 
smokehouse and smoked slowly for fourteen days, after which 
they were placed in the sun for half a day. Finally, they were 
wrapped in oilpaper and were sealed in tin boxes. After nine 
months in Manila, these fish were eaten and pronounced excellent. 

A very appetizing fish product was made by cutting the flesh 
of large fish in rather small strips, which were placed in brine 
for one hour and transferred to spiced vinegar for three days, 
then sundried and slow smoked nine days. When wrapped in 
oilpaper and packed in tin boxes, these kept in good condition 
in Manila for four months. The following is an abstract of a 
method which the United States Bureau of Fisheries ^ recom- 
mends for preparing a choice fish product for warm climates: 

The fish, after being smoked, are cooled and placed in layers in wooden 
barrels. Between each layer of fish a layer of dry salt is placed in the 
proportion of about 6 pounds of salt to 100 pounds of fish. The barrels, 
after being filled, are kept in a cool place until the fish have become com- 
pletely hard, which will require from three to fifteen days, depending upon 
the kind and size of the fish. The barrels are then filled with brine and 
closed by a tight-fitting cover. The brine must be carefully prepared in 
the following manner: Filtered water is boiled with salt to a saturated 
solution, cooled, skimmed, and as much drawn off as appears fully clear 
and fine. If the brine is not carefully prepared, the fish will not keep for 

'Bull. U. S. Fish. Comm. (1898), 18, 477. 



8 The Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

any length of time, which will likewise be the case if the process of hardening 
has not completely taken place. 

Fish prepared in this manner will keep for many months and can be 
sent to hot climates without danger of spoiling. 

SMOKED HERRING 

The ordinary hard-smoked herring is prepared by pickling it 
in a tank of about 842 liters' (225 gallons') capacity. This tank 
is first partially filled with weak pickle made by adding 0.53 
hectoliter (1.5 bushels) of salt to 100 gallons of water. From 
about 379 to 568 liters (100 to 150 gallons) of fish are then placed 
in the pickle, after which half a bushel of salt is put over them, 
and a third more of the fish is added. A second layer of salt, 
about 0.53 hectoliter (1.5 bushels), is laid on, and enough fish 
are then added to fill the tank which is finally covered with from 
1.06 to 1.8 hectoliters (3 to 5 bushels) of salt. Each tank when 
filled contains 4 hogsheads of fish and from 2.11 to 3.17 hecto- 
liters (3 to 5 bushels) of salt, the quantity of salt depending 
upon the size of the fish and the condition of the weather. 

When the salt has struck, the time for which will require from 
twelve to forty-eight hours depending upon the size of the fish, 
the fish are dipped out and strung on sticks. They are then 
dipped in a trough of clean salt water and allowed to drain and 
dry for about one hour, after which they are hung in the smoke- 
house and the fires are started. The fish are smoked from three 
to five weeks. The sticks should be shifted so that a regular 
smoking is insured. It is best to fill the smokehouse gradually. 

BLOATERS 

The following is an abstract^ of the method of preparing 
the popular fish product known as bloater. 

Fresh herring are used and are pickled as soon as received, 1 bushel of 
salt being used to 1 barrel of fish. After remaining in the pickle for from 
two to three days they are removed, drained, and placed on sticks for 
smoking. In order to "bloat," the herring must be thoroughly moist. After 
they have commenced to dry in the smokehouse, the heat must be increased. 
If they hang for from ten to twelve hours without heat, they will not 
"bloat.*' The smoking continues for from two and one-half to six days, 
when the fish are usually sufficiently cured. Bloaters will keep but a short 
time, unless put in cold storage. 

KIPPERED HERRING 

To kipper herring, the fish are cleaned and salted like the 
bloaters, except that they are not kept in pickle so long. They 

'Bull U. S. Fish Comm. (1898), 18, 485. 



IX, D, 1 Seale: Fish and Fishery Products 9 

are then hung up to dry for a few hours and smoked for from 
six to eight hours at temperatures of from 26°.7 to 29°.4 C, 
the fish being hung in such a way as to keep the abdomen open. 
They are then ready for cooUng and packing. 

"Kippered herring differ from bloater herring principally in 
that they are split and eviscerated before smoking." These 
will not keep well in the Philippines unless put in cold storage. 

SMOKED CAT FISH 

Cat fish may be smoked in the same manner as herring. 
However, if they are very large, they should first be cut into 
strips. 

SMOKED EELS 

The following is an abstract of a method used in Germany for 
smoking eels, from the United States Bureau of Fisheries:^ 

The head, skin, tail, and viscera are removed, and the eel is split open 
the entire length, tha^ backbone and many of the smaller bones attached 
to it are removed. It is then laid in strong salt brine for six hours and 
is then wiped dry with a towel and covered with the following preparation 
which has been pounded in a porcelain mortar; One large anchovy, 1 ounce 
fine salt, 8 ounces of su^ar, 1 ounce saltpeter, and sufficient butter to make 
a paste of the ingredients. The eel, thoroughly cured with this preparation, 
is rolled up tightly in the form of a disk, beginning at the tail end, tied 
with a cord to hold it in position, and then sewed up in a linen cloth, 
which covers the disk and allows the end to project. These disks are 
next suspended in an ordinary smokehouse and smoked for from five to 
six days, then allowed to cool and become firm, when they are ready for 
the table. 

MARINATING FISH 

The method of conserving fish in spiced vinegar known in 
Europe as marinating has never been practiced to any extent in 
the Philippines. However, I believe that fish put up in this man- 
ner would meet with a favorable reception from consumers. 
For this purpose young herring, sardines, or anchovies are most 
desirable, although almost any small food fish may be used. 
Good firm fish, however, should be selected. The fish should 
be cleaned, washed, and dried for from half an hour to one 
hour in the air, then boiled or fried in hot oil (in Italy they 
are dipped in flour before frying), and put out to cool and to 
let the oil drain off. They are then packed in barrels, kegs, 
or glass jars, and spiced vinegar sufficient to fill the containers 
is poured in. After allowing them to stand a short time, the 

'Bull U, S. Fish Comm. (1898), 18, 505. 



10 The Philippine Journal of Science ish 

bung is driven in or the cans sealed up. An excellent account 
of the method of marinating eels as practiced in Italy is given 
by James Hornell.^ 

CANNING SARDINES AND OTHER FISHES IN THE PHILIPPINES 

I believe that there is a good opening for a moderate amount 
of capital in the canned fish industry in the Philippines. This 
is especially true if the fish cannery is operated in conjunction 
with some allied industry; for instance, a tomato-catsup fac- 
tory. These two could easily be combined. Excellent tomatoes 
are grown in the vicinity of Manila, and a good market would 
stimulate additional planting. Oriental people prefer sardines 
put up in tomato sauce, so a portion of the output could be used 
for that purpose. The refuse of the fish cannery could readily 
be ground and pressed for chicken feed or fertilizer. There- 
fore, in a properly organized cannery there would be three prod- 
ucts to put on the market — sardines, tomato catsup, and **bone 
meal" or fertilizer. Satisfactory labor at a r^sonable rate could 
be readily secured. Taking into consideration the large quanti- 
ties of fresh sardines landed each morning at Tondo beach, it is 
surprising that some local capitalist has not opened a cannery. 

In brief outline, the method of preparing sardines is as fol- 
lows: 

Catch the fish. 

Rinse the fish well in salt or fresh water. 

Spread on tables or a clean floor and sprinkle with a little salt. 

Clean by removing heads and entrails. 

Place the fish in brine of sufficient strength to float a potato, where they 

should remain until the salt "strikes in." This will take from one-half 

to one hour. 
Rinse rapidly in two waters to remove scales, dirt, and excess of salt. 
Dry in the open air by placing the fish, tails up, in shallow wire baskets, 

so that water will run out of the abdominal cavity. In good weather 

one hour or even less is sufficient for drying. In bad weather, dry 

indoors. The wire baskets full of fish should be hung up so the air may 

circulate freely through them. 
Cook the fish in oil by immersing these wire baskets with the fish in them 

in boiling peanut or olive oil. They should remain in the oil about two 

minutes or until the tail fin breaks easily. 
Hang up the baskets so that the oil will drain off, and leave until the fish 

are cool. 
Pack the fish in tins. 
Fill the packed tins with olive oil, tomato catsup, or whatever is desired; 

a few cloves, small peppers, or thyme may be used. 
Solder or clamp the covers so that they are absolutely air-tight. 

^ Bull. Madras Fisheries Bureau (1911), 2, No. 6, 50. 



IX. D, 1 



Scale: Fish and Fishery Products 



11 



Immerse the cans of fish in boiling water for two hours. This cooks the fish 

and softens the bones. 
Remove the cans from the water, allow them to cool, and rub them in dry 

sawdust to remove all oil from the outside. 
The sardines are then ready for the market. 

Using the above method, I prepared 100 tins of Philippine 
sardines to be used as an exhibit and afterward to be sent to 
various packing associations in order to interest them in the 
subject. The letters received in reply to these samples of sar- 
dines were in most cases very satisfactory. Owing to imperfect 
soldering, the oil leaked from some of the tins and the contents 
spoiled. 

Dr. David Starr Jordan, president of Stanford University, 
wrote : 

I had the can of the Philippine sardines you sent me served at the table. 
I consider them equal to the European sardines. 

A member of the firm of Messrs. Castle Bros.-Wolf & Son, one 
of the largest commercial houses in Manila — now the Pacific 
Commercial Company — wrote : 

I consider the quality of the sardines you sent us very good and see no 
reason why, eventually, the canning of these fish should not be an important 
industry. 

According to the decision of the pure food experts of the United 
States Bureau of Agriculture, any small clupeoid fish may be put 
up in oil and labelled sardine, provided that the name of the 
country where the fish were caught and the kind of oil used in 
the tins are printed on the label. 

This practically includes the entire family Clupeidae. The 
following species of this family are found in Philippine waters, 
several of them in great abundance. 

Species of clupeoid fishes found in Philippine waters. 
Stolephorus gracilis (Temm. and Sardinella gibbosa {Bleeker) . 



Schleg.). 
Stolephorus delicatulus (Bennett). 
Ambly g aster sirm (Riippell). 
Ambly g aster clupeoides (Bleeker). 
Ambly gaster perforatum (Cantor). 
Dussumieria acuta Cuv. and Val, 
Dussumieria elopsoides Bleeker. 
Dussumieria hasseltii Bleeker. 
Sardinella moluccensis (Bleeker). 



Sardinella sundaica (Bleeker). 
Sardinella fimbrata (Cuv. and Val.). 
Sardinella longiceps (Cuv. and Val.). 
Sardinella vancibris (Jordan and 

Snyder) . 
Sardinella m,elanostica (Schleg.). 
Sardinella klunzi (Bleeker). 
Sardinella zunazi (Bleeker) . 
Ilisha hoevenii (Bleeker). 



There are in addition a large number of anchovies, family 
Engraulidse, and a number of fishes of the mackerel family 



12 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

found in the Philippines that could undoubtedly be canned with 
profit and sold on their merits. 

However simple the process of canning sardines seems to be, 
I strongly advise against anyone entering the business without 
first securing the services of an experienced canning operator; 
otherwise failure would probably result. 

In this connection, the following note is of special interest : ^ 

The sardine packers of France have of late, as a consequence of the 
very poor catch in the last few years, decided to close all their factories 
along the coast of Brittany and Vendee. 

This decision is partly due to the poor catch owing to the lack of fish 
and the antiquated fishing implements used by the Britton fisherman. It 
is noticed that in past years the fish which abounded along the coast 
of Brittany seem to have almost disappeared therefrom, or at least the 
sardine shoals are no longer to be found close to the shore as formerly 
and seem to be now in the offing. The fishermen being poorly equipped 
can not go too far off from the coast, and the consequence is that their 
catch is very trifling. They are unable to supply the factories with a 
sufficient quantity of fish, and when they secure a good catch try to sell 
it at very high prices. The manufacturers claim that the Spanish and Por- 
tuguese fish caught in large quantities are, on the contrary, sold at very 
low prices, and thus the Spanish and Portuguese manufacturers are en- 
abled to favorably compete with French manufacturers. 

Over 100 factories were closed on January 1, 1913, and many others, 
it is said, will close before the end of January, 1914. It is also said that 
several manufacturers will reestablish their works in Spain and Portugal. 
It is, however, hoped that their decision is not irrevocable, and that if 
the fishermen are enabled to improve their fishing implements the closed 
factories may perhaps be reopened before the next fishing season. 

The manufacturers' decision affects quite a number of industries, such 
as tin-can factories, olive-oil manufacturers, etc., and in Brittany alone over 
50,000 people will thus be put out of employment. If the matter is not 
arranged between the canners and the fishermen, French sardines will be 
very scarce in the markets of the world. 

PRESERVING FISH BY LOW TEMPERATURE OR REFRIGERATION 

The preserving of fish and fish products in the tropics by 
means of cold is of sufficient importance to merit the most care- 
ful scientific observation. The subject is one of primary 
importance not only to the people of Manila, but also to the 
inhabitants of every city situated within the tropics and to all 
transoceanic vessels. 

It has no doubt been the experience of almost every one who 
has traveled by sea that on some vessels all of the fish and fre- 
quently the meat and game from the cold storage were as dry as 

^ Daily Consular & Trade Rep., Washington (1913), 523. 



ix.D,i Seale: Fish and Fishery Products 13 

chips and almost as tasteless, while on others they were all that 
could be desired. 

I venture to state that this difference in the cold-storage foods 
was due almost entirely to a lack of understanding on the part 
of the engineer in charge of the refrigeration, a condition en- 
tirely inexcusable, considering the amount of information avail- 
able and the numerous good books that have been published on 
the subject of cold storage. With the exception of salmon, hali- 
but, and perhaps two or three other species, fish should never be 
frozen if it can possibly be avoided. A fish that has been fully 
frozen has a good appearance, and it is only when it is thawed 
out and cooked that its poor condition is revealed, the flesh 
being woolly in appearance, dry, and devoid of flavor. This is 
explained by the fact that fish flesh is largely made up of loosely 
bound, pale, muscular fibers which rupture very easily when 
frozen in contrast to the firmly bound red muscles of beef or 
mutton. Also, fish contain a much larger percentage of water 
than beef or mutton; therefore, freezing has a more disastrous 
effect. 

Regarding the proper degree of cold at which fish should be 
kept, there is considerable difference of opinion among experts. 
The Director of the Insular Cold Storage plant recommends a 
temperature of — 9°.4 C. for fish in Manila. The director of the 
Philippine Cold Stores states as a result of his experience that 
fish keep nicely in Manila at a temperature of from —6°. 7 to 
— S'^.O C. This is also the opinion of the manager of the Inter- 
national Cold Stores. On the other hand, Mr. Heron, who has 
large cold stores and steam trawlers operating for the London 
trade, says: 

I am firmly of the opinion that if fish is required to be kept for a 
considerable period it must not be frozen, as the tissues cannot stand the 
freezing as in the case of beef and mutton. 

He fully agrees with Anderson ^ who states in his recommen- 
dations to the Fishery Board of Scotland that — 

he found that from degrees centigrade to —3 centigrade (32 degrees 
Fahrenheit to 25.6 degrees Fahrenheit) will prevent the action of most 
bacteria of putrification and at the same time maintain the fish in a con- 
dition of rigor, and thus preserve the fish for a considerable time in a 
comparative fresh condition, and with little deterioration in the tissue. 

My own experience indicates that in Manila a round fish with 
the ordinary market handling, if placed in the refrigerative 

^ Proc. Cold Storage & Ice Assoc. England (1909), 9, 81. 



14 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

room and kept at a temperature of from —0° to —3° C, will keep 
for from ten to fourteen days only. If the fish is carefully 
handled and gutted, the gills removed and the inside wiped with a 
dry cloth, and the fish wrapped in oilpaper, it will keep in sweet 
condition and retain its flavor for three weeks. 

Herring and mackerel stand freezing better than most other 
Philippine fishes. Many people who have cold storage, espe- 
cially Americans, believe the best way to preserve fish is to 
freeze them, then immerse in water, and ref reeze or glaze. This 
method is extensively used in the Canadian and American 
fisheries. 

There is also a method of freezing fish in ice while they are 
still alive, using oxygen to reduce the amount of water necessary 
to be frozen, but this method is still in the experimental stage. 
It is difficult to predict its future. 

For ordinary transportation of fish from the fishing grounds 
to the market, it is usual for the vessel to carry a cargo of ice 
in the bins. This should be between decks in the coolest part 
of the ship and be as well insulated as possible. When the fish 
are caught, they are cleaned and washed at once. A layer of 
cracked ice from 7 to 10 centimeters thick is placed on the floor 
of one of the bins. A layer of fish is placed over this and 
covered with chiseled ice, grading into cracked ice to the size of 
a walnut. Alternating layers of fish and ice are put in until the 
bin is full, when a layer of ice 15 centimeters or more thick is 
placed over the top. If the room is kept at freezing point, these 
fish will remain from twelve to fourteen days or longer in sweet 
condition. If possible, and there need be no great difficulty if 
the fishing is along shore, the fish should be chilled before they 
are packed in the above manner, as they will keep longer and 
not require so much ice in shipping. 

Great strides have been made in the shipping of iced fish in 
the past few years, and it is well demonstrated that careful 
handling and packing will amply repay the additional expense 
and trouble. 

PREPARING FISH FOR SHIPMENT 

A number of complaints have been received by the Bureau 
of Science that the dried fish put up in certain places in the 
Islands will not keep and that as a matter of fact quantities have 
to be thrown away because they are spoiled. This, undoubtedly, 
in the cases examined, resulted from slack salting and storage 
in damp bodegas. The only remedy for this is to spread the 



ix,D. 1 Seale: Fish and Fishery Products 15 

fish in the sun for half a day and to keep the brine up to full 
strength. Shippers should see to it that the fish are absolutely 
dry — a simple matter in a country where the moisture evaporates 
as rapidly as it does in the Philippines. 

Any firm that would take the slight additional trouble of put- 
ting up selected fish in smaller packages and wrapping these 
packages in oilpaper and then sacking them (instead of merely 
packing them in gunny sacks as is now the custom) would 
soon build up a most profitable trade. 

With the exception of a few marketable fish brought from 
one or two southern ports, there are practically no fish shipped 
in fresh condition anywhere in the Philippine Islands. This is 
to be regretted and should be remedied as soon as possible, as 
there are a number of places in the Islands where large quan- 
tities of excellent food fish are caught which could easily be 
shipped to Manila. I believe there has been but one serious 
attempt to ship a large quantity of fresh fish, and that resulted 
disastrously, chiefly because of a lack of cooperation among the 
people handling the fish. A sailing ship with a quantity of 
ice was sent to bring a cargo of fresh fish from Mindoro. 
Owing to lack of ice, fish sufficient to make the voyage profitable 
could not be carried, although the fish shipped (alces or gray 
snappers) arrived in Manila in excellent condition. There is 
absolutely no reason why with proper care quantities of fine 
fresh fish could not be sent to Manila from numerous places 
such as Mindoro and Lingayen. 

The results of some very interesting experiments in ship- 
ping fish have been published by the United States Bureau of 
Fisheries.^ The results of these experiments show : 

(a) That fish spoil more rapidly if the viscera are not removed. 
(6) Free access of air retards putrefaction. 

(c) Drainage of blood retards putrefaction. 

(d) That if the intestines and head are removed and the fish is suspended 

by the tail so that the blood drains out, the fish will keep a con- 
siderable time without ice. 

In 1908 a valuable paper ^^ was presented to the Inter- 
national Fishery Congress regarding an improved method of 
packing fish. This method consisted in cleaning the fish thor- 
oughly by removing the viscera and gills as soon as the fish 

' Tower, Ralph W., Improvements in preparing fish for shipment, Bull. 
U. S, Fish Comm, (1899), 19, 231. 

*• Soiling, A., An improved and practical method of packing fish for 
transportation, Bull U. S. Bur. Fish. (1908), 28, pt. 1, 297. 



16 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

were caught. They were then washed in salt water so that 
all the blood was removed. The water was then allowed to 
drain off, and the fish were wrapped in vegetable parchment 
called fish-wrapping paper. It is probable that the paper bags 
used for cooking in the United States could be used for this 
purpose where the regular fish-wrapping paper is not obtain- 
able. It was found that the fish wrapped in this paper and 
put between layers of cracked ice (the pieces being about the 
size of a walnut) would retain their flavor and keep in sweet 
condition for a month or more, much longer than the fish pre- 
pared in the ordinary way. As the paper keeps the water 
out and prevents the fish from coming in direct contact with the 
ice, this system from a sanitary standpoint alone is to be strongly 
commended. It will be found that the fish keep and look so 
much better that they readily sell for a sum sufficient to pay 
for the paper and extra care. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate I 

Fig. 1. Landing fish at Tondo beach, Manila. 
2. Fish spread on flakes for drying. 

Plate II 

Fig. 1. Furnace for dipping sardines and herring. 

2. Smoked herring, showing furnace and baskets in which the fish are 

smoked and the basket covers. 
128716 — 2 17 



Seale: Preservation of Fish.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., IX, D, No. 1. 




Fig. 1. Landing fish at Tondo Beach, Manila. 




Fig. 2. Fish spread on flakes for drying. 
PLATE I. 



THE OSSEOUS SYSTEM OF OPHIOCEPHALUS STRIATUS 

BLOCH 

By Artemas L. Day 

(From the Department of Zoology, College of Liberal Arts, 
University of the Philippines) 

Nineteen plates and 7 text figures 

In working out the internal skeleton of Ophiocephalus striatus 
Bloch, several specimens were dissected, although for the most 
part bones of a single individual have been used for purposes of 
illustrating the disarticulated bones. The bones of the skeleton 
of the fish represented in Plate I have been illustrated in this 
plate only, with the exception of a certain few, as for example 
anterior dorsal radials (85,115) shown in text fig. 2, the dorsal 
ray and internal spine, and the anal ray and interhaemal spine 
shown in text fig. 5. 

In a few other instances bones of other individuals have 
been used; as, for instance, the glossohyal (65) shown in text 
fig. 7, the top of the skull, disarticulated, and a part of the 
suspensorium at the top of Plate VII. 

The fish from the skeleton of which the illustrations of the 
disarticulated bones were made, with the exception of the few 
just named, was 50 centimeters long. Several smaller fish 
were also dissected, and the number of bones was found to vary 
considerably in specimens of different sizes. In several large 
individuals the total number of ribs varied from 41 to 45, the 
double ribs from 12 to 15, the vertebrae from 50 to 51, the 
interneural spines from 40 to 42, and the interhaemal spines 
from 23 to 25. 

The character of certain bones in the larger specimen is very 
different from that of the bones of smaller fish. In small 
specimens the supraethmoid (75) and the glossohyal (65) are 
cartilaginous, and even in the largest specimen dissected the 
latter was found to be somewhat ossified in the central portion 
only. The partially ossified region is indicated in text fig. 7. 
With few exceptions the nomenclature of Starks ^ is here 
followed. 

^Proc. Wash, Acad. Sci. (1901), 3, 507. 

19 



20 The Philippine Journal of Science i»i4 

Plate I is taken from the left side of the whole skeleton of 
a fish 49.5 centimeters long. The numbers used in this plate 
to mark the bones are the same as are used in the individual 
descriptions throughout the paper. 

I. THE SKULL AND ORBITALS 
PLATES I, II, III, IV, AND V, AND PLATE VI, FIG. 1 

The nasals (16) are somewhat rectangular, rather flat bones, 
with curved edges. Sensory canals pass from posteriorly ante- 
riorly from the frontals (36) opening on the dorsal side a short 
distance from the anterior end. They articulate posteriorly 
with the frontals (36) and prefrontals (76), with the orbital 
(18 ^) outside, with the ethmoid (81) and supraethmoid (75) 
inside, with each other in front, and with the premaxillaries 
(1) below and anteriorly. Their curved interior sides form 
an opening through which project the dorsal side of the ethmoid 
(81) and the dorsal processes of the premaxillaries (1) . (Plates 
I and II.) 

The supratemporals (26) are somewhat right-triangular with 
the outward right angle slightly rounded off. They are per- 
forated throughout the whole length by sensory canals. They 
lie above the articulation of the pterotics (38) and epiotics 
(79), and articulate with the parietals (37) anteriorly, while 
the posterior portion articulates with the base of the sl^prt 
spine of the posttemporals (27). (Plate II.) 

The posttemporals (27) have a comparatively large oval body 
posteriorly, and anteriorly are widely forked, the larger branch, 
inside, articulating with the epiotics (79) and the shorter with 
the process of the pterotics (38). The posterior oval portion 
covers a part of the space between the opercles (14) and the 
epiotics (79). (Plates I and II.) 

The supraoccipital (35) is situated between the parietals 
(37), about half of the upper surface extending anterior to 
them, and to which they are joined by broad flat condyles. 
The V-shaped anterior end is articulated with the frontals 
(36). Posteriorly it is joined to the exoccipitals (72) and 
the epiotics (79). Below it is joined to the prootics (78). 
The wide flat lateral processes form a part of the roof of 
the accessory branchial chamber. (Plate II; Plate IV, fig. 1; 
Plate V, fig. 1.) 

The frontals (36) are somewhat rectangular, and twice as 
long as broad. They are extensively tunneled by sensory canals. 
The ventral side has an oblique ridge for articulation with 



IX. D, 1 Day: Ophiocephahis' striattis 21 

the basisphenoid (83) and the parasphenoid (66). They also 
articulate anteriorly with the nasals (16) and the prefrontals 
(76), outwardly laterally with the sphenotics (39), and with 
the ethmoid (81) anteriorly. Posteriorly they articulate with 
the pterotics (38). Just posterior to the ventral processes of 
the frontals, and lying close to them, the alisphenoids (122) 
are found. The oblique ridge-like ventral process of the fron- 
tals is continuous with the alisphenoids (122), and the some- 
what flattened dorsal portion of the alisphenoids (122) lies 
against the flat ventral side of the frontals, posterior to their 
processes. In Plate II the frontals are seen from the dorsal 
side in the articulated top of the skull. In Plate III, dis- 
articulated, the right is seen from the ventral side and the 
left from the dorsal. In Plate IV, fig. 2, the right frontal 
is seen from the right margin as also in Plate VI, fig. 1. In 
Plate V, fig. 1, they are seen in the articulated skull, from the 
ventral side. The left frontal is seen in Plate I. 

The parietals (37) are roughly pentagonal in form, being 
almost flat — slightly convex above — and very thin. They artic- 
ulate with the frontals (36) anteriorly, the supraoccipital (35) 
inside, the pterotics (38) outside, the epiotics (79) posteriorly, 
and form a part of the roof of the accessory branchial chamber. 
In Plate II the parietals are seen in the articulated skull from 
the dorsal side. In Plate III they are disarticulated, the right 
being seen from the ventral side and the left from the dorsal. 

The pterotics (38) are somewhat rectangular in form, but 
with a spine-like process on the posteroextemodorsal side. The 
lower side has a ridge in the form of an arc, which bounds the 
portion serving as a part of the roof of the accessory branchial 
chamber. They articulate with the sphenotics (39) anteriorly, 
the parietals (37) inside, the epiotics (79) internally, and with 
the head of the hyomandibulars (10) below. The interno- 
posteroventral portion of the pterotics articulates with the 
externoanterior portion of the opisthotics (123). The pterotics 
are seen in Plate II from the dorsal side in the articulated 
skull. In Plate III they are disarticulated, the right being 
shown from the ventral side and the left from the dorsal side. 
The left is seen in Plate I. In Plate VI, fig. 1, the right pterotic 
is seen from the right side. In Plate V, fig. 1, the pterotics are 
seen from the ventral side in the articulated skull. 

The sphenotics (39) are somewhat triangular and flat above, 
with a ridge below, slanting inward, which unites with the 
prootics (78). Internally and anteriorly the articulation is with 



22 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

• 
the frontals (36), and posteriorly with the pterotics (38). On 
the ventral side there is a fossa for the articulation of the 
anterior limb of the head of the hyomandibular (10). They 
are perforated throughout the whole length by the large sensory 
canals passing from the frontals (36). On the ventral side 
they articulate internally with the alisphenoids (122). In Plate 
I the left is seen. In Plate II both are viewed in position, 
from the dorsal side. In Plate III they are disarticulated, the 
right having the ventral surface in view, while the left, the 
dorsal surface. In Plate IV, fig. 2, the right is seen from 
the right side, as also in Plate VI, fig. 1. In Plate V, fig. 1, both 
are seen from the ventral side. 

.The parasphenoid (66) extends from about the median dorsal 
portion of the vomer (67) to almost the posterior portion of 
the basioccipital (69). It sends out lateral laminae in the region 
of the prootics (78), and on the sides, in the region ventral 
to the basioccipital (69), are the posterior openings and grooves 
from the myodome. Ventrad to the basisphenoid (83) and 
anteriorly is another thin lamina on each side, which, together 
with the central ''stock'' or ''rib,'' help to form the brain cavity. 
Anteriorly, the articulation is with the vomer (67) and the 
ethmoid (81), between which this portion lies. In Plate III 
the parasphenoid is seen from the dorsal side, disarticulated; 
in Plate IV, fig. 2, in the articulated skull from the right side; 
in Plate V, fig. 1, in the articulated skull from the ventral; and 
in Plate VI, fig. 1, in the articulated skull from the right side. 

The vomer (67) anteriorly is broad with 2 triangular patches 
of teeth. Just back of this "head," there is a horizontal thin 
portion with a median rib, the latter extending to the posterior 
end. The dorsal outline is clearly shown in Plate III. It artic- 
ulates with the ethmoid (81) dorsally, laterally with the pre- 
frontals (76), and posteriorly with the parasphenoid (66). In 
Plate II the anterior end of the vomer is seen in the articulated 
skull; in Plate III the dorsal side in the disarticulated skull; 
in Plate IV, fig. 2, from the right side; in Plate V, fig. 1, in 
the articulated skull, from the ventral; and in Plate VI, fig. 1, 
in the articulated skull from the right side. 

The basioccipital (69) forms the centrum of the condyle 
for the attachment of the atlas (70). There is a longitudinal 
suture separating it from the exoccipitals (72), and anteriorly 
a vertical suture separating the basioccipital and exoccipitals 
(72) from the prootics (78). The longitudinal suture between 
the basioccipital and exoccipitals (72) passes through the middle 



IX, D, 1 Day: Ophiocephaliis striatus 23 

of the auditory capsule. The dorsal side borders the foramen 
magnum. In Plate IV, fig. 1, it is seen from the dorsal side; 
in Plate IV, fig. 2, from the right side, articulated; in Plate 
V, fig. 1, in the articulated skull from the ventral side; and 
in Plate V, fig. 2, in the articulated skull from the posterior. 

The exoccipitals (72) border the foramen magnum on the 
dorsal and internal side. A short distance within the foramen 
they unite as a narrow bridge of bone just dorsad to the 
bassioccipital (69), which latter forms the ventral side of the 
foramen at the posterior opening. The lateral portions extend 
outward and upward, articulating with the epiotics (79) later- 
ally, with the supraoccipital (35) anteriorly above, with the 
prootics (78) anteriorly ventrally, and with the bassioccipital 
(69) below. The median portion of the dorsolateral process 
articulates with the ventral margin of the opisthotics (123). 
The exoccipitals are seen from the dorsal side of the articulated 
skull in Plate II; in Plate IV, fig. 1, disarticulated from other 
bones, from the dorsal ; and in Plate V, fig. 2, in the articulated 
skull from the posterior. In Plate IV, fig. 2, and Plate VI, 
fig. 1, the right shows from the right side. 

Otoliths (73). In a fish 50 centimeters in length, these are 
18 millimeters long, 10 millimeters wide, and 3 millimeters 
thick. They are irregularly oval, somewhat curved, and on 
the convex side is a somewhat S-shaped groove over the whole 
length. In color they are like milky quartz, and there are 
concentric lines running about them like the rings of growth 
in the shell of the Pelecypoda. In Plate II the left, and in 
Plate III the right, is seen from the side fitting against the 
outer margin of the prootic (78), while in the same plates 
the other is seen from the inside or concave surface. 

The supraethmoid (75) is a light, spongy bone, which in 
very young forms is cartilaginous. It is thickest posteriorly. 
The general form from the dorsal side can be seen very well 
in Plates II and III. It is situated dorsad to the anterior por- 
tion of the ethmoid (81) and the posterior portion of the head 
of the vomer (67). It is partly ventrad and partly posterior 
with respect to the dorsal processes of the premaxillaries (1). 
The supraethmoid, together with the dorsal processes of the 
premaxillaries, extend dorsally through the opening between 
the curved sides of the nasals (16). 

Lying laterally to the ethmoid (81) and anteriorly to the 
frontals (36) are the prefrontals (76), somewhat wing-like 
laterally, and perforated anteriorly posteriorly by a large sen- 



24 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

sory canal. In Plate II they are seen articulated from the dorsal 
side; in Plate III from the dorsal, disarticulated; and in Plate 
V, fig. 1, articulated, from the ventral side. In Plate IV, fig. 
2, and Plate VI, fig. 1, the right is seen, articulated, from the 
right side. In Plate I the left is dimly seen. 

In Plate V, fig. 1, the ventral side of the prootics (78) is 
shown in position. In Plate III the left is shown from the 
dorsal side, and the right from the ventral. In Plate IV, 
fig. 2, and Plate VI, fig. 1, the right is seen laterally. They 
articulate with the parasphenoid (66) ventrally and internally, 
the sphenotics (39) laterally, the alisphenoids (122) latero- 
dorsally, the basisphenoid (83) interodor sally, the exoccipitals 
(72) posterodor sally, the basioccipital (69) posteriorly, and 
contain within them the otoliths (73). The form is shown in 
the illustrations. The myodome or chamber for the insertion 
of the rectus muscle of the eye is formed by projecting shelves 
of bone from the internal sides of the prootics, and is separated 
from the brain cavity by them. The basioccipital (69) also 
assists here. It is concave on the ventral side, forming a cavity 
with the parasphenoid (66), This cavity opens to the exterior 
by an opening on either side from above the posterior end 
of the parasphenoid (66). 

The epiotics (79) articulate with the pterotics (38) on the out- 
side, with the exoccipitals (72) on the inside, and internoante- 
riorly with the supraoccipital (35) and parietals (37). The 
main portion is somewhat pyramidal, with the base turned ante- 
riorly and outwardly. Posteriorly and obliquely toward the spi- 
nal column is a broad expanse of thin bone about the same length 
as the main portion of the bone. This is somewhat fan-like with 
concentric rings. This thin expanse stands at almost a right 
angle to the body of the bone. As illustrated in Plate V, fig. 1, 
they articulate with the opisthotics (123) which overlie the 
posterolateral portion of the ventral surface of the epiotics. 
They are seen in Plate II, articulated, from the dorsal side; in 
Plate V, fig. 1, the posterior fan-like expanse from the ventral 
side; and in Plate V, fig. 2, is the posterior view. In Plate IV, 
fig. 1, the right is displayed from the dorsal side, while the left 
has the ventral side uppermost. In Plate IV, fig. 2, the right 
side of the posterior portion of the right bone is visible. 

The ethmoid (81) is somewhat oval above, with two lateral 
processes dorsally which articulate with the nasals (16). Lat- 
erally it articulates with the prefrontals (76), posteriorly with 
the frontals (36), and ventrally with the parasphenoid (66) and 



IX, D, 1 Day: Ophiocephalus strmtus 25 

the vomer (67). Anteriorly are 4 cartilaginous projections, 
2 in front and 1 at each side, and posteriorly 1 cartilag- 
inous projection, which aid in articulation. These projections 
are shown in the illustration. Ventrally the ethmoid is a much 
narrower oval, and the thin median ventral portion overlies the 
median paras phenoid (66) anteriorly. The whole bone is very 
porous, especially the laterodorsal portions. It is visible from 
the dorsal side, articulated, in Plate II, and disarticulated in 
Plate III. 

The basisphenoid (83) has rather thick lateral wing-like pro- 
cesses, which are slightly wider anteriorly than posteriorly, and 
there is a short spinous portion posteriorly that fits into a longi- 
tudinal slit-like fossa in the dorsal side of the parasphenoid (66). 
The lateral portions articulate with the ventral ridges of the 
frontals (36) and the alisphenoid (122) and slightly with the 
anterior portions of the prootics (78). Plate III shows it from 
the dorsal side; Plate IV, fig. 2, shows the anterior process of 
the right side; and Plate V, fig. 1, the anterior process of the 
left side — that of the right side not being visible here. 

The alisphenoids (122) articulate with the frontals (36), 
laterally and dorsally, interoventrally with the basisphenoid 
(83), posteroventrally with the prootics (78), and laterally 
with the sphenotics (39). They lie close against the ventral 
side of the frontals, and closely posterior to their ventral process. 
On the dorsal side there is a flange supporting them against the 
ventral side of the frontals (36). They are porous and some- 
what perforated with sensory canals. They are shown in posi- 
tion in Plate V, fig. 1, from the ventral side, while in Plate III 
that of the right side is shown from the ventral side, disarti- 
culated, with the outer margin toward the inside of the plate. 

The opisthotics (123) articulate with the exoccipitals (72) 
and pterotics (38), overlying the space between the two bones 
named and covering the epiotics (79) on the ventral side. 
They are seen in Plate IV, fig. 1, the right being shown from the 
dorsal side, while the left is shown from the ventral side. In 
Plate V, fig. 1, both are seen from the ventral side in position, 
and in Plate V, fig. 2, the view is from the posterior. In Plate 
VI, fig. 1, the right is seen from the right side. They are 
somewhat triangular, porous, and perforated by sensory canals. 
These, together with parts of the epiotics (79) , inclose a small 
cavity in the ventral side of the latter. 

Suborbitals and preorbitals, 18 ^-^. The suborbitals are 18 % 
18*, 18«, 182, and 18^ ; and 18« is the preorbital. These are all 



26 The Philippine Jotirnal of Science 1914 

shown in Plate VI, fig. 2. At the right in the top line all are 
shown united, while at the left in the same line the bones are 
shown separately, with the 4th suborbital, 18^, seen from the 
posterior side showing the flange that forms the posterior side 
of the orbit. Those in the lower row are seen from the left side 
and from the outer — lateral — side. All of the orbitals are per- 
forated by sensory canals almost continuously and with various 
openings to the exterior. Anteriorly and posteriorly the artic- 
ulation is with the frontals (36), while 18^-18% inclusive, 
closely overlie the maxillaries (5). Those at the right, united, 
are from a somewhat smaller fish than those disarticulated. 
They are also illustrated in Plate I. 

II. SUSPENSORIUM AND OPERCULAR APPARATUS 
PLATES VII AND VIII 

The palatines (2) articulate anteriorly with the vomer (67), 
with the pterygoids (80) posteriorly, and the mesopterygoids 
(71) dorsally. The anterior process of the palatines passes 
dorsally over the maxillaries (5), articulating with them. The 
palatines are continuous with the pterygoids (80) and the quad- 
rates (7). The posterior portion of the palatines lies interior 
to the maxillaries (5). The exterior side is shown in Plate VII 
and the interior side in Plate VIII. 

The quadrates (7) are almost right-triangular in form, the 
right angle being ventral. Anteriorly there is a broad, flat- 
tened portion, articulating with the pterygoids (80) and the 
mesopterygoids (71) and dorsally with the metapterygpids (8). 
The posterior portion, which is in the form of a broad flat spine 
at right angles to the anterior portion, projects posteriorly into 
a fossa in the lower anterior portion of the preopercles (11). 
On the inside, between the anterior and posterior parts, is a 
groove, at the bottom of which is a fossa into which the lower 
spinous portion of the symplectics (9) fits. The wide portion 
at the right angle articulates with the posterior end of the an- 
gulars (12). Plate VII shows the quadrates from the exterior 
side both articulated and disarticulated, while Plate VIII ex- 
hibits them from the internal side. 

The metaptery golds (8) articulate with the mesopterygoids 
(71) anteriorly, the quadrates (7) ventrally, the symplectics 
(9) posteriorly, and with the hyomandibulars (10), the frontals 
(36), and the sphenotics (39) dorsally. From the center of the 
posterior somewhat square portion there arises an oblique ridge 



ix.D, 1 Day: Ophioeephalus striatits 27 

on the inside, which passes along the inside of the hyomandi- 
bulars (10). The outside of the right bone is shown in Plate 
VII and the inside in Plate VIII. The left is also included in 
Plate I. 

The symplectics (9) consist of a somewhat curved central 
triangular portion with the base upward, and anteriorly and 
posteriorly from this extends a wing-like process. They articu- 
late with the metaptery golds (8) anteriorly, while the pointed 
ventral portion becomes ankylosed with the inside of the quad- 
rates (7). They are little more than laminate in the central 
triangular portion only. The outside of the bone on the right 
side is shown in Plate VII, and the inside of the bone on the 
left side of the head is shown in Plate VIII. The left is also 
included in Plate I. 

The hyomandibulars (10) consist of a somewhat columnar 
head or dorsal portion, from which there projects a ventral 
lamellar portion, reenforced in the middle region by a thickened 
triangular area similar to that of the symplectics (9) with 
which this portion of the hyomandibular articulates. From this 
lateral part of the bone there projects, at right angles, into 
the region of the accessory branchial chamber, a lamellar por- 
tion, internally, which assists in supporting the membranes 
there. The anterior portion of the head of the hyomandibulars 
fits into a groove on the ventral surface of the sphenotics (39), 
the posterior portion fits into a similar but shallower fossa 
on the ventral surface of the pterotics (38), while the posterior 
end of the head fits into the socket on the inner, anterior, upper 
portion of the opercle (14). Ventrally they articulate with the 
symplectics (9) and the metapterygoids (8), with the interhyals 
(21) internally, and with the preoperculars (11) posteriorly. 
They are perforated with canals continuous with those of the 
preoperculars (11). The outside of the bone of the right 
side is shown in Plate VII, and the inside of the bone on the 
left side is shown in Plate VIII, while the left is seen in Plate I. 

The outline of the preopercles (11) is clearly shown in the 
plates. Plate VIII shows the inside of the bone on the left 
side, and Plate VII the outside of the bone on the right side. 
They articulate with the hyomandibulars (10), the symplectics 
(9), and the quadrates (7) anteriorly, with the operculars (14) 
posteriorly, and the interoperculars (40) on the inside pos- 
teriorly. On the inside they articulate with the interhyals 
(21), which lie vertically on the preopercles (11). They are 
perforated throughout the whole length by sensory canals. 



28 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

The subopercles (13) articulate with the opercles (14) dorsally, 
the angle following the lower margin of the same and over- 
lapping slightly on the inside. Ventrally and anteriorly they 
articulate with the interopercles (40), and the anterior dorsal 
process lies on the inside of the median portion of the preopercles 
(11). They are lamellar throughout except for a slight per- 
forated thickening anteriorly and dorsally, and are convex on 
the outside. The inside of the bone on the left side is shown 
in -Plate VIII, and the outside of the bone on the right side is 
shown in Plate VII. In. Plate VI, fig. 1, the posterolateral 
margin of the left is seen from the inside. In Plate I the 
left is shown from without. 

The opercles (14) are roughly right-triangular with the right 
angle anterior and dorsal, and are convex outwardly. They are 
thickly lamellar with reenforcements along the anterior margin, 
dorsoanteriorly, and with a ridge running anteriorly posteriorly 
about one-third of the distance from the dorsal margin, along 
the inside. This ridge continues anteriorly in a large expanse, 
concave anteriorly, which serves for the socket of the posterior 
end of the head of the hyomandibular (10). The opercles 
appear to be made up of a considerable number of concentric 
rings like the shell of the Pelecypoda, with the center, corre- 
sponding to the umbo of the shell, just inside the socket for the 
articulation of the posterior end of the head of the hyoman- 
dibulars (10). The inside of the bone on the left is shown 
in Plate VIII, and the outside of the bone on the right side 
is shown in Plate VII. In Plate VI, fig. 1, a part of the inner 
surface of the left is in view. The left is also seen in Plate I. 

In Plate VIII the left interoperculum (40) is shown from the 
interior and in Plate VII the right from the exterior. In Plate 
VI, fig. 1, the inner ventral margin of the left may be seen, 
and in Plate I the left is viewed. The interopercula overlie the 
branchiostegal rays (22) and a portion of the epihyals (20), and 
also posteriorly they overlie the anterior margin of the sub- 
opercles (13). The dorsoanterior portion lies internally with 
respect to the ventral part of the preopercles (11), with which 
they articulate. The dorsal process overlies the epihyals (20). 
Posteriorly the interopercles are somewhat lamellar, while the 
anterior portion, as also the dorsal process, is somewhat 
thickened. Anteriorly they articulate with the posterior portions 
of the angulars (12) and the articulars (4). 

The mesoptery golds (71) are thin wing-like bones, somewhat 
convex on the outside, and about twice as long as broad. They 



IX, D, 1 Day: Ophiocephalus striatus 29 

articulate forward and on the outside with the palatines (2), 
on the lower side with the pterygoids (80), posteriorly and 
ventrally with the palatines (2), on the lower side with the 
pterygoids (80), posteriorly and ventrally with the quadrates 
(7), and posteriorly with the metapterygoids (8). They are 
about as long as the palatines and about three-fourths as long 
as the frontals (36). The outside of that of the right side is 
represented in Plate VII and the inside of the left in Plate VIII. 

In Plate VIII the interior side of the left pterygoid (80) is 
shown, and in Plate VII the exterior of the right. They artic- 
ulate with the palatines (2) anteriorly, the posterior ends of 
which extend into the anterior fossa in the pterygoids. The 
posterior end lies inside of, and articulates with, the anterior 
portion of the quadrates (7). The ventral margin of the meso- 
pterygoids (71) lies internally to, and articulates with, the in- 
terior and dorsal margin of the pterygoids. The anterior spinous 
portion lies along the dorsal side of the palatines (2). At the 
top of Plate VII the pterygoid is seen still articulated. 

III. MANDIBLE 
PLATE IX 

The premaxillaries (1) are curved and tapering from the 
middle region posteriorly, where they are cartilaginous and 
almost spinous. At the anterior end is a dorsal process divided 
into two parts, the more anterior being the higher. The shorter 
sets just below the nasals (16), while the longer passes dorsally 
through the opening between the nasals (16) and anteriorly to 
the supraethmoid (75). The teeth anteriorly on the ventral 
side are moderately large, while those posteriorly are very fine. 
On the inside margin of the posterior two-thirds is a ridge of 
cartilage which is continuous with a short ridge-like process 
of bone, originating a short distance posterior to the dorsal 
process. The premaxillaries articulate with the maxillaries (5) 
anteriorly and posteriorly, lying ventrad to them. They articu- 
late with each other anteriorly, and the higher dorsal process at 
the anterior end of each overlies the anterior surface of the supra- 
ethmoid (75). They lie laterad of the palatines (2) and the 
pterygoids (80), and the anterior end of each overlies the vomer 
(67). (Plate I; Plate VI, fig. 1; and Plate IX.) In Plate IX 
the dorsal side of the left and the central side of the right are 
exposed. The left is also seen in Plate I. 

The left and right dentaries (3) are shown from the dorsal 
side and the outer lateral side, respectively. They dovetail 



30 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

into the articular (4) posteriorly, and articulate with each 
other in front. There is a deep fossa extending anteriorly 
into the dentaries, opening toward the inside posteriorly, into 
which the outer longer portion of the articular (4) extends. 
There is also a canal on the inside of the furrow, leaving two 
openings anteriorly, one on the ventral side and the other 
forward on the outside. 

There is a single row of large conical teeth extending for a 
part of the length of the dentaries but not continuing either 
entirely anteriorly or posteriorly, while posterior to these large 
teeth are some smaller conical teeth. Anteriorly is a mass of 
cardiform teeth. Also on the outside of the large teeth is a 
row of the very small conical teeth, and some of them have 
still smaller teeth at their bases on the inside. (Plate I and 
Plate IX.) 

The articular s (4) articulate anteriorly with the dentaries 
(3) and with the quadrates (7) and with the angulars (12) 
posteriorly. They form an obtuse angle at the outer lower mar- 
gin, with a high dorsal process at the outer posterior part. 
Anteriorly are two processes, the outer being the longer and 
sharper. These two articulate with the dentary (3), the outer 
and longer process extending into the fossa of the dentary (3) 
and the other lying along the inside of the dentary (3). The 
sensory canal in the dentaries (3) is continuous with a similar 
canal in the articulars. In the depression continuous with that 
formed by the union of the two anterior processes is a small 
scale-like bone, the intra-articular (86). (Plates I and IX.) 

The maxillaries (5) extend inside the suborbitals (18) just 
above the premaxillaries (1), articulating with them anteriorly 
and posteriorly, and the dorsal process fits in between the dorsal 
processes of the premaxillaries (1) and the anterior processes of 
the palatines (2). Posteriorly they extend as far as the pos- 
terior end of the articulars (4) and the dorsal angle of the 
quadrates (7). The dorsal view of the left is shown in Plate 
IX, as is also the ventral view of the right, and in Plate I the 
left is displayed. 

The angulars (12) articulate closely with the posterior inner 
end of the articular sl (4) and with the inter opercles (40) pos- 
teriorly. The dorsal side of the left is shown disarticulated 
from the articular (4) and the right still articulated. (Plate 
IX.) 

These **intra-articulars'' (86) lie in the angle of the articulars 
(4). In Plate VI that of the right side is seen detached, from 



IX, D, 1 Day: Ophiocephalus striatits 31 

the dorsal side, and the left is seen still lying in the angle of the 
left articular (4). The ventral side is flattened, while the dor- 
sal is somewhat conical. They lie with the median portion 
opposite the attachment of Mackel's cartilage with the articulars 
(4). This name is here given because of the location. 

IV. PECTORAL AND PELVIC GIRDLES 
PLATE X 

At the left of Plate X is the left clavicle (62), with the dorsal 
portion of the postclavicle (77), the hypercoracoid (15), and 
the hypocoracoid (30) attached, and seen from the inside. To- 
ward the right is the right clavicle, seen from the outside, and 
disarticulated. The two clavicles articulate together forward 
and ventrally, then pass posteriorly diagonally toward the dorsal 
side, and lie along the interior side of the interopercles (40), 
the subopercles (13), and the opercles (14). The dorsal por- 
tion of the clavicles is articulated with the supraclavicles (28). 
(Plates I and X.) The dorsal end of the clavicles, which is seen 
toward the bottom of the plate, is somewhat lamellar, but is 
reenforced posteriorly by a considerable thickening, continuous 
with the thickening of the middle part of the bones passing 
upward from the ventral expanded condyles. From the middle 
portion extends a somewhat lamellar portion, convex anteriorly 
and concave posteriorly. Within this concavity the hypercora- 
coid (15) and the hypocoracoid (30) are articulated. _ The 
anterodorsal spinous process extends interiorly to the posterior 
end of the supraclavicles (28). The posterior expanse or wing 
of the right clavicle, which aids in the articulation of the hyper- 
coracoid (15) and the hypocoracoid (30), is seen a short dis- 
tance from the dorsal end. 

The interior side of the left supraclavicles (28) is shown on 
the left of Plate X, while that of the right side is seen from the 
outside. The anterior end articulates with the ventral side of 
the body of the posttemporal (27). The supraclavicles extend 
backward along the inside of the opercles (14) and along the 
outside of the dorsal portion of the clavicles (62) with which 
they articulate. Along the inside at the dorsal margin there is 
a fossa which looks as if formed by the rolling over of the dorsal 
margin. The condyle at the anterior end is somewhat hooked 
externally, as is shown especially in the bone of the right side. 
The left is also indicated in Plate I. 

Postclavicles, lower part (6). These, as well as the upper 
part of the postclavicles (77), are lamellar. The upper one- 



32 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

third of the lower part lies over or outside of the upper part 
(77). The form is well shown in Plate X. On the right side 
of the plate the upper part (77) and lower part lie separately. 
On the left side of the plate the parts of the left postclavicle 
overlie the inside of the clavicle (62), the hypercoracoid (15), 
and the hypocoracoid (30). 

The postclavicle, upper part (77), articulates with the pos- 
terior upper expanse of the clavicles (62), and lies almost 
parallel with it. The lower end articulates with the lower part 
of the postclavicle (6). This part of the postclavicle also is 
lamellar, and the form can be readily seen in Plate X. 

On the left side of Plate X the inside of the bases of the 
pectoral rays (29) of the left side is shown, whil^ on the right 
side of the plate are the pectoral rays of the right side. These 
articulate with the actinosts (31) in each fin. In Plate I the 
left pectoral is present. The number of rays articulating with 
each of the actinosts may be determined from the plate. 

The pelvic rays (33) are attached to the pelvic girdle (32), 
and are shown in Plate X and, also, in Plate I. 

The hypercoracoids (15) are somewhat roughly quadrangular 
bones, articulating with the actinosts (31), the hypocoracoids 
(30), and the clavicles (62). In Plate X the left is shown 
articulated with the hypocoracoid (30) and the clavicle (62), 
while on the right side it is isolated. Each is pierced by a 
large foramen. The edge articulating with the actinosts (31) 
is much thickened, while the remainder is very thin, being 
thinnest around the foramen. The dorsal portion of the hypo- 
coracoids extends inward at an angle to conform to the interior 
of the clavicles (62). The left is indicated in Plate I. 

The hypocoracoids (30) are articulated with the clavicles (62) 
anteriorly by two processes, with the two ventral actinosts (31) 
posteriorly, and with the hypercoracoids (15) dorsally. In Plate 
X the left hypocoracoid is seen at the left side, internally, with 
the ventral portion of the postclavicle (6) lying over it, and 
articulated with the hypercoracoid (15) and the clavicle (62). 
On the right side the right hypocoracoid is shown from the 
outside. Interiorly the ventral portion has an angular furrow, 
at the bottom of which is the prolongation of the ventral process 
seen at the top in the plate. The sides of the furrow are 
lamellar. The dorsal portion is lamellar with a considerable 
thickening at the region of articulation with the actinosts (31). 
In Plate I the posterior and ventral portions are to be seen. 

The actinosts (31) are 4 in number on each side. The most 



rx, D, 1 Day: Ophiocephalus striatiis 33 

ventral articulates anteriorly with the hypocoracoid (30), the 
next articulates with the hypocoracoid (30) and the hyper- 
coracoid (15), and the 2 dorsal ones articulate with the hyper- 
coracoid (15), while posteriorly all articulate with the pectoral 
rays (29). The condyles are much thickened, being about 1.5 
millimeters, while between them the bones are about 0.5 milli- 
meter. The epicondyle of the ventral actinost is very thin. 
The actinosts are found in Plate X, and are shown from within, 
the left actinosts being at the left side. The right actinosts 
are represented from the outside. The left actinosts- may also 
be seen in Plate I. 

The pelvic girdle (32) is united anteriorly with the ventral 
portions of the clavicles (62) by ligaments, and is separated 
from them a distance about two-thirds its length. The posterior 
condyles of the two parts of the girdle are much thickened to 
articulate with the anterior ends of the pelvic rays (33). The 
right and left parts are shown from the dorsal side in Plate X, 
and the left part from the left side in Plate I. 




Fig. 1. Caudal vertebra, the last but 2 (131 ) , anterior view. X 2. 

V. VERTEBRA, RIBS, AND HYPURALS 
PLATES XI AND XII 

The first 3 vertebrae have no transverse processes (46, 47). 
From the 4th to the 8th they grow longer and extend farther 
laterally, although they immediately begin to slant ventrally, 
so that a little posterior to the median abdominal region they 
are almost vertical. The fossae of the transverse processes of 
the 3d, 4th, and 5th ribs are turned dorsally, then in the suc- 
ceeding ribs they begin to turn more and more posteriorly, 
until in the 18th vertebra they face posteriorly. 

The first 2 vertebrae, atlas and axis, receive the articulation 
of a pair of single ribs, the succeeding 15 vertebrae the articula- 
tion of a pair of double ribs, and the remainder, except the last 
5 vertebrae, have a pair of single ribs articulated. 

In Plate XI the atlas (70) is seen from the posterior side 
and slightly tilted posteriorly, showing the centrum, neural 
arch, and neural spine. It is seen also in text fig. 2. 

The axis (87) is seen from the posterior, showing the centrum, 

123716 3 



34 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

neural arch (126), and neural spine (43). (Plate XL) This 
is seen also in text fig. 2. 

The 5th vertebra (88) of the spinal column is here seen pos- 
teriorly. It shows the neural spine (43), neural arch (126), 
centrum, and transverse processes (46). The last are here 
horizontal, and receive the articulation of a pair of double ribs. 
(Refer to Plate XI.) The neural spine of this vertebra may be 
seen in Plate I. 

The 6th vertebra (89), 6th of the spinal column, seen from the 
left side shows the neural spine (43), while the transverse 
processes are over the body of the vertebra. Prezygapophyses 
(127) and small postzygapophyses (128) are seen. This is 
shown in Plate XI from the left side, and the neural spine is 
indicated in Plate I. 




Fio. 2. Atlas (70) ; axis (87) ; 3d, 4th, and 5th vertebrae; interneural spines; dorsal rays; 
and anterior dorsal radials (85 and 115). Natural size. 

The 7th vertebra (90) (42 in Plate I) is seen from the 
anterior side, showing the neural spine (43), the transverse 
processes (47), the neural arch, and the centrum (97). This 
is indicated in Plate XI and, also, in Plate I. 

The 20th vertebra (91), from the posterior side in Plate XI, 
shows the transverse process (49), the neural spine (43), the 
neural arch, and the centrum (98). Transverse processes are 
here passing toward the vertical. Plate I also shows this ver- 
tebra from the left side. 

The 21st vertebra (92) is viewed from the left side. It 
shows the prezygapophysis (127), the postzygapophysis (128), 
neural spine (125 and 43), and the transverse process (49). 
The transverse processes approach more nearly the vertical. 
Plates I and XI illustrate this vertebra. 

The 22d vertebra (93) shows the neural spine (43), centrum 



IX. D, 1 Day: Ophiocephalus striatits 35 

(99), and transverse process (49). It is viewed from the an- 
terior side in Plate XI. In Plate I the left side is shown. 

The 7th vertebra (94) from the last, in Plate XI, is viewed 
from the posterior side showing the neural spine (43), neural 
arch (126), and centrum (100). It is also seen, articulated, 
from the left side in Plate I. 

The 6th vertebra (95) from the last shows the neural spine 
(43, 125), prezygapophysis (127), and postzygapophysis (128). 
This is viewed from the left side. Plate XI represents it from 
the left side disarticulated, and Plate I, articulated. 

The 5th vertebra (96) from the last is viewed from the ante- 
rior side in Plate XI, showing the centrum (101), the neural 
spine (43), and the neural arch. Also, Plate I shows it, articu- 
lated, from the left side. 

The last caudal vertebra but 4 (129) illustrated in Plate XII, 
fig. 2, shows a neural spine (51), haemal spine (52), prezyga- 
pophysis, postzygapophysis, anterior ventral process, and lat- 
eral foramina, being seen from the left side. 

The last caudal vertebra but 3 (130) in Plate I and Plate XII, 
fig. 2, shows the same parts as 129, but with much longer neural 
(51) and hsemal (52) spines. 

The last caudal vertebra but 2 (131) in Plate I and Plate XII, 
fig. 1, shows the same structures as number 129, but the neural 
and hsemal spines arise from the middle and anterior portion of 
the centrum of the vertebra. Also, there is a dorsal process on 
the hsemal spine a short distance from the centrum. This pro- 
cess on the dorsal side of the hsemal spine (52) helps to artic- 
ulate with the detached hsemal spine (52) of the last caudal 
vertebra but 1 (132). The anterior side is illustrated in text 
fig. 1. 

The last caudal vertebra but 1 (132) bears the neural spine 
(51), prezygapophysis, and hsemal spine (52), the last being 
detached. This last contains the hsemal arch within itself. In 
Plate I this is seen in the articulated skeleton, and in Plate XII, 
fig. 1, it is disarticulated, with the hsemal spine (52) detached. 

The hypural vertebra (34) is the last vertebra, and articulates 
with all of the hypurals except 102 and 103, dorsally, posteriorly, 
or ventrally. Anteriorly it articulates with the next vertebra. 
The posterior dorsal process receives the condyles of the 
hypurals (53) in its deep ventral fossa. It bears prezyga- 
pophyses (?) which extend dorsally, and the posterior ventral 
process is at the extreme posterior ventral margin. Plate I and 



36 The Philippine Journal of Science isu 

Plate XII, fig. 1 (the articulated skeleton), illustrate this 
vertebra from the left side. 

Suspended above the anterior end of the spinal column are the 
two -anterior dorsal radials (85, 115). In Plate I, as also in text 
fig. 2, they are represented in their natural positions. It will 
be observed that the convex side of the first (85) is dorsal, 
overlying the neural spine of the axis, while the concave side 
of the second (115) is dorsal, and overlies the neural spine 
of the third vertebra. 

Neural spine 41 is somewhat posterior to the median abdom- 
inal region. 

Neural spine 43 is the spine of the 7th vertebra, bearing 
Nos. 42 and 90 in Plate I, while in Plate XI it represents the 
neural spines of all the vertebrae illustrated. 

Neural spines 51 are shown in Plate I and in Plate XII, fig. 1 ; 
the latter are the neural spines in the caudal region. In Plate 
XII, fig. 1, the vertebrse are disarticulated, while Plate I shows 
them articulated. 

Neural spines 125 are of vertebrae 92 and 95. Other neural 
spines are No. 43. These are illustrated in Plates I and XL 

The neural arch (126) is of the vertebra that is the last 
but 7, No. 94, and of the 2d and 5th vertebrae, Nos. 87 and 88, 
in Plate XI. 

Haemal spines (52). In Plate I the vertebrae are articulated, 
and in Plate XII, fig. 1, they are disarticulated. It will be noted 
that the haemal spine of the last vertebra but 1 is disarticulated 
from the centrum. 

Transverse process (46). This number indicates the trans- 
verse process of the 5th vertebra, No. 88. Plate XI. 

Transverse process (47). This is on the 7th vertebra, Nos. 
90 and 42. Plate XL 

Transverse process (49). This number indicates the trans- 
verse process on the 21st vertebra, No. 92; and on the 22d 
vertebra, No. 93 ; and also in Plate I it indicates the transverse 
process on the 25th vertebra. (Plate XL) 

The prezygapophyses (127) are illustrated in Plate XI, the 
21st vertebra being No. 92; and in the last vertebra but 6, 
No. 95. 

The postzygapophyses (128). These are designated in Plate 
XI in the 6th vertebra. No. 89; the 21st vertebra. No. 92; 
and in the last vertebra but 6, No. 95. 

The anterior ventral process (134) and the posterior ventral 



IX, D, 1 Day: Ophiocephalus striatus 37 

process (135) are used in Plate XI in describing the last ver- 
tebra but 6, No. 95. 

The hypurals (53) articulate anteriorly with the hypural 
vertebra (34) and posteriorly with the caudal rays (54, 55). 
The second from the ventral has its anterodorsal processes 
designated No. 60. No. 124 lies over the anterior end of the 
dorsal broad hypural articulating with it, joining this hypural 
with the dorsal surface of the hypural vertebra (34). The 
second broad hypural from the dorsal side articulates with the 
posterodorsal process of the hypural vertebra (34), the next 
3 hypurals with the posterior surface of the hypural vertebra 
(34), while the last broad hypural, or that bearing the process 
No. 60, articulates with the posterior surface of the hypural 
vertebra, the two anterodorsal processes passing dorsally at 
the sides. Lying along the most dorsal broad hypural is the 
narrow hypural (102) , and below the most ventral broad hypural 
is also a narrow hypural ( ?) (103) , very similar to 102. (Plates 
I and XII.) 

The anterodorsal processes (60) of the most ventral wide 
hypural (53) pass off from the anterior dorsal surface of the 
most ventral wide hypural, extending laterally around the 
hypural and hypural vertebra (34) lying dorsally, and really 
forming the haemal arch. The dorsal tips of these processes 
lie at a considerable distance from the hypurals (53) above, 
embedded in the muscle. (Plate I and Plate XII, fig. 1.) 

Hypural (?) No. 102 articulates with the anterior portion 
of the most dorsal broad hypural (53) and with the neural 
spine of the vertebra that is the last but one. It is of a form 
similar to the neural spines of the four vertebrae anterior to 
the hypural vertebra, but in thickness, color, and certain other 
characteristics it resembles the other hypurals (53) although 
being narrower. It lies between 124 and the body of its hypural 
(53) and the neural spine of the vertebra that is the last but 
one, and articulates with them. In Plate I it lies in articulation, 
while in Plate XII, fig. 1, it is disarticulated. 

Hypural (?) No. 124 is the anterior detached portion of 
the most dorsal wide hypural (53). This bone receives, in the 
fossa on the ventral side, the anterior dorsal portion of the 
first broad hypural (53) and articulates with the hypural ver- 
tebra (34) ventrally and with the neural spine (51) lying in 
front. With the neural spine (51) just in front, it forms an 
arch dorsad of the body of the hypural vertebra (34). Plate 



38 The Philippine Journal of Science lau 

I illustrates it still articulated, while Plate XII, fig. 1, represents 
it detached. 

Rays of caudal fin No. 54 articulate with the posterior ends 
of the hypurals (53) clasping around them and on the dorsal 
side with the neural spines (51) of the 2 vertebrae immediately 
preceding the hypural vertebra (34). On the ventral side they 
articulate with the haemal spines (52) of 3 caudal vertebrae 
immediately preceding the hypural vertebra (34). (Plate I.) 
No. 55 is used in Plate I to indicate the caudal rays at the dorsal 
side. These are short, those in the median region being the 
longest, the fin being homocercal. 

RIBS 

Articulated with the atlas and axis is a pair of single ribs. 
Posterior to these are about 15 pairs of double ribs, while pos- 
terior to these there is a pair of single ribs articulated with each 
of the vertebrae except the last 5 in the caudal region. In the 
last 4 pairs of double ribs the more dorsal is articulated to the 
transverse process, not at the place with the ventral, but slightly 
proximally, and so may be designated epipleurals. The last 3 
double ribs in Plate I show this condition. 

Rib 48 is in the anterior abdominal region in Plate I. 

Rib 50 is attached to the 28th vertebra as shown in Plate I. 

Rib 56 is in the posterior abdominal region, and is articulated 
with the 38th vertebra. (Plate L) 

Ribs 59 are the ventral of the first 3 double ribs, those of the 
right side lying above. They are articulated with the 3d, 4th, 
and 5th vertebrae, respectively. 

Ribs 61 are the dorsal of the first 3 double ribs. These are 
articulated with the 3d, 4th, and 5th vertebrae. (Plate XII, 
fig. 2.) 

The 13th upper double rib (104). All of these ribs at the 
bottom are of the left side of the body, and those at the top 
of the right side. Plate XII, fig. 2. 

The 13th lower double rib (105) is seen in Plate XII, fig. 2. 

The 14th upper double rib (106) is seen in Plate XII, fig. 2. 

The 14th lower double rib (107). Anteriorly to this point, 
the dorsal ribs have been the longer. (Plate XII, fig. 2.) 

The 15th upper double rib (108). Here the lower instead 
of the upper double rib is the longer. (Plate XII, fig. 2.) 

The 15th lower double rib (109) is in Plate XII, fig. 2. 

The 25th rib (110) of the trunk is a single rib, and is il- 
lustrated in Plate XII, fig. 2. 



ix,D. 1 Day: Ophiocephalus striatus 39 

The 26th rib (111) of the trunk is shown in Plate XII, fig. 2. 
The 39th rib of the trunk (112), a single rib, is illustrated 
in Plate XII, fig. 2. 

The 40th rib (113) is shown in Plate XII, fig. 2. 
The 41st rib (114) is represented in Plate XII, fig. 2. 

VI. HYOID APPARATUS 
PLATE XIII 

Plate XIII shows the hyals from the outside, except the 
urohyal (68), which is seen from the ventral side. On the 
left side of the plate the hypohyal (84) , the ceratohyal (19) , and 
the epihyal (20) are shown articulated, while on the right side 
they are shown disarticulated. 

The ceratohyal (19) is shown in the natural size, the anterior 
end being 4.5 millimeters in thickness and the posterior end 3 
millimeters. Along the exteroventral margin is a fossa for the 
articulation of the branchiostegals (22). 

The flange on the ceratohyal is seen not to be continuous with 
that of the epihyal (20). The first and second branchiostegals 
(22) are articulated with the ceratohyal, and the end of the 
third is opposite the V-shaped opening on the ventral side 
between the pterygoid (80) on the outside and the urohyal (68) 
on the inside. The ends are much splintered, especially the 
posterior end. These are also seen from the dorsal side in 
Plate XV. 

The outHne of the epihyals (20) is clearly seen in Plate XIII. 
The ventral side has a wide flange similar to that on the cera- 
tohyals (19) for the articulation of the branchiostegals (22). 
The posterior end has a condyle 4 millimeters thick. The 
anterior end is splintered with a very large process or "splinter'' 
on the ventral side, which fits into a fossa in the posterior end 
of the ceratohyal (19). 

The end of the third branchiostegal ray overlies the V-shaped 
interruption between the ceratohyals (19) and the epihyals on 
the ventral side, and the 4th and 5th rays articulate with the 
flange of the epihyals. Dorsally, at the extreme posterior end, 
the epihyals articulate with the ventral end of the interhyals 
(21). The epihyals he opposite the posterior end of the quad- 
rates (7), the ventral end of the preopercles (11), and the 
dorsal anterior portion of the interopercles (40). The dorsal 
portion of the extreme posterior end lies at the side of the 



40 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



ceratobranchials (63) of the first branchial arch. In Plate 
XIII the exterior side of the bones is shown at the right and 
left sides. They are also seen from the dorsal side in Plate XV. 

In Plate XIII the anterior side of the interhyals (21) lies in 
view. The condyle of the ventral end is larger than that of 
the dorsal end, and articulates with the glenoid fossa of the 
epihyals (20). The epicondyle, which here lies below, in its 
natural position is toward the interior. That of the left side 
is indistinctly seen in Plate XV. 

The branchiostegals (22) are seen from the exterior and are 
curved as shown in Plate XIII. The anterior two articulate 
with the ceratohyals (19), the 3d lies over the V-shaped in- 




FlG. 3. Hypohyals (84), ceratonyals (19), epihyals (20), and branchiostegal rays (22). 
"Teeth" are found on some of the rays. Natural size. 

terval between the ceratohyals (19) and the epihyals (20), and 
the 4th and 5th articulate with the epihyals (20). They lie 
opposite the inner surfaces of the interopercles (40), the sub- 
opercles (13) , and the opercles (14) . In one specimen examined, 
the 2d and 3d branchiostegals on the right side are seen to 
be notched or toothed as shown in text fig. 3, and on the left 
side the third is of like structure. In Plate XI the branchios- 
tegals are in position, and the extended epibranchials (64) and 
superior pharyngeals (23) are underneath the posterior ends. 
Plate VI, fig. 1, shows those of the left side from the interior. 
From the ventral side the urohyal (68) presents a flat, sgme- 
what oval surface, with a posterior spinous portion. However, 



ix.i>.i Day: Ophiocephalus striatits 41 

the median line and the seeming posterior portion indicate the 
presence of a dorsal lamellar flange at right angles to the part 
shown. The anterior view shows the urohyal to be somewhat 
like an inverted t seen in text fig. 4. Anteriorly, both the 
horizontal and vertical lamellae are thickened, so that the anterior 
end is of the shape shown in the figure. It articulates by the 
anteroventral fossa with the ventral side of the second basi- 
branchial (17). Laterally and anteriorly it lies between, and 
articulates with, the hypohyals (84) and continues posteriorly 
between the ceratohyals (19) and the branchiostegals (22). 
(Plates VI and XIII.) 

The hypohyals (84) articulate with each other just anterior 
to the urohyal (68) and with the anterior portion, both hori- 
zontal and vertical, of the urohyal. Poste- 
riorly they articulate with the ceratohyals 
(19) . Dorsally they articulate with the first 
basibranchial (17) and also with the ventral 
vertical ridge of the same. On the left side 
the hypohyal is still articulated with the 
ceratohyal (19), while on the right side the 
right hypohyal is disarticulated. These are 
seen from the outer side. In Plate XV the ^^"teriortw'' xT' 
posterodorsal condyles articulate with the 
second basibranchial (17) internally. The hypohyals are per- 
forated with sensory canals. These are illustrated in Plate VI, 
fig. 1, and Plates XIII and XV. 

VII. DORSAL RAYS AND INTERNEURAL SPINES AND ANAL RAYS 
AND INTERH^MAL SPINES 

The interneural spines and the interhsemal spines articulate 
with the dorsal rays and anal rays, respectively, by ball-and- 
socket joints. Between the two lateral parts of the rays at the 
proximal ends are situated small spherical bodies (cartilaginous 
nodules) which fit into the sockets at the distal ends of the 
spines. In Plate XIV one of those posteriorly in the anal fin 
is seen disarticulated and others in both fins are plainly visible. 
Certain of the rays in both dorsal and anal fins present the 
posterior view, which shows the two lateral parts of the rays, 
their partial separation at the proximal end, and the cartilag- 
inous nodules lying between their proximal ends. 

All of both the interneural and interhsemal spines are repre- 
sented from the left side, the left side of the plate being anterior. 
The posterior dorsal rays are not represented. 




42 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



The form, outline, and articulation of the dorsal rays and 
the interneural spine, as well as the same characters of the anal 
rays and interhsemal spines, are shown in text fig. 5. 

The interneural spines (44) of the anterior abdominal region 
are illustrated in Plate I, and in Plate XIV they are disarticulated. 
Dorsal ray (45) . In Plates I and XIV this number indicates 
the 8th dorsal ray, shown from the left side. 
' Dorsal ray (116). This is the second, and is seen in Plates 
I and XIV. 

The 6th ray of the dorsal fin (121) is indicated in Plates I 
and XIV. In the latter plate it is exposed from the posterior 

side, while in Plate I it is 
still articulated and is in 
the natural position. 

The interhsemal spine 
(57) is in the posterior 
abdominal region. The first 
spine in this series is 
almost straight, with a 
condyle at its ventral ex- 
tremity to articulate with 
the anal ray. In the others 
there is an anterior vertical 
fossa, while the posterior 
portion is lamellar. No. 
117. This is illustrated 
in Plates I and XIV. In- 
terhsemal spines (117). 
The 19th and 20th spines are indicated by this number in Plates 
I and XIV, being situated in the posterior abdominal region. 

Rays of the anal fin (58). This number in Plates I and XIV 
represents one of the anal rays from the posterior side, showing 
the two lateral portions and the cartilaginous nodule between 
their distal ends. 

Interneural spines (82) , The spines indicated by this number, 
82, in Plates I and XIV are in the posterior abdominal region. 
In Plate XIV the dorsal rays in this region are not represented, 
but they are present in Plate I. 

Anal ray (118). The 3d anal ray in Plates I and XIV bears 
this number. 

The 24th anal ray is labeled 119 in Plates I and XIV. 
Anal rays 4 to 11 are indicated by number 120 in Plates 
I and XIV. Those in Plate XIV are viewed from the posterior 




FiQ. 5. Dorsal ray, interneural spine, anal ray, 
interhaemal spine, and cartilaginous nodules. The 
nodules are seen between the rays and spine. 
X1.5. 



ix,D. 1 Day: Ophiocephalus striatus 43 

side, except the 5th, which presents the left side and shows no 
cartilaginous nodule. They lie opposite the corresponding inter- 
haemal spines. 

VIII. BRANCHIAL APPARATUS 

PLATES XV AND XVI 

Basibranchials (17). These are clearly illustrated in Plates 
XV and XVI, in the former articulated, and in the latter dis- 
articulated, but contiguous to those bones with which they are 
articulated. 

The 1st is thickest at the posterior end, where it is not quite 
as thick as wide. A slight ridge extends from the anterior to 
the posterior end on the ventral side. 

The 2d is seen from the dorsal side, but, as the bone is 
rather deep, a profile drawing from the left side is shown in 
text fig. 6. 

The 3d is about two-thirds as thick as broad, and has fossae 
at the articulations of the hypobranchials (24) of the second 
branchial arch and also at the posterior end. 

The 4th basibranchial has a shaft posteriorly, becomes thinner, 
and just posterior to the middle widens out into 2 thin lateral 
flanges. Anteriorly, it is broadly wedge-shaped. 

Hypobranchials (24) of the first arch. The outline of the 
hypobranchials of the first arch is shown in Plate XVI, except 
the epicondyle of the interior end. The dorsal portion of the 
interior end articulates with the lateral fossa of the 3d basi- 
branchial (17). The epicondyle passes to the ventral side of 
the 3d basibranchial (17) and forward, articulating with the 
posterior ventral portion of the 2d basibranchial (17). The 
anterior process is almost lamellar. Laterally and distally these 
hypobranchials articulate with the ceratobranchial (63). The 
anterolateral margin is covered with small detachable plates of 
cardiform teeth (133) which take the place of gill rakers. 

Hypobranchials of the 2d arch. These bones articulate distally 
with the ceratobranchials (63). Proximally the articulation is 
with the fossae of the 4th basibranchial (17), the posteroventral 
margin of the 3d basibranchial, and with the anteroventral 
process of the hypobranchials of the 3d branchial arch. They 
are convex anterodorsally and concave posteroventrally. The 
ventral anterolateral epicondyle is lamellar. The anterolateral 
surface is covered with detachable plates of cardiform teeth. 

Hypobranchials of the 3d arch. The outline is clearly seen 
in Plate XVI. Medially and posteriorly they articulate with 



44 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

the ceratobranchials (63) of the 4th arch, the posterodorsal por- 
tion of the 4th basibranchial (17), and the hypobranchials of the 
3d arch on the opposite side. Distally they articulate with the 
ceratobranchials (63) of the 3d arch. The anterior process 
articulates with the proximal ventral epicondyle of the hypo- 
branchials of the 2d branchial arch and with the anterior process 
of the hypobranchials of the 3d arch on the opposite side. 

Unlike other hypobranchials, those of the 3d arch have areas 
of cardiform teeth on the posterodorsal side which are firmly 
fixed and not detachable. Also, these areas are much larger than 
the detachable areas of the other hypobranchials and modified 
epibranchials (74) of the 1st branchial arch. There are no 
hypobranchials in the 4th branchial arch. 

In Plate XV the hypobranchials are still articulated, and 
are shown from the dorsal side. 

Upper or superior pharyngeals (23). These are designated 
by 23^ 23^ 23*, referring to the different branchial arches, 
232 articulates with the epibranchial (64) of the 2d arch, 23^ 
articulates with the epibranchial (64) of the 3d arch, and 23* 
articulates with the epibranchial (64) of the 4th arch. In 
Plates XV and XVI the upper pharyngeals are shown moved 
outwardly and posteriorly, together with the epibranchials (64), 
on the articulation of the epibranchials and the ceratobranchials 
(63) as a hinge. In the latter plate they are not articulated, 
while they are in the former. In their natural position the 
upper pharyngeals lie dorsad of the inferior pharyngeals (25), 
so that their toothed surfaces lie together. The upper pharyn- 
geals of the 2d and 3d arches and the epibranchials (64) of 
the 2d arch articulate with the ventral side of the basioccipital 
(69). 

In some specimens examined, certain of the teeth of the 
superior pharyngeals of the 4th arch were seen to be growing 
from the sides of large sockets, presumably of larger, more 
mature teeth already shed. 

Lower or inferior pharyngeals (25). These are articulated 
anteriorly and laterally with the ceratobranchials (63) of the 
4th branchial arch, the posterodorsal portion lying interior to 
the ceratobranchials (63). As seen in Plate XVI, they are 
provided with teeth which increase in size posteriorly. They 
are very small anteriorly and very large posteriorly. Along 
the posterior margin small teeth are seen in large sockets — 
the same condition existing as is described in No. 23. Plate 
VI, fig. 1, and Plates XV and XVI illustrate these. 



ix,D, 1 Day: Ophiocephalus striatus 45 

Ceratobranchials (63). These are concave below and convex 
above. The condyles or glenoid surfaces of the proximal ends 
are much larger than those of the distal ends. All are at least 
slightly concave. Those of the 1st, 2d, and 3d branchial arches 
articulate with the hypobranehials (24) proximally and distally 
with the epibranchials (74) of the 1st branchial arch and (64) 
of the 2d and 3d branchial arches. As there are no hypo- 
branehials (24) of the 4th branchial arch, the ceratobranchials 
of this arch articulate proximally with the hypobranehials (24) 
of the 3d branchial arch, the 4th basibranchial, and the proximal 
end of the inferior pharyngeals (25). Distally the articulation 
is with the distal end of the epibranchials (64) of the 4th 
branchial arch. All of the ceratobranchials are covered, on the 
convex surface, with detachable patches of cardiform teeth, the 
same as are spoken of in the descriptions of the hypobranehials 
(24) and the epibranchials (74) of the 1st branchial arch. 
The margins of the concavity on the ventral side of each of 
the ceratobranchials are fringed with branchial lamellae. (Plates 
XV and XVI.) 

Epibranchials (74) of the first branchial arch. These bones 
form a part of the accessory branchial apparatus. Each con- 
sists of a dorsal vertical portion, about two-fifths of the total 
length, which articulates dorsally with the margin of the flat 
ventral portion of the pterotic (38), where the pterctic forms 
a part of the roof of the accessory branchial chamber. Contin- 
uous with the dorsal spinous portion and at the internal angle 
of the more ventral lamellar part is a thickening or reenforce- 
ment which becomes thicker at the ventral end where this epi- 
branchial articulates with the ceratobranchial (63) of the first 
branchial arch. The lower portion is lamellar, with a broad 
internal more ventral part at an angle of about 60 degrees to an 
external lateral portion, which extends farther dorsally into the 
accessory branchial chamber. Ventrally the broad edge of the 
posterior portion and the narrow ventral part of the flange at 
an angle are continuous with the posterolateral end of the first 
ceratobranchial (63), helping to form the first branchial arch. 
The whole ventral margin and, also, the ventral part of the in- 
terior angle are provided with the detachable patches of cardiform 
teeth (133), as in the ceratobranchials (63) and the hypobran- 
ehials (24). In Plate VI, fig. 1, the right is seen from the outer 
side, in Plate XVI both are seen from the inner side, disarticu- 
lated, and in Plate XV the left is but indistinctly seen. 

Epibranchials (64) of the 2d branchial arch. These artic- 



46 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



ulate distally with the ceratobranchials (63) of the 2d bran- 
chial arch and with the ventrolateral region of the basioccipital 
(69) and the superior pharyngeals (23 ^) of the 2d branchial 
arch internally and ventrally, respectively. Because of being 




66 



17 



17 



Fig. 6. Glossohyal (65) ; basibranchials (17) of the 1st, 2d, and 3 branchial arches from the 
left side ; the basibranchial of the 2d arch in detail. X 2. 

extended, the ventral instead of the dorsal surface is shown. 
The dorsal surface is concave, with the outside of the curve, the 
region of the epicondyle, lying anteriorly and dorsad of the cera- 
tobranchials (63) and the anterior portion of the inferior pha- 
ryngeals (25). The proximal or internal condyle or that which 
articulates with the basioccipital (69) is much larger than that 
which articulates with the ceratobranchials (63) of the 2d 
branchial arch. 

Epibranchials of the 3d branchial arch. These bones also 
are seen from the ventral side. The articulations distally are 
with the ceratobranchials of the 3d branchial arch and proxi- 
mally with the superior pharyngeals (23^) of the 3d arch. The 
two epicondyles shown at the top in Plate XVI lie dorsad in posi- 
tion against the anterior surface of the epibranchials of the 4th 
arch. The large condyle articulates with the 
dorsal surface of the superior pharyngeals (23 *) 
of the 4th branchial arch. 

The epibranchials are seen in Plates XV and 
XVI. 

Glossohyal (65). The more solid central por- 
tion of the glossohyal is shown articulated with 
the anterior end of the first basibranchial (17). 
The complete outline is shown in text fig. 7, the 
central, more solid portion being indicated. The 
glossohyal in small specimens is entirely carti- 
laginous, with the anterior and lateral margins 
much softer than the central portion. The draw- 
ing is the actual size of the glossohyal from a different fish from 
that of Plate XVI. In Plate XV the glossohyal has been re- 
moved. (Plate XVI.) 

This number (133) in Plate VI, fig. 1, and in Plate XV in- 




Fig. 7. Glossohyal 
(65), dorsal view, 
showinsT the more 
solid central por- 
tion. X 1.5. 



IX, D, 1 



Day: Ophiocephalus striatus 



47 



dicates detachable plates of cardiform teeth found on the 
branchial arches. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bridge, T. W. Fishes. Cambridge Natural History. Macmillan and Co., 

London (1904), 7, 141-537. 
Parker, T. Jeffery, and Haswell, Wm. A. A Text-book of Zoology. 

London (1910). 
Goodrich, E. S. Vertebrata Craniata (First fascicle: Cyclostomes and 

Fishes). A Treatise on Zoology edited by Ray Lankester. Adam and 

Charles Black, London (1909), Part IX. 
Cuvier, Georges, and Valenciennes, Achille. Histoire naturelle des 

Poissons. Paris, F. G. Levrault (1828), 1-2, and Plates I-III. 
Starks, Edwin Chapin. Synonymy of the fish skeleton. Proc, Wash, 

Acad, Sci, (1901), 3, 507-539. 
Idem. The osteological characters of the genus Sebastolobus. Proc. Cal. 

Acad. Sci., Zool. (1897-1899), III, 1, 361-370. 
WiEDERSHEiM, ROBERT. Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates. Adapted by 

W. N. Parker, 3d ed. Macmillan and Co., London (1907). 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 



Actinosts, 81. 
Alisphenoid, 122. 
Anal ray, 3d, 118. 
24th, 119. 

4th to 11th inclusive, 120. 
Angular, 12. 
Anterior dorsal radials, 85, 115. 

ventral process, 134. 
Articular, 4. 
Atlas, 70. 
Axis, 87. 

Basibranchials, 17. 
Basioccipital, 69. 
Basisphenoid, 83. 
Branchiostegals, 22. 
Caudal fin-rays, 64, 65. 
Cardiform teeth, patches of, 133. 
Centrum of the 7th vertebra, 97. 

20th vertebra, bearing No. 

91, 98. 
22d vertebra, bearing No. 

93, 99. 
vertebra, the last but 7, bear- 
ing No. 94, 100. 
Centrum of vertebra, the last but 5, bearing 

No. 96, 101. 
Ceratobranchials, 63. 
Ceratohyal, 19. 
Clavicle, 62. 
Dentary, 3. 
Dorsal rays, 45. 
Dorsal ray, the 2d, 116. 
the 6th, 121. 
Epibranchial, 64. 

modified, 
arch, 74. 
Epihyal, 20. 
Epiotic, 79. 



of Ist branchial 



Ethmoid, 81. 
Exoccipital, 72. 
Frontal, 36. 
Glossohyal, 65. 
Hsemal spine, 52. 
Hyomandibular, 10. 
Hypercoracoid, 15. 
Hypocoracoid, 80. 
Hypobranchial, 24. 
Hypural, 63, 102, 108. 

anterior part of most dorsal, 
broad, 124. 

vertebra, 34. 
Hypohyal, 84. 

Inferior or lower pharyngeals, 25. 
Interhaemal spine, 57. 

of 19th and 20th verte- 
brae, 117. 
Interhyal, 21. 
Intemeural spine, 44, 82. 
Interopercular or interopercle, 
Intra-articular, 86. 
Lower or inferior pharyngeals. 
Maxillary, 5. 
Mesopterygoid, 71. 
Metapterygoid, 8. 
Naaal, 16. 
Neural arch on vertebrse bearing Nos. 87, 88, 

and 94, 126. 
spine, 41, 43, 51, 125. 
spines of vertebras bearing Nos. 92 

and 95, 126. 
Operculum, 14. 
Opisthotic, 123. 
Otolith, 73. 
Palatine, 2. 
Parasphenoid, 66. 
Parietal, 37. 



40. 



25. 



48 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



Patches of cardiform teeth, 133. 
Pectoral rays, 29. 
Pelvic fin, 33. 

girdle, 32. 
Pharyngobranchial (see Inferior pha- 
ryngeals ) . 
Postclavicle, upper part, 77. 
Postclavicle, lower part, 6. 
Posterior ventral process, 135. 
Posttemporal, 27. 
Postzygapophyses, 128. 
Prefrontal, 76. 
Premaxillary, 1. 
Preopercle, 11. 
Preorbital, 18. 
Prezygapophyses, 127. 
Prootic, 78. 
Pterotic, 38. 
Pterygoid, 80. 
Quadrate, 7. 
Rib, second single or 19th, 48. 

11th and 12th single, 50. 

22d and 23d single, 56. 

lower of double ribs, 59. 

upper of double ribs, 61. 

upper double, the 13th, 104. 

lower double, the 13th, 105. 

upper double, the 14th, 106. 

14th double, 107. 

15th upper double, 108. 

15th lower double, 109. 

25th, 110. 

26th, 111. 

39th, 112. 



Rib, 40th, 113. 

41st, 114. 

Sphenotic, 39. 

Spine on lowest wide hypural, 60. 
Subopercle, 13. 
Suborbitals, 18. 

Superior or upper pharyngeals, 23. 
Supraclavicle, 28. 
Supraethmoid, 75. 
Supraoccipital, 35. 
Supratemporal, 26. 
Symplectic, 9. 

Transverse process, 46, 47, 49. 
Upper or superior pharyngeals, 23. 
Urohyal, 68. 
Ventral process, anterior, 134. 

posterior, 135. 
Vertebra, the 2d, 87. 

hypural, 34. 

the 5th, 88. 

the 6th, 89. 

the 7th, 90 in Plate XI; 42 In 
Plate I. 

the 20th, 91. 

the 21st, 92. 

the 22d, 93. 

the last but 7, 94. 

the last but 6, 95. 

the last but 5, 96. 

the last but 4, 129. 

the last but 3, 130. 

the last but 2, 131. 

the last but 1, 132. 
Vomer, 67. 



NUMERICAL INDEX 



1. Premaxillary. 




30. 


2. Palatine. 




81. 


3. Dentary. 




32. 


4. Articular. 




33. 


5. Maxillary. 




34. 


6. Postclavicle, lower 


part (see 77). 


85. 


7. Quadrate. 




36. 


8. Metapterygoid. 




37. 


9. Symplectic. 




38. 


10. Hyomandibular. 




39. 


11. Preopercle. 




40. 


12. Angular. 




41. 


13. Suboperculum. 




42. 


14. Operculum. 






15. Hypercoracoid. 




43. 


16. Nasal. 




44. 


17. Basibranchials. 




45. 


18. Orbitals. 




46. 


19. Ceratohyal. 




47. 


20. Epihyal. 




48. 


21. Interhyal. 




49. 


22. Branchiostegals. 




50. 


23. Upper or superior 


pharyngeals. 


51. 


24. Hypobranchials. 




52. 


25. Lower or inferior pharyngeals. 


53. 


26. Supratemporal. 




54. 


27. Posttemporal. 




65. 


28. Supraclavicle. 




56. 


29. Pectoral rays. 







Hypocoracoid. 

Actinosts. 

Pelvic girdle. 

Pelvic fin. 

Hypural vertebra. 

Supraoccipital. 

Frontal. 

Parietal. 

Pterotic. 

Sphenotic. 

Interoperculum. 

Neural spines. 

Seventh vertebra in Plate I. (In Plat« 

XII this vertebra is No. 90.) 
Neural spines. 
Interneural spine. 
Dorsal rays. 

Transverse process (see 47 and 49). 
Transverse process (see 46 and 49). 
Rib, 19th. 

Transverse process (see 46 and 47). 
Ribs, 11th and 12th single. 
Neural spine. 
Haemal spine. 
Hypural. 
Caudal rays. 
Caudal rays. 
Rib, posterior abdominal, 22d and 23d 

single. 



IX, D, 1 



Day: Ophiocephalus striatus 



49 



57. Interhsemal spine. 

58. Anal rays. 

69. Ribs, Plate XII, ventral of double ribs. 

60. Spine on lowest wide hypural. 

61. Dorsal of double ribs, Plate XII. 

62. Clavicle. 

63. Ceratobranchials. 

64. Epibranchials. 

65. Glossohyal. 

66. Parasphenoid. 

67. Vomer. 

68. Urohyal. 

69. Basioccipital. 

70. Atlas. 

71. Mesopterygoid. 

72. Exoccipital. 

73. Otoliths. 

74. Epibranchial modified of let branchial 

arch. 

75. Supraethmoid. 

76. Prefrontal. 

77. Postclavicle, upper part. 

78. Prootic. 

79. Epiotic. 

80. Pterygoid. 

81. Ethmoid. 

82. Interneural spines. 

83. Basisphenoid. 

84. Hypohyals. 

85. Anterior dorsal radial. 

86. Intra-articular. 

87. Vertebra, the 2d, axis. 

88. Vertebra, the 5th. 

89. Vertebra, the 6th. 

90. Vertebra, the 7th in Plate XI and 

No. 42 in Plate I. 

91. Vertebra, the 20th. 

92. Vertebra, the 21st. 

93. Vertebra, the 22d. 

94. Vertebra, the last but 7. 

95. Vertebra, the last but 6. 

96. Vertebra, the last but 5. 

97. Centrum of vertebra, the 7th, bearingr 

No. 90. 
123716 4 



98. Centrum of vertebra, the 20th, bearingr 

No. 91. 

99. Centrum of vertebra, the 22d, bearingr 

No. 93. 

100. Centrum of vertebra, the last but 7, 

bearing No. 94. 

101. Centrum of vertebra, the laat but 5. 

bearing No. 96. 

102. Hypural (?) 
108. Hypural ( ?) 

104. Upper double rib, the 13th. 

105. Lower double rib, the 13th. 

106. Upper double rib, the 14th. 

107. Lower double rib, the 14th. 

108. Upper double rib. the 15th. 

109. Lower double rib, the 15th. 

110. Rib, the 25th. 

111. Rib, the 26th. 

112. Rib, the 39th. 

113. Rib, the 40th. 

114. Rib, the 41st. 

115. Anterior dorsal radial. 

116. Second dorsal ray. 

117. 19th and 20th interhsemal spines. 

118. 3d anal ray. 

119. 24th ray of anal fin. 

120. Anal rays, 4th to 11th inclusive. 

121. 6th ray of dorsal fin. 

122. Alisphenoid. 

123. Opisthotic. 

124. Upper anterior part of hypural. 

125. Neural spines of vertebrae bearing Nos. 

92 and 95. 

126. Neural arch of vertebwe bearinflr Noe, 

87, 88, and 94. 

127. Prezygapophyses. 

128. Postzygapophyses. 

129. Last vertebra but 4. 

130. Last vertebra but 3. 

131. Last vertebra but 2. 

132. Last vertebra but 1. 

183. Patches of cardiform teeth on brainchial 

arches in Plate XVIL 
i34. Anterior ventral process. 
135. Posterior ventral process. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plates from photographs by Day and Martin; text figures from drawings by Espinosa. The 
species represented in all of the plates and the text figures is OphiocephaluM atriatug 
Bloch. 

Plate I 
The whole skeleton, articulated; from the left side. 

Plate la 
Anterior part of skeleton, natural size. 

Plate lb 
Middle part of skeleton, natural size. 

Plate Ic 
Posterior part of skeleton, actual size. 

Plate II 

The top of the skull from the dorsal side. 

16, nasal. 67, vomer. 

26, supratemporal. 72, exoccipital. 

27, posttemporal. 73, otoliths. 

35, supraoccipital. 75, supraethmoid. 

36, frontal. 76, prefrontal. 

37, parietal. 79, epiotic. 

38, pterotic. 81, ethmoid. 

39, sphenotic. 

Plate III 

A part of the disarticulated skull. 

16, nasal, from dorsal side. 

36, frontals, left from dorsal side and right from ventral. 

37, parietals, left from dorsal side and right from ventral. 

38, pterotics, left from dorsal side and right from ventral. 

39, sphenotics, left from dorsal side and right from ventral. 
Q6, parasphenoid, from the dorsal side. 

67, vomer, from the dorsal side. 

73, otoliths, left from the inside and right from the outside. 

76, prefrontals, from the dorsal side. 

78, prootics, left from dorsal side and right from ventral. 
. 81, ethmoid, from the dorsal side. 

83, basisphenoid, from the dorsal side. 
122, alisphenoid, right from the ventral side. 

51 



52 The Philippine Journal of Science i^u 

Plate IV 

Fig. 1. Posterior portion of disarticulated skull. The left side of the figure 
is anterior. 
35, supraoccipital, from the dorsal side. 
69, basioccipital, from the dorsal side. 
72, exoccipitals, from the dorsal side. 

79, epiotics, left from ventral side and right from dorsal. 
123, opisthotics, left from ventral side and right from dorsal. 
2. Top of skull from right side. 

36, frontal. 72, exoccipital. 

38, pterotic. 76, prefrontal. 

39, sphenotic. 78, prootic. 

66, parasphenoid. 79, epiotic. 

67, vomer. 83, basisphenoid. 
69, basioccipital. 

Plate V 

Fig. 1. Ventral side of top of skull. 

35, supraoccipital. 72, exoccipital. 

36, frontal. 76, prefrontal. 

38, pterotic. 78, prootic. 

39, sphenotic. 79, epiotic. 

66, parasphenoid. 83, basisphenoid. 

67, vomer. 122, alisphenoid. 
69, basioccipital. 123, opisthotic. 

2. Posterior view of top of skull. 

35, supraoccipital. 72, exoccipital. 
38, pterotic. 79, epiotic. 

69, basioccipital. 123, opisthotic. 

Plate VI 

Fig. 1, Right side of skull with suspensorium and jaws removed. 
1, premaxillary. 65, glossohyal. 

13, suboperculum. 66, parasphenoid. 

14, operculum. 67, vomer. 
16, nasal. 68, urohyal. 
22, branchiostegals. 70, atlas. 

25, lower or inferior pha- 72, exoccipital. 

ryngeals. 74, epibranchial, modified of Ist 

26, supratemporal. branchial arch. 

27, posttemporal. 76, prefrontal. 

36, frontal. 78, prootic. 

38, pterotic. 84, hypohyal. 

39, sphenotic. 123, opisthotic. 

40, interoperculum. 133, patches of cardiform teeth. 
2. Orbitals. 

18* to 18", suborbitals; 18^ of top row from the posterior side. 
18", preorbital from outside. 



IX, D. 1 Day: Ophiocephalus atriatus 53 

Plate VII 

Suspensorium, opercles, and palatine. All the bones of the right side are 
seen from the outside. Those at the top — articulated — are from a 
smaller specimen than those below. 

2, palatine. 13, suboperculum. 

7, quadrate. 14, operculum. 

8, metapterygoid. 40, interoperculum. 

9, symplectic. 71, mesopterygoid. 
10, hyomandibular. 80, pterygoid. 



11, preoperculum. 



Plate VIII 



Suspensorium, opercles, and palatine. The bones of the left side seen 
from the inside. 

2, palatine. 13, suboperculum. 

7, quadrate. 14, operculum. 

8, metapterygoid. 40, interoperculum. 

9, symplectic. 71, mesopterygoid. 

10, hyomandibular. 80, pterygoid. 

11, preoperculum. 

Plate IX 
The mandible. 

1, premaxillaries, left from dorsal and right from ventral side. 

3, dentaries, left from dorsal and right from outer side. 

4, articulars, left from dorsal and right from outer side. 

5, maxillaries, left from dorsal and right from ventral side. 
12, angular, right from outer side. 

86, intra-articulars from dorsal side. 

Plate X 
The girdles. 

6, postclavicles ; lower part, left from inside, right from out- 

side. 
15, hypercoracoid ; left from inside, right from outside. 

28, supraclavicles ; left from inside, right from outside. 

29, pectoral rays ; left from inside, right from outside. 

30, hypocoracoid ; left from inside, right from outside. 

31, actinosts; left from inside, right from outside. 

32, pelvic girdle; from dorsal side. 

33, pelvic rays; from dorsal side. 

62, clavicles; left from inside, right from outside. 

77, postclavicle ; upper part, left from inside, right from outside. 



54 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



Plate XI 

Anterior and median abdominal vertebrae. 
43, neural spine. 97, 

46, transverse process. 

47, transverse process. 98, 
49, transverse process. 

70, atlas. 99, 

87, axis. 

88, 5th vertebra. 100, 

89, 6th vertebra. 

90, 7th vertebra. 101, 

91, 20th vertebra. 

92, 21st vertebra. 126, 

93, 22d vertebra. 

94, vertebra, the last but 127, 

seven. 128, 

95, vertebra, the last but 134, 

six. 135, 

96, vertebra, the last but 

five. 



centrum of vertebra, the 7th 
bearing No. 90. 

centrum of vertebra, the 20th 
bearing No. 91. 

centrum of vertebra, the 22d 
bearing No. 93. 

centrum of vertebra, the last 
but seven bearing No. 94. 

centrum of vertebra, the last 
but five bearing No. 96. 

neural arch of vertebra, bear- 
ing Nos. 87, 88, and 94. 

prezygapophyses. 

postzygapophyses. 

anterior ventral process. 

posterior ventral process. 



Plate XII 



Fig. 1. Caudal vertebrae and hypurals. 



34, hypural vertebra. 

51, neural spine. 

52, haemal spine. 

53, hypural. 

60, anterodorsal spine of 

hypural. 
102, hypural. 
2. Ribs. 

59, ventral of double 
ribs. 

61, dorsal of double ribs. 

104, upper double rib ; the 

13th. 

105, lower double rib; the 

13th. 

106, upper double rib; the 

14th. 



103, hypural. 

124, upper anterior part of hypural. 

129, last vertebra but four. 

130, last vertebra but three. 

131, last vertebra but two. 

132, last vertebra but one. 



107, lower double rib ; the 14th. 

108, upper double rib; the 15th. 

109, lower double rib; the 15th, 

110, rib; the 25th. 

111, rib; the 26th. 

112, rib; the 39th. 

113, rib; the 40th. 

114, rib; the 41st. 



Plate XIII 



Hyoid apparatus. 

19, ceratohyals, from 

outside. 

20, epihyals, from out- 

side. 

21, interhyals, from out- 

side. 



22, branchiostegals, from outside. 
68, urohyal, from ventral side. 
84, hypohyals, from outside. 



IX, D. J 



Day: Ophiocephalus striatus 



55 



Plate XIV 



Interneural spines and dorsal rays and interhaemal spines and anal rays. 

44, interneural spine, an- 117, 19th and 20th interhaemal spines. 



terior abdominal. 
45, dorsal rays. 

57, interhaemal spine. 

58, anal rays. 

82, interneural spines. 
116, second dorsal ray, 
from left side. 



118, 3d anal ray. 

119, 24th ray of anal fin. 

120, 4th to 11th anal rays. 

121, 6th ray of dorsal fin, from pos- 

terior end. 



Plate XV 



Branchial arches, articulated. 
17, basibranchials. 

19, ceratohyal. 

20, epihyal. 

21, interhyal. 

22, branchiostegals. 

23, upper or superior 

pharyngeals. 

24, hypobranchials. 



25, lower or inferior pharyngeals. 

64, epibranchials. 

74, epibranchials, modified of 1st 

branchial arch. 
84, hypohyal. 
133, patches of cardiform teeth on 

branchial arches. 



Plate XVI 



Branchial arches, disarticulated. 
17, basibranchials. 

23, upper, or superior 

pharyngeals. 

24, hypobranchials. 

25, lower or inferior 

pharyngeals. 



63, ceratobranchials. 

64, epibranchials. 

65, glossohyal, central, more solid 

portion. 
74, epibranchial, modified of 1st 
branchial arch. 



text figures 

Fig. 1. Caudal vertebra, the last but 2 (131), anterior view. 

2. Atlas (70) ; axis (87) ; 3d, 4th, and 5th vertebrae; interneural 

spines; dorsal rays; and anterior dorsal radials (85 and 115). 

3. Hypohyals (84), ceratohyals (19), epihyals (20), and branchios- 

tegal rays (22). "Teeth" are found on some of the rays. 

4. Urohyal (68), anterior view. 

5. Dorsal ray, interneural spine, and ray, interhaemal spine, and carti- 

laginous nodules. The nodules are seen between the rays and 
spines. 

6. Glossohyal (65) ; basibranchials (17) of the 1st, 2d, and 3d bran- 

chial arches from the left side; the basibranchial of the 2d arch 
in detail. 

7. Glossohyal (65), dorsal view, showing the more solid central 

portion. 




I- 
< 







< 

-I 

Q. 



Day: Ophiocephalus striatus.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., IX, D, No. 1. 




PLATE II. THE TOP OF THE SKULL FROM THE DORSAL SIDE. 







3 



< 

_J 

O 

I- 

< 



< 

Q. 



Day: Ophiocephalus striatus.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., IX, D, No. 1. 




Fig. 1. Posterior portion of disarticulated skuli. 




Fig. 2. Top of skull from the right side. 
PLATE IV. 



Day: Ophiocrphalus striatus.1 



[Phil. Journ. Scl, IX, D, No. 1. 




Fig. 1. Ventral side of top of skull. 




Fig. 2. Posterior view of top of skull. 
PLATE V. 



Day: Ophiocephalus striatus.1 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., IX, D, No. 1. 




Fig. 1. Right side of skull with suspensorium and jaws removed. 




Fig. 2. Orbitals. 
PLATE VI. 



55 




O 
DC 
U 
Q. 
O 

oc 
o 



Q. 
CO 



> 
UJ 

I- 
< 

-J 

Q. 



X 




< 

Q. 



0. 
O 

s 

QC 
O 







UJ 

-J 
m 

Q 

z 
< 

UJ 

I 
»- 



< 

Q. 



Q 








QQ 



O 
Q 

m 

< 



< 

Q 
UJ 

Q 
Z 
< 

O 

(T 
UJ 

Z 
< 



< 



Day: Ophiocephalus striatus.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sri., IX, D, No. l. 






Fig. 1. Caudal vertebrae and hypurals. 



or "7 i.i 






Fig. 2. Ribs. 
PLATE XII. 




D 

< 

< 
Q. 
Q. 



O 

>- 
X 



< 
Q. 



PL, 




>- 
< 



< 

Q 



< 



>- 
< 
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Q. 



NOTE ON THE OCCURRENCE OF A FLYING CRUSTACEAN IN 
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

By Dean C. Worcester 
{Manila f P. L) 

While fishing along the base of a limestone cliff in Bacuit Bay, 
Palawan, during the month of December, 1912, I saw close to 
my launch what I at first mistook for a peculiarly formed flying 
fish of some species which I had never previously observed. It 
was translucent, rose from the water somewhat sharply, and 
**flew" not more than two or three rods before dropping into 
the water again. 

The more I pondered on what I had seen the more it seemed 
to me that the creature could not be a fish. It had looked more 
like a crayfish or shrimp, with one or two pairs of much flat- 
tened legs directed forward and others curving backward, the 
legs and the lobes of the tail making the supporting planes. 

On the evening of August 15, 1913, when trolling off the edge 
of the shoal extending in a southeasterly direction from East 
Island near the coast of Palawan, I again saw the same sort of 
a creature, and this time there was no mistaking it. It rose 
close to the boat, mounted into the air rapidly, then held a level 
course for a short distance, and dropped suddenly into the water 
again. It was unquestionably a very transparent crustacean, 
from 15 to 20 centimeters in length. 

On the morning of August 17, when trolling off the shoal on 
the north side of Lumbucan Island, I saw a third specimen, and 
later in Malampaya Sound I saw a fourth. At this place Mr. 
W. Schultze, of the Bureau of Science, also saw one, and there 
remains no doubt of the existence in the Philippines of a marine 
crustacean, from 15 to 25 centimeters in length, which has the 
power of rising rapidly from the water and "flying,'* after 
the fashion of a flying fish, for several rods. 

The specimens observed by me invariably rose against the 
wind. 

57 



FISHES OF HONGKONG 

By Alvin Seale 

(From the Section of Ichthyology, Biological Laboratory, Bureau of 
Science, Manila, P. I.) 

Two plates 

The following notes are based on a collection of fishes secured 
by me from the markets in Hongkong during the month of Au- 
gust, 1910. The native names of the fishes are copied from the 
Hongkong Official Market Report of April 28, 1910. With but 
few exceptions the species here listed are used as food by the 
people of Hongkong. 

The measurements given are: 1, length of head in length of 
fish without caudal; 2, greatest depth in length to last caudal 
vertebra ; 3, length of head, exclusive of opercular flap, in length 
of fish without caudal. The scale count is from head to last 
caudal vertebra; total length is taken from tip of snout to tip 
of caudal fin. The numerals given at the end of each description 
are the numbers of the specimens in the collection of the Bureau 
of Science, Manila. 

ENGRAULID^. (Anchovies) 

Anchovia dussumieri Cuv. and Val. 

This species is characterized by the elongate posterior exten- 
sion of the maxillary which ends on a line with the anterior 
third of the ventral fins. (6398.) 

Anchovia indica (Van Hasselt). 
Engraulis russelli Gunther. 
Dorsal, 15; anal, 19; length, 5.5 to end of vertebra; 3 or 4 
elongate spines on belly in front of ventrals. (6393, 6394, 6397, 
6399, 6400, 6401, 6402, 6403, 6404, 6405, 6407.) 

SYNODONTID^. (Lizard fishes) 

Trachinocephalus myops (Forster). 

One specimen. (6595.) 

Synodus japonicus (Houttuyn). 

(6573, 6590, 6592, 6615, 6653, 6665.) 

59 



60 The Philippine Journal of Science isu 

CYFRINID^. (Carp, li yu) 

Cyprinus carpio (Linn.). 

Six specimens of the common carp were secured. This fish 
is extensively cultivated in Canton and brought alive to the 
Hongkong markets where it is kept in large fresh-water tanks. 
The Chinese seem to be very fond of the soft flesh of this species 
(6472, 6538, 6539, 6540, 6542, 6547). 

SILURID^. (Catfishes, chik yu) 

Ariiis falcarius Richardson. 

Three specimens; length, 150 to 160 millimeters. (6587, 6627, 
6659.) 

PLOTOSID^. (Naked catfishes) 

Plotosus arab (ForskM). 

Seven specimens. Color brown with 2 longitudinal white 
bands. Length, 50 to 200 millimeters. (6570, 6591, 6597, 6617, 
6619, 6628, 6825.) 

BELONID^. (Gar fishes, fa paw poong) 

Tylosurus caudimaculatus (Cuvier). 

Head, 2.90 to end of caudal vertebra ; snout, 4.30 ; eye slightly 
less than the interorbital space; dorsal, 14; anal, 17. (6475.) 

EXOCCETID^. (Flying fishes) 

Cypsilurus simus (Cuv. and Val.). 

Dorsal, 12; anal, 8; ventrals reaching middle of anal base; 
pectorals uniform dark blue, neither banded nor spotted. (6529, 
6534, 6545.) 

Hemiramphus cantoris Bleeker. (Half beak) 

Head, 2.3 to end of caudal vertebra; snout beyond end of upper 
jaw, 2.25 in length; eye slightly less than interorbital space; 
dorsal, 15; anal, 14; upper lobe of caudal strongly tipped with 
black, lower lobe yellowish. Length, 195 to 225 millimeters, 
(6473, 6487, 6514, 6517, 6525, 6537.) 

ATHERINID^. (Silversides) 
Atherina forskilii Riippell. 

Length, 51 to 60 millimeters. (7687, 7688.) 
Atherina bleekeri Giinther. 

Length, 65 millimeters. (6406.) 



IX, D, 1 Scale: Fishes of Hongkong 61 

MUGILID^. (Mullets, chal yu) 

Mugil longimanus Gunther. 

Scales, 32-12 ; dorsal, IV, 8 ; anal. III, 9. A dark spot in axil 
of pectorals ; tip of caudal dusky ; tip of soft dorsal dusky ; max- 
illary completely hidden; adipose eyelid well developed; origin 
of dorsal over the anterior third of anal ; pectorals equal to length 
of head ; origin of spinous dorsal midway between end of caudal 
vertebra and origin of ventrals. (6270, 6273, 6274, 6276, 6278, 
6279, 6282, 6283, 6284, 6286.) 

Mugil cephalus Linn. (Striped mullet.) 

Mugil oeur ForskAl. 

Mugil macrolipidotus Richardson. 

Dorsal, IV, 8; anal. III, 8; scales, 38-40; head, 3.90; depth, 
4; eye about equal to snout; a dusky stripe on center of each 
series of scales on upper half of body; a large dusky blotch on 
base of pectorals, adipose eyelid present and covering all of eye 
except pupil. Maxillary hidden except at tip. (6280, 6285.) 

Mugil planiceps Cuv. and Val. 

Greenish brown above, each series of scales with a darker 
line; pectorals short, equal to length from center of eye to 
posterior margin of opercles ; adipose eyelid narrow, of greatest 
width posteriorly, scarcely covering half of iris ; no spot in axil 
of pectorals; maxillary showing at tip. (6281.) 

SPHYR.3ENID.E. (Barracudas) 

Sphyrsena obtusata Cuv. and Val. 

Head, 3; depth, 6; eye, 5.5; opercle ending in a single point. 
Length, 120 to 375 millimeters. (6452, 6492, 6496, 6498, 6507.) 

Sphyraena jello Cuv. and Val. (Banded barracuda.) 

One specimen, length, 175 millimeters. This species is charac- 
terized by the 16 dark bands over the back, the very small 
scales, and the 2 points on the opercle. (6448.) 

POLYNEMID^. (Threadfins) 

Polydactylus tetradactylus Shaw. 

Four pectoral appendages ; tip of dorsal black ; pectorals usually 
with a grayish wash. (6341, 6360, 6361, 6362, 6364.) 



62 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Polydactylus plebeius (Broussonet). 

Young with 5 pectoral appendages, some of them of greater 
length than the pectorals; a black spot above origin of lateral 
line; tip of dorsals dusky; caudal lobes elongate, grayish at 
tip. (6368.) 

FISTULARIID^. (Cornet fishes) 
Fistularia serrata Cuv. 

Two specimens were secured, length, 320 and 410 millimeters, 
respectively ; a young, probably of this species, has the scutes less 
developed, and is also characterized by some darker bars over 
the back. (6494, 6530.) 

HOLOCENTRID^. (Soldier fishes) 
Holocentrus ruber Lacepede. 

This beautiful species is very common in Hongkong. Length, 
160 to 210 millimeters. (6395, 6396.) 

SCOMBRID^. (Mackerels, chi yu) 
Scomberomorus guttatum (Bloch) . 

This is one of the best flavored fishes of the Hongkong market. 
Length, 223 millimeters. (7757.) 

CARANGID^. (Cavallas) 
Trachums trachurus Linn. 

This species is characterized by the plates which extend the 
entire length of the lateral line ; opercular spot, black. Length, 
135 to 137 millimeters. (7759, 7765.) 
Scomberoides lysan (Forsk&l). 

Length, 130 millimeters. (7769.) 
Caranx ophthalmotsenia (Bleeker). 

Length, 75 to 120 millimeters. (7760, 7766, 7770, 7771.) 
Caranx malabaricus (Bloch and Sch.). 

Length, 120 millimeters. (7764.) 
Caranx boops Cuv. and Val. 

Length, 80 to 90 millimeters. (7763, 7772.) 
Caranx calla Cuv. and Val. 

Length, 150 millimeters. (7762.) 
Caranx djeddaba (Forskal). 

Length, 200 millimeters. (7761.) 



ix,D.i Seale: Fishes of Hongkong 63 

STROMATEID^. (Butterfishes) 

Stromateus niger Bloch. (Black pomfret, hak chong.) 

The dorsal and anal rays are elongate and extend to a line 
with base of caudal; the ventrals extend to origin of anal. In 
specimens 10 centimeters in length, the ventrals and dorsal are 
considerably shorter and there is but a slight trace of a keel on 
the caudal peduncle. The very young are marked with indistinct 
dusky bands, and there is a dusky spot at the base of each lobe 
of caudal. (5405, 6289, 6291, 6299, 6315, 6317, 6318.) 

Stromateus argenteus Bloch. (White pomfret, pak chong.) 

Young. — No ventrals; no spines before dorsal or anal, the 
lobe of caudal not elongate, color white. (6311, 6312, 6320.) 

EQUULID^. (Slip mouths) 

Equula insidiator (Bloch). 

Length, 90 to 107 millimeters. Ten specimens. (6575, 6586, 
6621, 6636, 6638, 6639, 6642, 6657, 6663, 6672.) 

Equula ruconia (Hamilton-Buchanan) . 

One specimen, length, 56 millimeters. (6676.) 
Leiognathus edwardsi Evermann and Seale. 

Length, 60 to 170 millimeters. (6558, 6582, 6601, 6631, 6632, 
6637, 6658, 6669, 6670.) 

Leiognathus virgatus Fowler. 

Length, 60 to 67 millimeters. (6551, 6584, 6645, 6655, 6673.) 

Leiognathus daura (Cuvier). 

Tip of snout and a portion of nape, dark. Length, 90 to 95 
millimeters. (6565, 6599, 6662, 7394.) 

APOGONICHTHYID^. (Cardinal fishes) 

Amia elizabethae Jordan and Seale. 
Length, 42 millimeters. (6335.) 

Amia bifasciata (Riippell). (Yang sun ko.) 
Amia trimaculatus Richardson. 
Yellowish with a dusky vertical strip from the origin of 
spinous dorsal downward, another from the anterior portion of 
soft dorsal; a round spot at base of caudal; ventrals dusky; 
dorsal, caudal, and anal grayish. (6287, 6288, 6295, 6307, 
6308.) 



64 The Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

Amia marginatus Doderlein. 

Color in alcohol yellowish ; top of head and nuchal region with 
fine black specks; top of dorsals black, a black band through 
middle of soft dorsal; tips of anal and caudal dusky. (6290, 
6294, 6302, 6348.) 

Amia doderleini Jordan and Snyder. 

Color in alcohol yellowish; a blackish stripe from snout 
through eye to the round distinct caudal spot ; a dark line from 
above eye to near the upper margin of the caudal spot, another 
from subopercle to just below the caudal spot, another (fre- 
quently obliterated) on sides of belly, and another (often oblit- 
erated) along the base of the dorsal fins; a black line through 
bases of anal and soft dorsal; tips of caudal, soft dorsal, and 
anal grayish. (6266, 6292, 6298.) 

Amia semilineatus (Schlegel). 

Color in alcohol yellowish white; a jet black caudal spot; 
a black line from tip of snout through eye to posterior margin 
of opercle, another from snout over interorbital space to below 
origin of soft dorsal, and a third on median line of nuchal 
region; tip of spinous dorsal black. (6304.) 

Amia lineatns (Schlegel). 

Color in alcohol yellowish white, with a silvery wash on sides; 
about 11 or 12 vertical dark bars on each side, scarcely as wide 
as interspaces; tip of spinous dorsal and tip of caudal grayish. 
(6345, 6353.) 

Amia kiensis Jordan and Snyder. 

This is undoubtedly the species discovered and figured by 
Jordan and Snyder, but I suspect that it is A. frsenata of Valen- 
ciennes; it is most certainly the species figured by Day as A, 
frsenata. All of our specimens are without the caudal spot, 
the dark line from tip of snout extends to tip of caudal, the 
second dusky line is from tip of snout above eye to upper 
margin of caudal peduncle; the most persistent marking in all 
ages is the dusky tip to ventrals which is present in all speci- 
mens. There is a dark line through base of anal and soft dorsal. 
(6296, 6297, 6300, 6301, 6310, 6325, 6327, 6328, 6329, 6333, 
6334, 6336, 6338, 6339, 6340, 6343, 6351, 6354, 6357, 6359.) 



ix.D,i Seale: Fishes of Hongkong 65 

AMBASSID^. (Wharf fishes) 

Priopis urotaenia (Bleeker). 

Color yellowish white; a silver stripe from head to caudal; 
membrane between 2d and 3d dorsal spines dusky; 2 rows of 
scales on cheeks. (6323, 6324, 6326, 6330, 6331, 6332, 6337, 
6342, 6346, 6347, 6352, 6355, 6356.) 

SERRANID^. (Garoupa, sek pan) 

Cephalopholis boenack (Bloch). 

One specimen, length, 180 millimeters. (7776.) 
Epinephelus moara (Schlegel). 

This species is characterized by the 7 bands of dark brown 
over the back, the 2 or 3 anterior ones extending forward on to 
the head. This fish is well figured by Jordan and Seale.^ Fif- 
teen specimens. (7712, 7722, 7724, 7725, 7780, 7781, 7790.) 

Epinephelus septemfasciatus Thunb. 

Thirteen specimens of this species were secured. Length, 60 
to 210 millimeters. This species is characterized by the 8 black 
vertical bands over the body; there are some enlarged teeth 
at the angle of the preopercle. (7778, 7779, 7782, 7783, 7791- 
7799.) 

Epinephelus boenack (Bloch) . 

One specimen, this fish resembles somewhat E. septemfasciatits, 
but it has less distinct bands on the sides and the preopercular 
angle is distinctly rounded, with the teeth scarcely enlarged 
at angle. Length, 120 millimeters. (1784.) 

Epinephelus merra Bloch. 

This is a food fish of considerable importance in Hongkong. 
One specimen, length, 176 millimeters. (7715.) 

Epinephelus dermopterus (Temm. and Schleg.). 

Head, 3; depth, 2.55; eye slightly less than interorbital, 5 in 
head; snout slightly longer than diameter of eye; maxillary ex- 
tending to a line with anterior margin of pupil ; posterior margin 
of preopercle almost straight, some enlarged teeth at angle. 

Dorsal, XI, 21; anal, IH, 10; about 135 rows of scales from 
head to end of caudal vertebra; caudal rounded, body covered 

^Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci, (1905), 10, PI. 5. 

123716 5 



66 The Philippiyie Journal of Science 1914 

with minute ctenoid scales ; teeth in 2 or more rows ; 2 enlarged 
curved canines anteriorly. 

Color uniform brown, fins all darker, being almost black pos- 
teriorly; length, 111 to 185 millimeters. (7756, 7757.) 

Epinephelns gilberti Richardson. 

Color yellowish brown, with round darker brown spots the 
size of pulpil, over body. Two specimens, length, 235 to 270 
millimeters. (7795, 7797.) 

LUTIANID^. (Snapper, lap yu) 

Lutianus annularis (Cuv. and Val.). 

Luiianus erythropterus Day. 

This species is distinguished by the black stripe from snout 
to origin of dorsal; the black saddle over the caudal peduncle 
bordered anteriorly and posteriorly with white; dark lines on 
body; ventrals tipped with black. Six specimens, length, 75 
to 120 millimeters. (7704, 7705, 7706, 7707, 7708, 7709.) 

Lutianus monostigma (Cuv. and Val.). 

One specimen, length, 104 millimeters. (7753.) 
Lutianus erythropterus Bloch. 

This species resembles L. vitta, but is without the dark line 
on sides. Length, 67 to 180 millimeters. (7732, 7748, 7749, 
7752, 7754, 7755.) 

Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch). 

Length, 98 to 115 millimeters. (7750, 7751.) 
Diploprion bifasciatum (Kuhl and Van Hasselt) . 

This species is characterized by the 2 broad black bands which 
are very distinct even in alcoholic specimens. Length, 185 to 
190 millimeters. (7773, 7774.) 

THERAPONID^. (Grunts) 

Scolopsis vosmeri Bleeker. 

This species is easily distinguished by the silvery white saddle 
over the neck and the black spot in upper axil of pectorals. 
Length, 140 millimeters. (7726.) 

Therapon cuvieri (Bleeker). 

Six specimens, length, 105 to 127 millimeters. The dark 
stripes terminate at the caudal, the markings below the median 
line of the side are almost obliterated. (7728, 7730, 7731, 7734, 
7736, 7737.) 



IX.D, 1 Seale: Fishes of Hongkong 67 

Therapon theraps (Cuv. and VaL). 

Four small specimens, length, 95 to 105 millimeters. A com- 
mon food fish of Hongkong. (7727, 7729, 7733, 7735.) 

Therapon jarbua (Forskal). 

Length, 51 to 72 millimeters. (7679, 7680, 7681, 7682, 7683, 
7684, 7685.) 

H^MULID^ 

Prlstapoma hast a Bloch. 

Six young specimens (6562, 6671, 7689, 7690, 7691, 7692) 
have the bands over the back; length, 65 millimeters. In the 
large specimen (7697) these bands are broken up into black 
spots; length, 170 millimeters. 

SPARID^. (Porgies) 

Lethrinus mahsenoides Ehrenberg. 

All of these specimens show the round black spots below the 
lateral line above the middle of pectorals. Length, 100 to 120 
millimeters. (7693, 7694, 7695, 7696.) 

Spams datnia (Hamilton). 

A food fish of importance. Length, 100 to 115 millimeters. 
(7744, 7746, 7747.) 

Sparus berda Forskal. 

Length, 110 to 142 millimeters. (7738, 7739, 7740, 7741, 7742, 
7743, 7745.) 

GERRID^. (Moj arras) 

Xystaema punctatum (Cuv. and Val). 

Length, 67 to 100 millimeters. (6564, 6572, 6667.) 

MULLID^. (Surmullets) . 

Upeneus displurus Playfair. 

Color yellowish, with a slight brownish wash above. A yellow 
stripe from eye to below second dorsal, a second yellow stripe 
from upper lip through lower border of eye to below second dor- 
sal; these give the appearance of a brown stripe to the area 
between the two yellow lines ; a yellow saddle over free portion 
of tail, a brown stripe down sides of snout. In old specimens the 
first dorsal is clouded with brown and the second dorsal and 
the anal are indistinctly barred with pale brown; in young 
specimens the fin markings are indistinct. (6444, 6457, 648S, 
6506, 6512, 6513.) 



68 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

XJpeneus bensasi (Temm. and Schleg.)- 

No yellow band on sides (in alcohol), the dorsal with dusky 
bands; teeth of vomer very distinct — ^those of the palatine in 
an interrupted band. (6429, 6442.) 

Upeneoides sulphureus (Cuv. and Val.). 

One specimen. (6244.) 
Upeneoides moluccensis Bleeker. 

Head, 3.75; depth, 3.5; eye, 3.75; snout, 2.60; interorbital, 
3.50 ; depth of caudal peduncle, 2.75 ; scales, 34 to end of caudal 
vertebra; villiform teeth in jaws, vomer, and palatines; dorsal, 
VIII, 1, 8; anal, 1, 6. The palatine teeth form a continuous 
band on each side ; the vomerine teeth consist of a minute patch 
on the head of the vomer, easily overlooked. Length of the 
spinous dorsal is 1.20 in the depth of the fish. Color in alcohol 
pale yellowish brown above, yellow below, a bright orange band 
from eye to caudal; spinous dorsal, soft dorsal, and upper lobe 
of caudal with about 4 cross bars; tip of spinous dorsal dusky. 
It is probable that U, moluccensis Bleeker will be found to be 
synonymous with U. bensasi Temminck and Schlegel as these 
specimens partake of the characters ascribed to each of these 
species, with a predominance of those ascribed to U. moluccensis. 
(6420, 6423, 6425, 6431, 6436, 6441, 6445, 6458, 6460, 6488, 
6526.) 

Upeneoides tragula (Richardson). 

This fish is known to the Chinese as yang tswan or yeung tsun. 
It is a common food fish in the Hongkong market. The color 
is yellowish white with a dusky stripe along the middle of side 
from eye to caudal. The body is thickly dotted with small 
brownish spots. The caudal has 4 oblique dusky bars. The 
dorsal fins are marked with blackish. Length, 20 centimeters. 
(6440.) 

SCIu^NID^. (Croakers) 

Sciaena diacanthus (Lacepede). 

Corvina catalea Richardson. 

Dorsal, IX, I, 20; anal, II, 7; scales about 52 in lateral line. 
Color in alcohol grayish yellow, dark spots on back and sides, 
pectorals and anal dark, remaining fins spotted, caudal very 
acute; teeth of upper jaw rather large, teeth of lower jaw 
large, upper jaw overhanging. Length, 50 to 70 millimeters. 
(6344, 6358, 6426, 6428, 6491, 6516, 7710.) 



ix,D. 1 Seale: Fishes of Hongkong 69 

Scisena aneus Bloch. 

Length, 60 to 125 millimeters. (6349, 6350, 6415, 6456, 6461, 
6467, 6481, 6490, 6497, 6520, 6544, 6674.) 

Sciaenoides biauritus Cantor. 

Length, 150 to 165 millimeters. (6421, 6476.) 

SILLAGINID^. (Whitings) 

Sillago sihama (Forskal). 

One specimen, length, 165 milHmeters. (6480.) 
Sillago maculata Quoy and Gaimard. 

Two specimens, length, 141 to 165 centimeters. (6471, 6532.) 

CEPOLID^. (Bandfishes) 

Acanthocepola krusensternii (Temm. and Schleg.). 

A narrow dark margin on anal and posterior portion of dorsal. 
Length, 130 to 140 millimeters. (6550, 6583, 6596, 6661, 7387, 
7389.) 

CIRRHITID^. (Sea goldfishes) 

Cirrhitities aureus (Temm. and Schleg.). 

When alive these fish were golden in color, but in alcohol 5 or 
more very indistinct dusky vertical bands are visible on the 
body. It is probable that C. oxycephalus of Bleeker and C 
aureus Temminck and Schlegel are the some species. These 
specimens have teeth on vomer and palatine. One specimen 
has the first dorsal ray prolonged into a filament. (6585, 8654.) 

LABRID.gE. (Wrasse fishes, wong fa yu) 

Duymaeria flagellifera Cuv. and Val. 

Duymasria aurigaria Gunther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. (1862), 4, 121. 
Duymxria flagellifera Jordan and Snyder, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 
(1902), 24, 623. 

This species exhibits a large variety of color patterns, and 
shows great diversity in the length of the dorsal filaments. All 
of our specimens show the black tip to opercle. (6563, 6567, 
6569, 6600, 6609, 6641, 6651.) 

Thalassoma lunare (Linn.). 

Characterized by the longitudinal purple bar extending on to 
the 4th to 8th pectoral rays. (6610.) 



70 The Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

Stethojulis kalosoma Bleeker. 

Color dull yellowish, lighter below; a dark, white-margined 
stripe from slightly below eye to a line with origin of soft dorsal 
fin; each scale on the lower posterior portion of body with a 
round brown spot; no spot on caudal or dorsal. (6635.) 

Halichoeres dussumieri (Cuv. and Val.). 

Julis exomatus Richardson, Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1845 

(1846), 258. 
Halichceres nigrescens Bleeker. 

(6568, 6578, 6584, 6605, 6614, 6647, 6652.) 
Halichoeres javanicus Bleeker. 

Color in alcohol yellowish, with 6 irregular purplish bands 
over the back, these being made up of purplish spots; dorsal 
with yellowish rings; anal with yellowish rings, almost obliter- 
ated in one specimen and entirely faded out in another; head 
with yellowish violet specks; a blue spot behind orbit and in 
axil of pectorals. (6580, 6589, 6626.) 

Halichoeres poecilopterus (Schlegel). 

One specimen, length, 170 millimeters. (6648.) 
Choerops ommopterus Richardson. 

Dorsal spines, 12; scales of lateral line, 30; color in alcohol 
dull greenish, almost all the scales on the side showing a short 
vertical blue mark; on the caudal peduncle the blue marks are 
longitudinal instead of vertical, these form a'bciut 5 blue stripes 
on each side of the caudal peduncle; a blue stripe from angle 
of mouth to margin of opercle ; a blue circle on base of pectoral ; 
a darker line from eye along sides of snout to upper jaw; some 
blue lines on upper opercle; a jet-black spot below the base 
of the last dorsal spines. No yellowish area behind this spot 
as in C. schoenlieni Bleeker. Anal fin with blue lines and spots ; 
ventrals yellowish, with slight markings of blue; none of the 
fins elongate. Length, 22 centimeters. (6571.) 

SCARICHTHYID.E. (Parrot fishes, kai kung yu) 

Callyodon limbatus (Richardson) . 
(6555, 6556, 6557, 6558, 6559.) 

Callyodon dubius Bennett. 

Pseudoscarus aeruginosa Gunther. 
Color in alcohol pale greenish brown, 3 white stripes on sides 
of belly; lips wide, 3 rows of scales on cheeks, the lowest row 
of 2 scales. (6603, 6611.) 



IX, D, 1 Seale: Fishes of Hongkong 71 

EPHIPPID^. (Indian spade fishes, ying kung) 

Ephippus orbis (Bloch). 

Color yellowish with round blackish spots, usually larger than 
eye. The young have a dark ocular band, with the addition 
of a second dusky band on the shoulders. (6303, 6306, 6316, 
6322.) 

DREPANIDuE. (Spade fishes) 

Drepane punctata (Gmelin). (Ke lung tsang.) 

Drepana punctata Gunther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. (1860), 2, 62; 
Richardson, Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1845 (1846), 244, 

One specimen. (6277.) 

CH^TODONTID^. (Butterfly fishes) 

Chaetodon aureus Temm. and Schleg. 

Ocular band about equal in width to eye and with a broad 
yellowish white area in front and back of eye; ventrals yellow; 
the brownish lines on the rows of scales are almost longitudinal, 
except on shoulders where they are decidedly oblique ; the caudal 
has a terminal margin of white and a narrow black line at a 
short distance from the margin. To this species belong C 
collaris Jordan and Fowler ^ and C. aureus Gunther both of which 
are from Japan. Evidently Richardson suspected that C aureus 
Temminck and Schlegel and C. collaris Bloch might be the same, 
for he says that, "they agree tolerably well,*' which makes it 
certain they did not agree fully ; therefore, he was not warranted 
in uniting them. 

Chxtodon reticulatus Cuvier and Valenciennes is quite distinct 
from both C, aureus Temminck and Schlegel and C. collaris Bloch, 
and is characterized by the broad black ocular band, which in 
most of its length is of much greater width than the eye; the 
lower portion of the ocular band extends backward to the origin 
of the ventrals and covers a large part of the thorax ; the ventrals 
are yellow; the caudal has a very narrow margin of white with 
2 black intermarginal lines separated by a yellow band ; the base 
of caudal is jet black. Chxtodon prMextatus Cantor seems to 
be a valid species most nearly related to C. collaris of Bloch, 
being characterized by the dusky ventrals, wide ocular band, 
and black tip to the opercles; Gunther, who has specimens of 
both C. prsetextatus and (7. collaris, regards them as being 
different. 

'Proc. U. S. Nat Mus. (1902), 25, 534. 



72 The Philippine Journal of Science i^u 

Cheetodon collaris Bloch. 

Chastodon collaris Day, Fishes of India, Atlas (1878), PL 27, fig. 6; 
Sleeker, Atlas Ichth. (1877), 9, PL 23, fig. 2; Gunther, Cat. 
Fishes Brit. Mus. (1860), 2, 21; Jordan and Evermann, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus. (1903), 25, 356. 

This species, which is without doubt C. collaris of Day, of 
Bleeker, and of Gunther, is characterized by the dark ventrals, 
comparative narrow ocular band which does not extend to the 
origin of the ventrals, and the color of caudal which is broadly 
margined with white with a broad black bar near its center. 
Chsetodon collans Giinther ^ is possibly a variety of C. reticulatus 
Cuvier and Valenciennes with the black ocular band extending 
backward on the thorax to the origin of the ventrals ; it certainly 
has but slight resemblance to Bloch's type of C collaris. The 
species described by Jordan and Evermann * is probably distinct 
and should be described as such. 

Chaetodon modestus Temm. and Schleg. 

Chsetodon desmotes Jordan and Fowler, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1902), 
25, 539. 

This species is related to C. rafflesii Bennett which is, however, 
probably a valid species. (6293.) 

Chaetodon bella-maris Scale, sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 1. 

Head, 3.10 in length without caudal; depth, 1.45; eye, 3.15 in 
head; snout slightly greater than diameter of eye; interorbital 
space slightly greater than snout; dorsal, XII, 23; anal. III, 21; 
lateral line strongly curved, ending at axil of soft dorsal, pores 
46 ; scales in 34 series between head and end of caudal vertebra, 
23 in a vertical series; head covered with fine scales; mouth 
small; teeth setiform; gill rakers low and pointed, about 17 on 
lower arch; spinous dorsal fitting into a scaled sheath at base, 
the 4th, 5th, and 6th spines the longest; soft dorsal rounded, 
no rays prolonged, length of longest ray but slightly less than 
head; caudal 1.35 in head, its margin almost straight; anal 
similar to soft dorsal; ventrals equal to length of head without 
opercular flap; a large axillary scale; pectorals equal to head 
with opercular flap. 

Color in life yellowish, a black ocular band which is slightly 
greater than width of eye above the eye and slightly less than 
width of eye below; this band is continuous above, and extends 
to margin of subopercular below the eye; the band is margined 

• Giinther, Fische der Sudsee (1873-75), Heft II, Taf. 31 A. 

* Jordan and Evermann, Proc, U. S. Nat. Mus. (1903), 25, 356. 



ix,D, 1 Scale: Fishes of Hongkong 73 

anteriorly and posteriorly with white; snout yellow; the tip of 
upper jaw black; a large black wedge-shaped mark on shoulder 
from spinous dorsal to the white border of the ocular band ; this 
black area has a narrow prong of black extending from its pos- 
terior margin to upper tip of opercle ; a narrow black margin to 
dorsal; a wide submarginal black band on posterior half of 
caudal; tip of caudal white; 12 to 14 rather wide, indistinct, 
brownish lines extending obliquely forward and downward on 
rows of scales; anal yellowish, with a marginal brown band; 
ventrals and pectorals yellowish. 

This species is related to C, lunula Lac^pede (C. fasciatus 
Bleeker), but differs in lacking the second black area on the 
shoulders and the semilunar band of black on soft dorsal, our 
specimen being without any black on the caudal peduncle, which 
according to Gunther is present in C. lunula at all ages. 

Type is No. 6321, Bureau of Science collection, collected in 
the Hongkong market by Seale, 1910. 

Microcanthus strigatus (Cuv. and Val.). 

Microcanthus strigatus Cuv. AND Val., Hist. Pcis. (1831), 7, 25, PI. 
120; Gunther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. (1880), 11, 34; Jordan and 
Fowler, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1902), 25, 541. 

Color in alcohol yellowish with about 5 or 6 longitudinal, 
slightly inclined, brown stripes, about the width of the eye. 
Spinous dorsal blackish, stripes on body projected into anal fin, 
ventrals with dusky tip ; pectorals and caudal yellowish. (6313.) 

SIGANID^. (Siganids) 
Siganus oramin (Bloch and Schn.). 

Scattered white spots over body, caudal indistinctly barred, 
upper margin of eye serrated ; a distinct shoulder spot. Length, 
from 80 to 205 millimeters. (6417, 6442, 6446, 6451, 6482, 6483, 
6518, 6574, 6604, 6606, 6613, 6618, 6620, 6622, 7392.) 

MONACANTHID^. (File fishes, hih pe yang) 

Monacanthus chinensis (Bloch). 

Monacanthus chinensis Gunther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. (1870), 8, 
236; Richardson, Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1845 (1846), 201. 
(6566, 6634.) 

Monacanthus setifer Bennett. 

Monacanthus setifer Gunther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. (1870), 8, 239; 
Schlegel, Fauna Japonica (1842), 290, PI. 130, fig. 1 (good). 

Dorsal, 32 ; anal, 32. The second dorsal ray produced. Color 
in alcohol brown with obscure blackish spots or streaks. 



74 The Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

Monacanthus lineolatus Richardson. 

Color in alcohol dirty light brown with from 6 to 8 fine dark 
lines on the body from head to near caudal. A dark spot below 
anterior half of soft dorsal, a dark blotch on opercles, margin 
of ventral membrane black, caudal with 2 dusky bands. This 
species is well described by Richardson.^ (6629.) 

TETRAODONTID^. (Puffers) 

Spheroides spadiceus (Richardson). 

This fish is believed to be poisonous. (6366, 6367, 6370, 6373, 
6374, 6375, 6376, 6377, 6378, 6380, 6381, 6382, 6384, 6385.) 

ELEOTRID.^.^ (Eleotrids) 

Bostrychus sinensis (Lacepede). 

This species is very common in Hongkong. It is distinguished 
by the black ocellus on the upper base of the caudal rays. Length, 
110 to 150 millimeters. (6414, 6424, 6427, 6450, 6465.) 

Butis butis (Hamilton-Buchanan). 

Length, 117 millimeters. (6433.) 
Butis caperata Cantor. 

Distinguished from B, butis by the shorter head, shorter snout, 
and larger eye. Length, 65 millimeters. (6495.) 

GOBHD^. (Gobies) 

Boleophthalmns chinensis (Osbeck). 

Gobius pectinirostris Gmelin. 
Boleophthalmns boddaerti Schlegel. 

Length, 90 to 110 millimeters. (6410, 6413, 6454, 6466, 6468, 
6469.) 

Boleophthalmus glaucus Day. 

Length, 67 millimeters. (6531.) 
Rhinogobius hongkongensis Seale, sp. nov. Plate I, fig. 2. 

Head, 4; depth, 5.60 without caudal; eye, 3.1 in head; snout 
equal to eye; interorbital space a narrow ridge; dorsal, VI, 12; 
anal, 11; scales 25 to end of vertebra, 8| in a vertical series; 

• Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 1845 (1846), 201. 

•It seems advisable to advance the subfamily of Eleotrinse to the posi- 
tion of a family characterized by the separate ventrals, and thus in part 
separating the cumbersome family Gobiidae. 



ix.D, 1 Seale: Fishes of Hongkong 75 

no scales on cheeks or opercles, nape fully scaled to posterior 
margin of eyes, 10 series anterior of spinous dorsal; snout 
rounded, jaws equal; maxillary extending to anterior margin 
of eye, teeth of lower jaw small, sharp pointed, in several rows — 
the outer row being enlarged curved teeth resembling canines; 
an extra large recurved canine on each side, upper jaw with a 
single series of strong sharp teeth; tongue truncated or but 
slightly rounded ; gill openings wide, but not extending forward ; 
body fully scaled, the scales on posterior half of body somewhat 
larger ; no free silk-like rays at the origin of pectorals. 

Spinous dorsal with the 2d, 3d, and 4th rays longest; soft 
dorsal and anal similar in form and of about equal height, their 
posterior rays being about 1.50 in head. The origin of soft 
dorsal is on a line with anal pore; origin of anal below the 2d 
dorsal ray ; ventrals firmxly united for entire length, the basal cup 
deep, length of the fin equal to distance from nostril to posterior 
margin of opercle ; pectoral slightly greater than length of head ; 
caudal rounded, 1.20 in head. 

Color in alcohol pale wood brown with a series of about 14 
small, more or less complete, circles of darker brown (sepia) 
along the median line of sides, margin of scales on upper half 
of body also slightly shaded with sepia, 1 or 2 narrow lighter 
longitudinal lines above the row of median circles; a black line 
from posterior margin of eye to upper base of pectoral fin, 
4 or 5 blue spots on opercles and irregular brown blotch on 
cheeks below eye; 2 brownish blotches on base of pectoral; 
dorsals marked with about 4 longitudinal brownish lines; tip of 
spinous dorsal dusky ; anal shading into slaty gray on outer third ; 
caudal marked with whitish spots; pectorals and ventrals pale 
yellowish brown, the ventral with a slight grayish wash. 

Three specimens from Hongkong market, August 9, 1910. 
Type is No. 6474, Bureau of Science collection ; length, 70 centi- 
meters ; cotypes are Nos. 6489 and 6541. 

Gobius poecililicthys Jordan and Snyder. 

Dorsal, VI, 10; scales about 35, upper pectoral rays silk-like; 
tongue truncate. Length, 57 to 60 millimeters. (6408, 6523.) 

Glossogobius giuris (Hamilton-Buchanan). 

Length, 74 to 78 millimeters. (6409, 6463, 6477, 6504.) 

Oxyurichthus cristatus (Day). 

Length, 85 millimeters. (6484.) 



76 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Oxyurichthus amabalis Seale, sp. nov. Plate II, fig. 1. 

Head, 4 without caudal; depth, 6; eye, 4 in head; dorsal, VI, 
13; anal, 14; scales, 50; enlarged scales on posterior half of 
body; 21 scales in vertical series; snout 3.30 in head; interor- 
bital space a mere ridge; mouth large, the lower jaw slightly 
the longer; maxillary extending to below middle of eye; upper 
jaw with a single series of rather strong sharp teeth, lower jaw 
with a single row of similar but smaller teeth ; tongue rounded ; 
head naked except on the occiput which is finely scaled; no 
tentacles ; about 24 scales in front of dorsal ; anterior anal spine 
longest, 1.25 in head; soft dorsal and anal similar, origin of 
anal under 1st ray of soft dorsal; caudal long and acuminate, 
2.60 in length of fish without caudal; ventrals scarcely equal 
to length of head, their origin is anterior to the origin of dorsal, 
their tip scarcely reaching to anal pore; length of pectorals, 3.5 
in body without caudal; no silk-like rays. 

Color a very light brown, white on chin and thorax, fins with 
a slight grayish wash, anal blackish. 

Type is No. 6432, Bureau of Science collection, secured in 
Hongkong market by Seale ; length, 130 millimeters ; 3 cotypes, 
Nos. 6411, 6438, and 6453. 

Gobiichthys tentacnlaris (Cuv. and Val.) . 

Length, 75 to 110 millimeters. 6500, 6501, 6505, 6510, 6515, 
6519, 6523, 6524.) 

Cryptocentrus filifer (Cuv. and Val.). 

Length, 105 to 130 millimeters. (6412, 6430, 6447, 6449, 6470, 
6478.) 

Cryptocentrus venustus Seale, sp. nov. Plate II, fig. 2. 

Head, 3.75; depth, 5.50; dorsal, VII, 10; anal, 11; scales on 
anterior portion of body very small, becoming larger posteriorly, 
about 90 in lateral series from posterior border of opercle to end 
of caudal vertebra, about 27 in a vertical series; mouth large, 
the maxillary ending slightly posterior to eye; teeth in several 
series, some slightly enlarged ones in the outer row of upper 
jaw and in the inner row of lower jaw, no recurved canines; 
no posterior canines; tongue truncate; gill rakers rather blunt, 
14 on lower arch; head naked, without filaments or barbules; 
eye rather small, 4.5 in head, and about equal to length of 
snout; interorbital space very narrow, being equal to pupil; 
anterior dorsal rather high, its longest spine being equal to 
length of head, the 6th spine is located a considerable space 
from the 5th ; origin of soft dorsal midway between end of caudal 



ix.D. 1 Seale: Fishes of Horigkong 77 

vertebra and posterior margin of eye, the soft dorsal is similar 
to anal; caudal rather pointed, its length 3.25 in fish without 
caudal; origin of anal below 3d ray of soft dorsal; ventrals 
united and long, almost equal to caudal, the tip extending to 
anal pore, the cup at the base very deep; origin of ventral 
midway between tip of snout and origin of anal ; pectoral slightly 
less than length of head, its base rather muscular. 

Color in alcohol, a wide dark-brownish saddle over back 
at the spinous dorsal which extends downward on sides of belly ; 
there is a similarly colored area above the anal fin along the 
middle of sides, remaining area lighter brown ; a brownish area 
on head back of eyes and on cheeks, about 15 small scattered 
blue spots on cheeks; spinous dorsal, ventral, and anal dark 
purplish ; soft dorsal dark with several lighter longitudinal lines, 
caudal and pectorals uniform brown. 

One specimen, type No. 6419, Bureau of Science collection, 
from Hongkong; length, 103 centimeters. Collected by Seale 
and Canonizado. 

Trypauchen vagina Bloch and Schn. 

Color yellowish while. Length, 60 to 75 millimeters. (6493, 
6527, 6543.) 

Tridentiger bifasciatus Stindachner. 

Outer row of teeth trifid, the middle cusp the longest, 2 black 
bands on sides, the one on middle of sides very wide and distinct, 
the other at base of dorsal much less distinct. Length, 40 to 55 
millimeters. (6486, 6502, 6535, 6536, 6549.) 

Apocryptes bato (Hamilton-Buchanan). 

Dorsal, V-1, 13; anal, 14; length, 110 to 140 millimeters. 
(6418, 6439.) 

SCORP^NID^. (Scorpion fishes) 

Sebastopsis marmorata (Cuv. and Val.). 

The dark bands over the back and spots on caudal, dorsal, 
and anal fins distinguish this species. Length, 100 to 130 milli- 
meters. (7723, 7758.) 

PLATYCEPHALID^. (Flatheads) 

Platycephalus insidiator (Forskal). 

This fish is very common in the Hongkong markets. It is 
easily distinguished by the black and yellow stripe of the caudal 
fin. Length, 30 centimeters. (6593.) 



78 'J'he Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

Thysanophrys neglectus (Troch.). 

This species is characterized by the spinate lateral line, the 
dusky spinous dorsal, and the dusky bars over back. (6559, 
6623, 6630, 6664, 6675.) 

Thysanophrys bataviensis (Bleeker) . 

Lateral line, 57; dorsal, caudal, pectorals, and ventrals with 
rows of black dots. (6656.) 

CEPHALACANTHID^. (Flying gurnards) 

Cephalacanthus orientalis Cuv. and Val. 

One young specimen, length, 65 centimeters. (6499.) 

PLEURONECTID^. (Plaice, pan us) 

Psendorhombns misakius Jordan and Starks. 

Pseudorhombus misakius Jordan and Starks, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 
(1904), 31, 173. 

Color light brown, mottled with darker brown; a black spot 
at branching of lateral line; dorsal, 80; anal, 63. (6579, 6581.) 

Pseudorhombus russellii (Gray). 

Yellowish, clouded with brown, some darker spots on back. 
Scales, 92; anal, 58; dorsal, 78. (6588.) 

Pseudorhombus olegolepis Bleeker. 

Two young specimens, scales 48. (6560, 6607.) 

Tephritis sinensis (Lacepede). 

Body with fine black spots, some of which are ocellated ; fins, 
except pectorals and ventrals, marked with black. (6633.) 

SOLEID.E. (Soles, yat sa yu) 

Cynoglossus melanopterus Richardson. 

Two lateral lines on left side, scales 60, fins dusky. (6577.) 

Cynoglossus abbreviatus Gray. 

Three lateral lines on left side, fins gray, lighter at tip, 120 
scales in lateral line. (6646.) 

Synaptura orientalis Bloch and Schneider. 
Soles faleacea Richardson. 
Synaptura pan Bleeker. 

Brown with darker blotches and narrow black bands crossing 
the lateral line; posterior half of pectorals black. (6624.) 

Solea ovata Richardson. 

This seems to agree in all essential respects with Richardson's 
description. ( 6561. ) 



ix,D, 1 Seale: Fishes of Hongkong 79 

PTEROPSARID^. (Pterosparids) 

Parapercis pulchella (Temm. and Schleg.). 

The figure of this species given by Temminck and Schlegel 
is excellent. It is a common species in Hongkong. Length, 160 
millimeters. ( 6363-6371. ) 

Parapercis cylindrica (Bloch) . 

Body with narrow dark bands below and 5 wide bifurcated 
bands above ; white and dark spots on throat and chin ; a brown 
band from eye to throat, a dark spot at base of pectorals and 
on upper base of caudal; spinous dorsal black; soft dorsal and 
anal with yellowish spots; ventrals yellow. Length, 93 centi- 
meters (6649) ; length, 82 centimeters (8503). 

Percis sexfasciatus Temm. and 'Schleg. 

Five bifurcated dusky bands over the back; a brown ocellus 
on the upper base of caudal ; some dark dots at base of dorsal. 
Length, 85 millimeters. (6660.) 

CALLIONYMID^. (Dragonels) 

Callionymus curvicornis Cuv. and Val. 

I very much doubt if this species is synonymous with C. 
valenciennesi Schlegel, as in our specimen, as well as in the 
specimens Giinther had from China, the preopercular spine is 
nearly as long as the orbit and is curved upward ; it terminates 
in 4 hook-like processes, one of which is directed backward; 
a 5th process at the base of the spine points forward. The 
posterior of spinous dorsal, which is fin shaped, has a large black 
spot surrounded by white. The anal fin is white with dusky 
blotches near its tip. (6612.) 

Callionymus hindsii Richardson. 

This fish is characterized by the alternating vertical lines 
of jet black and pure white of the spinous dorsal, the black lines 
being somewhat crooked and of greater width in some places 
than in others. The preopercular spine ends in 4 recurved 
claws, with a fifth at the base of the spine directed forward. 
The anterior dorsal has S rays, the posterior has 10. In alcohol 
the fish is indistinctly speckled with very pale brown on the 
back, the caudal fin is indistinctly barred with brown and white ; 
some indistinct light specks in soft dorsal, otherwise fins 
colorless, except the spinous dorsal. Length, 8.5 centimeters. 
(6650.) 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

(Drawings by T. Eepinosa) 

Plate I 

Fig. 1. Chsetodon bella-maris Seale, sp. nov. 

2. Rhinogobius hongkoyigensia Seale, sp. nov. 

Plate II 

Fig. 1. Oxyurichthus amahalis Seale, sp. nov. 
2. Cryptocentrus vemistus Seale, sp. nov. 

123716 6 81 



Seale: Fishes of Hongkong.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci.. IX, D. No. 1. 




Fig. 1. Chaetodon bella-maris Seale, sp. nov. 




Fig. 2. Rhinogobius hongkongensis Seale, sp. nov. 
PLATE I. 



Seale : Fishes of Hongkong,] 



[Phil. Journ. Sri., IX, D, No. 1. 




Fig. 1. Oxyurichthus amabalis Seale, sp. nov. 




Fig. 2. Cryptocentrus venustus Seale, sp. nov. 
PLATE II. 



BUPRESTIDES RECUEILLIS AUX tLES PHILIPPINES PAR 
C. F. BAKER, I ^ 

Par Ch. Kerremans 

(Brussels, Belgium) 

Une figure dans le texte 

Acmaeodera luzonica Nonfr., Berl. Ent. Zeitschr. (1895), 40, 302. 

Luzon, Los Banos. 
Epidelus wallacei Thorns., Arch. Ent. (1857), 1, 109. 

Luzon, Mt. Maquiling. 
Chrysodema eximia Cast, et Gory, Monogr. Bupr. (1835), 1, 8, PI. 

2, fig. 9. 

Luzon, Los Baiios. 
Chrysodema adjuncta Saund., Trans. Ent. Soc. London (1874), 310. 

Luzon, Mt. Maquiling. 
Dicercomorpha argenteoguttata Thoms., Typ. Bupr., App. (1879), 13. 

Luzon, Los Banos. 
Philanthaxia lata sp. nov. 

Long. 8 ; larg. 3 mm. Oblong ovale, elargi au tiers posterieur, 
entierement bronze obscure, un peu mat, avec les angles poste- 
rieurs du pronotum d'un bronze plus clair, legerement pourpres ; 
dessous plus noir, pattes bronzees, tarses et antennes noirs, le 
1^^ et le 2® article de celles-ci bronzes. 

Tete plane ; front vaguement deprime ; la surface couverte de 
points fins, confluents. Pronotum en trapeze, faiblement bisinue 
en avant et tronque en arriere, les cotes obliques et a peine ar- 
ques, la surface couverte d'une ponctuation fine, tres egale, sem- 
blable a celle de la tete, mais presentant sur le disque de fines 
rides sinueuses. Ecusson triangulaire, presque deux fois aussi 
large que long. Elytres legerement elargis au tiers posterieur, 
finement denteles sur les cotes de la jusqu'au sommet; celui-ci 
etroitement tronque ; la surface couverte de stries lineaires, plus 
rapprochees sur les cotes que sur le disque, les interstries aplanis, 
subrugueux, tres egalement et densement ponctues. Dessous 
moins rugueux que le dessus, la ponctuation de Tabdomen aci- 

' Proof read by C. F. Baker. 

83 



84 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

culee, et simulant de tres fines ecailles, couvert d'une pulveru- 
lence blanche. 
Luzon, Mt. Maquiling. 

Chrysobothris bistripunctata H. Deyr., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. (1864), 

8, 111. 

Luzon, Los Bafios. 
Belionota fallaciosa H. Deyr., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. (1864), 8, 84. 

Luzon, Mt. Maquiling. 
Melibseus bakeri sp. nov. 

Long. 4; larg, 1 mm. Petit, etroit, assez convexe, attenue en 
avant et en arriere, entierement bronze obscur et brillant, la par- 
tie anterieure du front verte. 

Tete etroite, convexe avec une legere depression longitudinale 
au dessus de Tepistome. Pronotum grand, convexe, faible- 
ment bisinue en avant et en arriere; les cotes deprimes, la de- 
pression prolongee le long de la base, la marge laterale arquee, 
anguleusement rentrante en arriere tout pres de la base ; la sur- 
face assez rugueuse, couverte de petites rides sinueuses et trans- 
versales. Ecusson petit, triangulaire. Elytres impressionnes 
de part et d'autre a la base avec le calus humeral saillant; les 
cotes sinues a hauteur des hanches posterieures, attenues en arc 
depuis le milieu, celui-ci separement arrondi et inerme; la sur- 
face couverte de rugosites simulant de tres fines ecailles entre 
des rides sinueuses. Dessous moins rugueux que le dessus, men- 
tonniere du prosternum bilobee. 

Luzon, Los Banos. 

Melibseus seneifrons H. Deyr., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. (1864), 8, 134. 

Luzon, Mt. Maquiling; Los Baiios. 
Sambus auricolor Saund., Trans. Ent. Soc. London (1874), 322. 

Luzon, Los Banos. 

Sambus lugubris Saund., Trans. Ent. Soc. London (1874), 323. 

Luzon, Mt. Maquiling; Los Baiios. 
Cryptodactylus philippinensis Saund., Trans. Ent. Soc. London 

(1874), 321. 

Luzon, Los Banos. 
Agrilus luzonicus sp. nov. 

Long. 6.5-7; larg. 1.7 mm. Voisin de VA. acutus Thunb., mais 
different de celui-ci par une serie de caracteres constants. Tou- 
jours plus petit et moins ventru, Timpression m^diane de la base 



IX, D, 1 Kerremans: Biiprestides, I 85 

du pronotum moins profonde et moins large, Tepine terminale 
des elytres tou jours moins longue et plus grele, moins elargie a 
la base et montrant, sur le cote externe, une fine dentelure bien 
marquee, tandis qu'elle est moins nette et moins aigue chez 
Vacutus, la coloration constante, d'un bronze verdatre clair, 
rarement bleuatre; enfin, Taspect general plus lisse et plus 
brillant. 
Luzon, Los Baiios. 

Agrilus nigTocinctus Saund., Trans. Ent. Soc. London (1874), 325. 
Luzon, Los Baiios. 

Agrilus discicollis H. Deyr., Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. (1864), 8, 189. 

Luzon, Los Bafios. 
Agrilus vilis Saund., Trans. Ent. Soc. London (1874), 327. 

Luzon, Los Bafios. 
Agrilus bakeri sp. nov. 

Long. 8-8.5 ; larg. 2 mm. Allonge, legerement elargi au tiers 
posterieur, attenue en arriere, tete, cotes du pronotum et extre- 
mite des elytres cuivreux pourpre ainsi que le dessous, le pro- 
notum et les elytres bleu verdatre, ceux-ci ornes de part et 
d^autre de deux taches pubescentes et blanches. Tune au milieu, 
Tautre vers le tiers posterieur; le dessous convert d'une pulve- 
rulence blanche. 

Tete forte, de la largeur du pronotum, sillonnee sur toute sa 
longueur, et couverte de rides sinueuses bien marquees. Pro- 
notum un peu plus large que long et aussi large en avant qu'en 
arriere, faiblement bisinue en avant, plus fortement en arriere, 
les cotes paralleles, a peine arques, sans carene posterieure 
distincte, la carene laterale oblique et a peine sinueuse, rappro- 
chee de Tinferieure; une vague impression lineaire et arquee 
longe tout le milieu; la surface couverte de rides sinueuses. 
Ecusson cuivreux, large, transversalement carene. Elytres peu 
convexes, impressionnes a la base, plans sur le disque, declives 
sur les cotes, legerement elargis au tiers posterieur, denteles et 
separement arrondis au sommet, la surface couverte de tres fines 
rugosites regulieres et simulant de petites ecailles. Dessous 
plus finement rugueux que le dessus; mentonniere du proster- 
num forte, echancree au milieu; pattes mediocres. 

Luzon, Los Baiios. 

Agrilus monticola sp. nov. 

Long. 7; larg. 1.8 mm. Moins allonge et plus robuste, plus 
convexe en dessus que le precedent, le sillon transversal du pro- 



86 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

notum beaucoup plus large, plus profond et situe plus en arriere 
vers la base, le sommet des elytres plus largement arrondi, 
subtronque et plus f ortement dentele, la region suturale deprimee, 
entierement bleu indigo fonce, verdatre sur les elytres, avec, de 
chaque cote de ceux-ci, deux monchetures pubescentes et blanches 
superposees, Tune apres le quart posterieur, Tautre a Fapex. 

Tete assez forte, un peu plus etroite que la base du pronotum, 
le vertex convexe et profondement sillonne, la surface ponctuee, 
moins f ortement ridee que chez le precedent; antennes courtes 
et epaisses. Pronotum plus large que long, un peu plus etroit 
en avant qu'en arriere, bisinue en avant et en arriere, le lobe 
median de Tavant tres arque ; les cotes obliques et a peine arques, 
la carene posterieure ne rejoignant pas la marginale, celle-ci 
oblique et sinueuse, Tinferieure parallele a celle-ci en avant et 
sinueuse; le disque transversalement impressionne en avant et 
largement sillonne en arriere du milieu, le sillon remontant sur 
les cotes au dessus de la carene posterieure; la surface couverte 
de tres fines rayures sinueuses et trans ver sales. Ecusson 
triangulaire, plus large que haut et carene transversalement. 
Elytres deprimes de part et d'autre a la base, sinues sur les cotes, 
ensuite elargis au tiers posterieur ou ils laissent a decouvert une 
etroite portion de la region dorsale des segments abdominaux, 
attenues obliquement jusqu'au sommet, celui-ci assez largement 
tronque et assez f ortement dentele; region suturale tres legere- 
ment declive; suture saillante en arriere; la surface assez ru- 
gueuse et couverte de rugosites simulant des ecailles. Dessous 
moins rugueux que le dessus, couvert d'une pubescence tres 
courte, regulierement espacee sur I'abdomen; mentonniere du 
prostemum large, subsinueuse et tronquee en avant; pattes peu 
robustes. 

Luzon, Mt. Maquiling. 

Agrilus fontanus sp. nov. 

Long. 5; larg. 1 mm. Allonge, subparallele sur les cotes, en- 
tierement noir en dessus, la moitie interne des elytres couverte 
d'une courte pubescence grisatre peu visible, le dessous d'un noir 
plomb6, entierement couvert d'une courte pubescence grise. 

Tete forte, aussi large que la base du pronotum, convexe, 
faiblement sillonnee sur le vertex, couverte de tres fines rides 
transversales et sinueuses. Pronotum presque carre, plus large 
que long, aussi large en avant qu'en arriere, la marge anterieure 
plus fortement bisinuee que la posterieure, avec un large lobe 
median avance; les cotes subparalleles, a peine arques; carene 
posterieure grande, arquee, rejoignant la marginale en avant 



IX, D, 1 Kerremans: Buprestides, I 87 

du milieu; carene laterale subsinueuse, visible en dessus, Tin- 
ferieure assez eloignee d'elle en avant; le milieu du disque avec 
une tres vague fossette en avant et une autre plus nette, au 
dessus de Tecusson; la surface couverte de rides sinueuses et 
transversales bien marquees. Ecusson petit, plus large que long, 
carene transversalement. Elytres couvrant entierement Tab- 
domen, transversalement deprimes k la base, legerement le long 
de la suture, celle-ci elevee et lisse sur presque toute sa longueur, 
sauf a la base ; le sommet separement arrondi et a peine dentele ; 
la surface egalement couverte de rugosites simulant de tres 
fines ecailles. Dessous plus clair et un peu plus luisant que 
le dessus; mentonniere du prosternum grande, largement lobee; 
pattes assez robustes. 
Luzon, Los Banos. 

Agrilus balnearis sp. nov. 

Long. 4.5; larg. 0.7 mm. Ecourte, assez convexe, attenue 
en arriere, entierement bleu brillant, avec, sur les elytres, une 
large bande bleu d'acier fonce et glabre, tandis que le reste des 
elytres et du dessous sont converts d'une tres courte pubescence 
gris blanchatre, plus dense sur la region post6rieure des elytres, 
apres la bande noire. 

Tete forte, avec les yeux epais et tres saillants en dehors, 
sillonnee longitudinalement au milieu, et entierement couverte 
de rides sinueuses. Pronotum bisinue en avant, aussi large en 
avant qu'en arriere, sa plus grande largeur au milieu, les cotes 
arques; carene posterieure grande, sinueuse et rejoignant la 
marginale en avant du milieu; carene marginale plus sinueuse 
que rinferieure; le milieu du disque a peine deprime transver- 
salement au dessus de Tecusson; la surface couverte de rides 
sinueuses et transversales identiques a celles de la tete. Ecusson 
mat, transversalement caren6. Elytres legerement elargis au 
tiers posterieur, impressionnes a la base, tronques et tridentes 
de part et d'autre au sommet; la suture finement corboree du 
tiers posterieur a Tapex; la surface couverte de rugosites simul- 
ant de tres fines ecailles. Dessous plus lisse et plus brillant 
que le dessus ; mentonniere du prosternum assez grande et lob^e ; 
pattes peu robustes. 

Luzon, Los Banos. 

Agrilus atomus sp. nov. 

Long. 3.5; larg. 0.7 mm. Subparallele, un peu plus large en 
avant qu'en arriere, entierement bronze verdatre, le front vert 



88 The Philippine Jourmal of Science i9i4 

et mat, les elytres et le dessous couverts d'une courte pubescence 
grise, rare. 

Tete etroite en avant et large en arriere, le front aplani, le 
vertex bombe et sillonne. Pronotum un peu plus long que large 
et un peu plus large en avant qu'en arriere, la marge anterieure 
bisinuee avec un large lobe median avance et arque; les cotes 
l^gerement courbes et convergents vers la base; celle-ci faible- 
ment bisinuee, carene posterieure sinueuse et allongee, rejoignant 
la marginale en avant du milieu ; celle-ci oblique, presque droite, 
en entierement visible en dessus, Tinferieure arquee; le milieu 
du disque sillonne, le sillon elargi en arriere ; la surface couverte 
de rides sinueuses et transversales. Ecusson petit, carene. 
Elytres largement et peu profondement deprimes a la base, 
couverts de rugosites simulant de petites ecailles, separement 
arrondis et inegalement denteles au sommet. Dessous plus 
f once et plus luisant que le dessus ; mentonniere du prosternum 
grande et arquee; pattes peu robustes. 

Luzon, Los Banos. 

Aphanisticus bodongi sp. nov. 

Long. 3.5 ; larg. 0.7 mm. Appartient au groupe des Aphanis- 
ticus allonges et cylindriques de TEurope. Entierement noir, 
tres legerement bronz6, brillant. Tete forte, finement pointill^e, 
sillonnee profondement sur toute sa longueur. Pronotum un 
peu plus large que long, a peine plus etroit en arriere, lisse et 
brillant comme la tete et tres finement ponctue ; la marge ante- 
rieure bisinuee; les cotes faiblement arques et un peu conver- 
gents en arriere; le disque convexe, limite en avant par un 
sillon longement la marge et en arriere par un autre sillon plus 
large; une carene posterieure nette, etroite et perpendiculaire 
k la base, la marge laterale tres oblique. Ecusson tres petit, 
triangulaire. Elytres tres rugueux, couverts de rides transver- 
sales, legerement deprimes le long de la suture, largement et 
separement arrondis au sommet. Dessous beaucoup moins 
rugueux que les elytres; marge anterieure du prosternum tron- 
qu6e, sans mentonniere. 

Luzon, Los Baiios. 

Cette espece se retrouve dans Tlnde, a Simla. 

Endelus bakeri sp. nov. 

Du groupe des E. weyersi Rits. et modiglianii Kerrem. voisin, 
pour la tete et le prolongement des tubes oculaires, de VE. diabo- 
licus Kerrem., mais different de celui-ci par les impressions 
^Ijrtrales et par la coloration generale. 



ix,D. 1 Kerremans: Buprestides, I 89 

Ecourte, pentagonal, entierement bronze plus ou moins clair 
en dessus; dessous presque noir. 

Tete large, profondement creusee; yeux tres saillants en 
dehors, emergeant de tubes ecourtes ; la surface presque lisse et 
tres brillante. Pronotum beaucoup plus large que long, ecourte, 
tronque en avant avec les angles anterieurs aigus et avances; 
les cotes largement arques en avant et sinues en arriere avec 
les angles posterieurs obtus ; le milieu du disque avec deux larges 
carenes transversales. Ecusson petit, triangulaire. Elytres 
ecourtes, saillants a Tepaule, sinueux sur les cotes, attenues 
obliquement en arriere, largement et separement arrondis au 
sommet et tres finement denteles ; la surface gondolee et inegale, 
avec de larges impressions laterales et discales, arrondies sauf 
celles-ci longeant la suture, de chaque cote du sommet et qui sont 
allongees. Dessous plus lisse et plus luisant que les elytres. 

Long. 3.5-4; larg. 1.25-1.5 mm. 

Luzon, Los Baiios. 

Trachys dubia Saund., Trans. Ent. Soc. London (1879), 328. 
Luzon, Los Baiios. 

Trachys cornuta sp. nov. 

Long. 3; larg. 1.6 mm. Remarquable par la forme toute par- 
ticuliere des antennes dont le premier article, tres developpe, 
a la forme d'une mandibule arquee en dedans et ^ 
cintree en dehors, comme le montre la figure ci (txixooax^ 
contre de Tantenne du cote droit, alors que les autres 
articles sont presque moniliformes. Le seul speci- fig. i.L'antenne 
men que j'aie sous les yeux est un male; il se peut ^^ Trachv» 
done qu'il s'agisse d'un caractere sexuel, mais il est 
si tranche qu'a premiere vue il semble que Tantenne soit im- 
plantee sur une mandibule dirigee vers Texterieur. 

Triangulaire, acumine en ligne presque droite en arriere, tete 
et pronotum bronze presque noir, les cotes du second garnis 
d'une pubescence pulverulente de blanc, les elytres bronze clair 
avec une large postmediane noire, avec, en arriere de cette bande, 
de chaque cote, une bande pubescente blanche en forme de V; 
dessous noir. 

Tete largement creusee avec le bord interne des yeux tranchant. 
Pronotum trois fois aussi large que long, echancre en avant et 
fortement bisinue en arriere, avec les cotes deprimes, largement 
et obliquement arques, confluents en avant. Ecusson petit, 
triangulaire. Elytres graduellement et regulierement attenues 
sur les cotes depuis la base jusqu'au sommet, avec, de chaque 



90 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

c6t6, une fine cote naissant du calus humeral et longeant la marge 
laterale a une certaine distance de celle-ci; la surface finement 
granuleuse, plus lisse sur la bande noire. Dessous luisant, plus 
lisse que les elytres. 
Luzon, Los Baiios. 

Trachys bakeri sp. nov. 

Long. 3 ; larg. 1.6 mm. Ressemble, pour le facies general, au 
r. subbicornis Motsch., du Japon; entierement different de celui- 
ci pour la coloration et pour le dessin elytral. 

Ovo'ide, peu convexe, la tete et le pronotum bronzes, la 
premiere, plus claire que le second, couverts d'une pubescence 
couchee, rare et courte; elytres noirs couverts d'une dessin 
lineaire pubescent de blanc forme par des cercles sur la moitie 
anterieure et par deux lignes superposees et en zic-zac sur la 
posterieure. Dessous noir. 

Tete brillante, largement et peu profondement creusee en 
triangle en avant, le bord des yeux non tranchant. Pronotum 
a bords non aplanis, largement et peu profondement ^chancre 
en avant; les cotes obliquement arques et convergents vers 
Tavant ; la base f ortement bisinuee, la surface couverte de points 
tres fins et acicules. Ecusson reduit a un point a peine visible. 
Elytres regulierement attenues en arc despuis Tepaule jusqu'au 
sommet, celui-ci conjointement arrondi; le calus humeral peu 
saillant; la base deprimee contre le calus; la surface finement 
granuleuse ; vus de profils, les elytres f orment une ligne sinuante 
legerement bombee vers le sommet et declive ensuite. Dessous 
moins rugueux que le dessus. 

Luzon, Los Banos. 

Trachys formosana Kerrem., Arch. f. Naturgesch. (1912), 209. 
Luzon, Los Baiios. 
Le type provient de Tile Formose. 



ILLUSTRATION 

Figure dans le texte 
Fig. 1. L'antenne de Trachys comuta. 



91 



NOTES ON THE MALAY PANGOLIN, MANIS JAVANICA 
DESMAREST ' 

By W. SCHULTZE 

{From the Entomological Section, Biological Laboratory, Bureau of 
Science, Manila, P. I.) 

Two plates 

During a recent trip to Palawan I had the opportunity to 
observe a specimen of the pangolin, Manis javanica Desmarest, 
in captivity for a period of about three weeks. The animal was 
captured by a native boy who discovered it in the act of climbing 
a tree. Previous to the capture of the animal, I had given some 
attention to the collecting of specimens of termites or white ants. 
The species that builds the roughly globose nests on the trunks 
or branches of trees was fairly common about Taytay, and I had 
observed that many of the nests had been destroyed or partly 
destroyed. Generally, the disturbed nests had a round or ir- 
regularly shaped hole in one side and all or part of the contents 
of the interior had been removed. Some of the disturbed nests 
still remained attached to the trunks or branches of trees, while 
others had been broken off. I was at first inclined to attribute 
the destruction of the nests to some species of bird, and thought 
it possible that the bird was feeding on the termites or that it 
utilized the hollowed nests as breeding places. 

Upon receiving the pangolin, I offered it various species of 
large true ants, but it paid no attention to them and refused to 
eat. I then secured a fresh brood comb from a terrestrial 
termite nest with its included termites, and the pangolin quickly 
consumed all the insects. To supply the animal in this way with 
sufficient food presented considerable difficulties, and remember- 
ing the destroyed and partly destroyed nests of the arboreal 
termites that I had observed in the forests the idea occurred to 
me that the pangolin was probably responsible for their destruc- 
tion and that these particular termites, to a large degree, sup- 

^ Desmarest, Mammalogie (1822), 2, 377; Blandford, Fauna Brit. India, 
Mammalia (1891) 599, fig. 199; Hollister, This Journal, Sec. D (1912), 
7, 35. 

93 



94 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

plied the food of the animal. I accordingly secured several of 
these arboreal termite nests, and placed them in the cage with the 
animal. The pangolin commenced to break open a nest shortly 
after dark. Its method of accomplishing this is very peculiar. 
First, it is necessary to give some idea of the characters of the 
nest in order better to understand how well the animal is adapted 
to its food supply. 

The termite nests are usually subglobose, sometimes being 
rather irregular in shape, and from 20 centimeters to 50 centi- 
meters in diameter. In color they are usually dark brown or 
black, and externally have a rather flaky appearance. The outer- 
most part of the nest is rather thin, and is brittle in texture. 
The entire interior of the nest is made up of a somewhat porous 
material that is more or less sponge-like in appearance, but not 
at all sponge-like in texture, being very hard and somewhat 
brittle. In the region where the queen chamber is located, the 
surrounding material is still harder, and the passages or cells are 
slightly smaller than in the external portions. 

In opening the nest the pangolin at first removes the outer 
layer from one side by means of its powerful claws. The animal 
then commences working its way into the interior of the nest 
by inserting its claws into the passages or qells and using them 
as levers, thus breaking away, in small pieces, the very hard 
material that makes up the interior of the nest. While doing 
this work, the animal may assume any position — standing on 
its hind legs or lying down on its side, on its belly, or even on its 
back on the top or on the sides of the nest — depending on the 
location of the nest. As soon as it has worked a short distance 
into the interior, it reaches the regions inhabited by the termites, 
and, while busily engaged with its claws in breaking down the 
interior of the nest, it keeps its tongue constantly protruded, 
licking up the termites that are disturbed or dislodged, in its 
efforts to reach the interior of the nest. In this manner, the 
pangolin hollows out the nest sometimes to such a degree that 
only a thin crust or shell about 3 centimeters in thickness is left. 
If the nest be very large, it is generally more or less broken up ; 
small nests are rarely broken, but retain their original shape after 
being hollowed out completely (Plate I). The pangolin under 
observation consumed the contents of as many as four medium- 
sized nests in one night. Very probably during the dry season, 
the Palawan pangolin lives mostly on these arboreal termites. 
In Palawan, the terrestrial termite nests or mounds are mostly 
found in rather open brush or grass lands and are so hard that 
the animal could not burrow into them during the dry season. 



ix.D, 1 Schultze: Malay Pangolin 95 

It probably uses them as food supply during the rainy season. 
The pangolin seems to have poor eyesight, at least during the 
daytime. However, its sense of smell is apparently very acute. 
Its sense of direction is undoubtedly largely dependent on scent. 
The animal under observation was repeatedly liberated, and soon 
after being removed from its cage it raised its head and sniffed 
in various directions. It then invariably turned toward the 
nearest forest or thicket and walked away in that direction. 
When it had decided upon a given course, no amount of turning 
could deflect it, and after being turned about it always resumed 
its original direction. Even lifting the animal by its tail and 
quickly revolving it failed to confuse it. It never turned toward 
open places or toward the sea. There is little doubt that it 
depends largely upon its sense of smell in locating termite nests, 
especially those that are placed high in the trees. If disturbed 
when walking about, it quickly puts its head between its front 
legs, turns a somersault, and rolls up into a ball (Plate II, fig. 2) , 
making a hissing noise when so doing. Its powerful tail (Plate 
II, fig. 3), which has a horny pad on the end, is a great aid 
to the animal in climbing and in hanging on branches of trees. 
The animal has a very peculiar odor. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate I 

(Photographs by Charles Martin) 

Fig. 1. Arboreal termite nest hollowed out by Manis javanica Desmarest, 
showing opening. 
2. Opposite side of the termite nest shown in fig. 1. 

Plate II 

(Photographs by courtesy of Dean C. Worcester) 

Fig. 1. Manis javanica Desmarest in walking position. 

2. Manis javanica rolled up. 

3. Manis javanica climbing. 

Vol. VI 11, Sec. D, No. 6 of this Journal was issued May 25, 191^. 

123716 — 7 97 



Schultze: Malay Pangolin.] 



[Phil. Journ. Scl, IX, D, No. 1. 




Fig. 2. Opposide side of the nest shown in fig. 1. 
PLATE I. ARBOREAL TERMITE NEST HOLLOWED OUT BY MANIS JAVANICA DESMAREST. 



>< 



X 







cc 2 



THE PHILIPPINE 

Journal of Science 

D. General Biology, Ethnology, 
AND Anthropology 



Vol. IX APRIL, 1914 No. 2 



NOTES ON IRRIGATION AND COOPERATIVE IRRIGATION 
SOCIETIES IN ILOCOS NORTE ^ 

By Emerson B. Christie 
(From the Museum, Bureau of Science, Manila, P. I.) 

One plate 

Reports of the Bureau of Public Works state that the Prov- 
ince of Ilocos Norte has some 15,000 hectares under a fairly 
satisfactory degree of irrigation. Besides this land, there is 
a considerable area irrigated only during the season of trans- 
planting and growing rice ; that is to say, the wet season. 

Irrigation works of some sort are to be found in all the 
municipalities in the province. Bangui and Nagpartian, the two 
northernmost towns in the province, have together some 1,500 
hectares of rice land under irrigation. About nine-tenths of 
this land is under irrigation only during the wet season, owing 
to the imperfection of the irrigation works. Neither town has 
dams of a permanent nature. Diversions are made usually by 
temporary dams of bamboo and rock from 0.5 meter to 3 
meters high. These are crudely constructed, and are either 
completely destroyed each year or require considerable repairing. 
Some of the 27 ditches in these towns have no headgate nor 
wasteway provisions, and as a consequence their channels have 
been cut so deep as to leave portions of the lands they once 
watered above water. The most ambitious irrigation work to 
be seen in this part of the province is the heading of an old 
canal which was destroyed about a generation ago. It had a 

^ I am indebted to the courtesy of the Bureau of Public Works for the 
data on the extent of irrigation in Ilocos Norte which appear in this article. 

126083 99 



100 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

solid masonry gate, and the heading is cut for some distance 
through a rock cliff. There are 10 canals in Bangui-Nagpartian, 
each 1 kilometer or more in length. The two longest are about 
3 kilometers long. 

The people of Pasuquin, south of Nagpartian, have exploited 
the available water supply to a considerable extent. In the 
northern part of the territory of this municipality, 4 small 
rivers are made to irrigate about 1,000 hectares of rice land 
during the wet season, and in the southern part of the town 
about half as much land is watered from a lateral of the Paratong 
canal, which draws water from the Bacarra or Bubuisan River. 
An attempt is made to water these 500 hectares the year 
around, but complaints made by the landowners indicate that 
the supply of water is unreliable owing to certain imperfections 
in the canal. 

Laoag, the capital of the province, is badly off with regard 
to irrigation. Certain works which formerly utilized the water 
of one or two minor creeks for wet-season irrigation have been 
destroyed in course of time, and according to the latest data 
available only about 600 hectares of land in the municipality 
are under irrigation. Of this land, about 100 hectares are 
irrigated only during the wet season. The rest is watered by 
a branch of the Kamungao canal, which draws water from 
the Bacarra River. The people of Laoag who use this canal 
complain of a shortage of supply during dry weather. This 
shortage, in the opinion of an engineer of the Bureau of Public 
Works, is due not to a failure of the supply in the river, but to 
defects of an engineering order. 

Laoag is situated on the largest river in the province. There 
is a gauge record of a quarter of a million second liters for 
this stream, and it is probable that this amount of water is ex- 
ceeded at times. The want of irrigation work on this river is 
sufficiently accounted for by the size and the difficulty of the 
problem of utilization. The problem is further complicated by 
the circumstance that the river bears a heavy raft-traffic in 
rice which is floated from towns on the upper reaches to Laoag, 
and any obstructions to this traffic would cause an uproar from 
those interested in it. 

San Miguel has 9 ditches which irrigate some 500 hectares 
during the wet season. 

Piddig is better supplied with irrigation than any town in 
the province except the three dependent on the Bacarra River. 
Nearly 2,000 hectares of land in the municipality are under 
irrigation, more than half of it all the year around. The water 



IX, D, 2 Christie: Irrigation in Ilocos Norte 101 

is drawn from the Gisit River, a tributary of the Laoag. The 
most important canal is provided v^ith a masonry headgate 
and wasteway, and shows good maintenance. This canal irri- 
gates some 800 hectares. 

Dingras has a good deal of land under irrigation, but lacks 
proper provisions for the control and distribution of water. 

Batac has canals and other irrigation works. The Kiawit 
River runs in an artificial channel which is said to have been 
made for it as far back as 1760, under the direction of the Filipino 
after whom it is named. In course of time, however, the bed 
of this stream has become badly eroded, resulting in an inconven- 
ient lowering of the water below the fields which it was 
intended to irrigate. The water, both of this and other irriga- 
tion works, is far from sufficient for the needs of the land 
under present arrangements. It is worth noting that many 
ditches in this municipality are provided with masonry diversion 
weirs and headgates, with proper provision for varying the 
openings. 

Paoay has several old ditches in poor condition which are 
inadequately supplied with water. 

Badoc, the southernmost town of the province, has nearly 
4,000 hectares of irrigated land. On the high land which 
cannot be reached by canals, extensive masonry walls have been 
constructed to catch the flood water and distribute it over areas 
devoted to raising rice. Most of the ditches are small, and 
belong to individual landowners. 

The Badoc River runs through the municipality. Water is 
diverted from this stream by low temporary dams of bamboo 
and rock, which may last one or several seasons. The ditches 
are well constructed, and show good maintenance. Masonry 
headgates, checks, and other necessary structures have been 
provided on most of the systems, and largely eliminate the 
bad waste noticeable in other municipalities of the province. 
The longest ditch is about 2 kilometers in length. Most of the 
land irrigated is watered only during the wet or rice-growing 
season. 

Irrigation works in the municipalities of Bacarra and Bintar, 
watered from the Bacarra or Bubuisan River, deserve special 
mention, for they exemplify the fullest development of irriga- 
tion practice to be found in the province. They cover some 
7,000 hectares of land, most of which is supplied with water 
all the year, and thus is enabled to raise two or three crops 
a year. 

Practically all the water used for irrigation in these towns 



102 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

is drawn from the Bacarra or Bubuisan River. This stream 
rises in the northeastern part of the municipality of Bintar, 
and runs its entire course to the China Sea through this 
municipality and that of Bacarra. From its source to the latter 
town, the stream is made up of a series of rapids, a circumstance 
which makes it easy to divert water for irrigation purposes. 
The stream carries a fair amount of water even in the dry 
season. According to a gauging made in April, 1909 — that 
is, during a dry month — below the town of Bacarra and below 
all points where water was diverted ther^ was a discharge of 
3,300 second liters going to waste. 

There are 8 canals which divert water from the Bacarra 
River, covering from 200 to 1,800 hectares each, and some 
35 small ditches, watering from 2 to 70 hectares each. All 
of these ditches, it is said by the people of the towns, have 
been built by the landowners and are maintained by them. 
The larger ditches have been well constructed, and show fairly 
good maintenance. Diversions are made by temporary dams 
of bamboo and rock, which are either destroyed or require 
considerable repairing each year. Rows of stakes are driven 
into the bed of the stream, and the spaces between are filled with 
stones and brush. Permanent headgates and wasteways above 
the high-water mark have been provided on a number of the 
larger ditches, reducing repair work on the ditches. Important 
structures employed on the canals such as checks, drops, and 
culverts are of a permanent nature, and are usually constructed 
of cobblestones laid in lime mortar. 

It would be beyond the scope of this article, which aims only 
to convey a general idea of the degree of development of native 
irrigation in Ilocos Norte, to give a detailed description of all the 
irrigation works in Bacarra and Bintar. In order to illustrate 
the utmost that has been done in this region, I shall give a 
few facts regarding the two most ambitious works, the Paratong 
and the Kamungao canals. 

The former is the largest and most important canal in the 
province. Heading just above the town of Bacarra, it extends 
across this municipality and waters about 500 hectares in the 
municipality of Pasuquin, besides nearly 850 hectares in Bacarra. 
The main canal and the Bacarra and Pasuquin laterals are about 
20 kilometers long. It is claimed, and I know of no evidence 
to the contrary, that this canal was built by the landowners 
without the assistance of any regular engineer. Many repairs 
are necessary each year, and these are made by the landowners 
benefited by the system. At one place, where the Pasuquin 



IX. D, 2 Christie: Irrigation in Ilocos Norte 103 

lateral heads, the water of the canal is carried across the Bang- 
sirit estero in flumes. The Paratong canal has a capacity of 
3,000 second liters. 

The Kamungao canal is about 6 kilometers long, and serves 
over 800 hectares. It heads opposite the tov^n of Bacarra, 
and crosses the divide between the valley in which that town 
is situated and Laoag, about 500 hectares of the land it serves 
being situated in the latter municipality. The system is well 
constructed, and is provided with masonry headgates and waste- 
way. But conditions at the heading are such as to give rise 
to some complaints from landowners on the Laoag side of the 
shortage of water. The heading of the canal is at a bend in 
the river; there is no diversion dam, and the channel is so high 
that an inadequate supply of water is diverted. 

The Bisaya ditch which irrigates certain lands in Bintar 
is of interest as showing what the natives are capable of doing, 
because for the greater part of its course of 3 kilometers down 
the canon of the Bacarra River the waterway is formed by a 
masonry wall at the foot of the rock cliffs. 

All the irrigation done in this province depends on gravity. 
No pumps, water wheels, or other mechanical devices are in use. 

It is of interest to know how the foregoing works and others 
similar to them have been built and are maintained. No very 
large landed estates are found in this province.^ Even the 
few landholdings of comparatively large extent are almost 
invariably divided into several parcels separated from each other. 
Hence, it is but seldom that any one man finds it to his interest 
to build irrigation works of any considerable size for the use 
of his land. Therefore, the necessary feed canals and other 
works for bringing water from the rivers to the land must 
be built by cooperation if they are to be built at all. This state 
of things has given rise to a large number of irrigation societies. 
These are of interest to a student of the Ilocano people for 
two reasons; namely, their importance to the agriculture of 
the region and their indication of the capacity of the people 
for cooperative effort. 

These societies of the Ilocano people are a marked charac- 
teristic of the Province of Ilocos Norte. In the Ilocano Provinces 
of Ilocos Sur and La Union, not very much irrigation from 
rivers and springs is practiced. Of the irrigation situation among 

'According to the Philippine census of 1903, the average size of farms 
and other parcels of land under cultivation in Ilocos Norte is only 0.622 
hectare. This is one of the lowest averages to be found in the Philippine 
provinces. 



104 ^''^^ Philippine Journal of Science leu 

the Ilocano element of the population of Pangasinan, Zambales, 
and Nueva Ecija, I am ignorant. In Cagayan Province, certain 
Ilocano towns — for example, Claveria and Sanchez Mira — have 
irrigation works of considerable extent. Claveria is said to 
have more than 2,000 hectares of rice land under irrigation. 
I suspect that these works have been built and maintained in 
the same way as those in Ilocos Norte; that is, by popular 
cooperative societies. But the total extent of irrigation works 
built and maintained by Ilocanos in this province does not 
reach that of the works existing in Ilocos Norte. In the latter 
province, I have enjoyed good opportunities of observing the 
working of a number of irrigation societies, and some details 
about them may be of interest. 

There are irrigation societies in all the municipalities of 
this province, but owing to the local conditions these societies 
play the most important role in the northern half of the province 
and are of special importance in Pasuquin, Bacarra, Bintar, and 
Piddig. 

The members of each society are bound together by a written 
agreement which prescribes the organization of the body and 
the field of its operations, defines the duties of its members, 
and provides penalties for disobedience which range from a 
small fine to expulsion from the society and confiscation of a 
member's share in the land irrigated. I have read a number 
of these agreements as enforced in Bangi, Bintar, and Badoc. 
There seems to be no standard or pattern for these documents, 
for they differ widely one from the other. They range in preci- 
sion and formality from agreements drawn up by lawyers and 
composed of scores of paragraphs down to a simple statement 
that *'the undersigned agree to undertake the irrigation of 
such-and-such a piece of land under the leadership of So-and-so." 
The majority of agreements occupy a middle ground between 
elaborate precision and sketchy simplicity. They have been 
drawn up in most cases by men who have local influence, 
but no legal training. Some of them at least were drawn up 
with a view to taking up and irrigating a piece of public land; 
it is not easy otherwise to understand the provision for con- 
fiscation of the holding of a member who does not fulfill his 
obligations. This provision occurs in the following instrument 
organizing an irrigation society in an outlying settlement of 
Bintar. The agreement is given here because it is fairly typical 
of many. 

We, who sign our names or make a cross below, agree to make a canal to 
bring water to the place called Gimamaga. There is no one compelling or 



IX, D, 2 Christie: Irrigation in Ilocos Norte 105 

coercing us; we are expressing our spontaneous desires, and we say the 
following: 

First. — We all equally agree to choose a chief to give us orders, to the 
end that there may be order in our work on the said canal. 

Second. — We also agree to choose foremen and designate them as assist- 
ants to the said superintendent of construction. 

Third. — We agree further that on being given an order by the said 
chiefs we will not make objections, but will all equally obey the order, 
and he who disobeys this provision of our agreement shall be given two 
lashes to punish him for his disobedience, and if he is guilty a second time we 
will confiscate his share of the property to punish him for his disobedience. 

Fourth. — We agree further that when a day fixed upon for our work 
arrives and our superintendent sounds his horn to call us, we will hasten 
to present ourselves and will not wait for a third or fourth blowing of the 
horn, and that that one of us who shall be the last to arrive shall be fined 
six cuartos * as a punishment for his lateness, unless he has a reason. 

Fifth. — We agree further that when the work on the said canal is begun 
no one of us may go away or hide; and he who shall be caught hiding 
shall be given five lashes to punish him for his disobedience, and his expla- 
nations shall not be listened to. 

Sixth. — We agree further that after the month of July arrives it shall 
not be permitted to furnish a woman or a child as a substitute, especially if 
our work consist in building dams, and he who contravenes this agreement 
of ours shall be liable to a fine of an eighth of a peso, and his explanations 
shall not be listened to. 

Seventh. — As soon as our shares of work shall be allotted, whether the 
work consist in canal digging or fencing, we will make haste to perform 
the work, without waiting for the assistance of the whole society; and he 
who disregards this provision of our agreement shall be fined an eighth of 
a peso for his disobedience. 

Eighth. — We agree also that the obligation of furnishing labor or mate- 
rials, whether for excavation or for fencing, shall be equally distributed 
among us. 

Ninth. — We agree further that the cost of fenced ways for the passage 
of animals, such as, horses, buffaloes, oxen, and pigs, shall be equally distri- 
buted, and no one shall fail to conform to this rule. 

Tenth. — We agree further that we shall be free to invite outsiders to 
work with us for half a day or a day,*^ but' the superintendent shall not 
have authority to make contracts without first submitting the matter to us 
at a meeting. 

* Literally, a man to serve as our father. 

* About 4 centavos in Philippine currency or 2 cents in United States 
currency. 

^ In Ilocos Norte it is not unusual for country people to assist a neighbor 
or relative for a short time without money payment, but on the under- 
standing that they are to be given food and drink. If the work lasts only 
about half a day, a few drinks of hasi are considered sufficient compensa- 
tion; if the work lasts longer, it is incumbent on the man who has invited 
the workers to regale them with unusually good food, including a meat or 
fish element, as well as drink. It is in this way that houses are often built 
and ditches dug without the expenditure of any cash. 



106 "^h^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

Eleventh. — Those who work against our agreement to exploit lands in 
common shall receive five lashes from us for the first offense, and shall be 
deprived of their rights for the second, as a punishment for their evil 
custom, and we will not listen to their explanations. 

Twelfth. — We shall have no right to disobey the orders of our superin- 
tendent, when he assigns us work, whether the work consist of digging or 
fencing, and he who acts contrary to this agreement shall be punished as 
is set down in article seven for his first offense, and for the second he shall 
be deprived of his share of land as a punishment for his disobedience. 

Thirteenth. — It shall not be allowable to call us unexpectedly to a place 
distant from these fields. If it is desired to call us to a distant place, we 
must not be called unexpectedly but must be advised in advance. 

Fourteenth. — We shall all leave our implements (i. e., in the places 
where work is being done), whether plow or harnessing rope or harrow, 
and none but the owners shall take the said implements, and he whom we 
may catch in the act of taking articles belonging to another person shall, 
for the first offense, be condemned by us to suffer a suitable penalty, and 
for the second offense he shall have his share in these fields confiscated as 
punishment for his disobedience, and no explanations shall be listened to. 

All the above clauses of our most true agreement and convention for 
cultivating the soil in common shall be strictly obeyed; no one is coercing 
us nor causing us to be coerced, but of our own free will we make this 
agreement in order to have discipline in our work, and in testimony of our 
adhesion to this, our agreement and convention, those of us who know how 
to write sign their names, and those who do not know how to write make 
their mark and have their names written for them, now in the year eighteen 
hundred ninety-four. 

Dimamaga, sitio of Bintar, September 15, 1894. 

[Twenty crosses (marks) and three signatures follow.] 

There is a supplementary paragraph, dated March 24, 1911, 
in which it is agreed to choose a new superintendent and to 
substitute certain names for others. 

In this case, the cabecilla, or chief, is also the maestro, or 
superintendent of construction. But it is not at all uncommon 
to find the office of chief of the organization and that of the 
superintendent of construction divided. Most societies also have 
a special officer known as the papelista,^ because he keeps the 
papers ; that is, the accounts. His duties are those of a secretary- 
treasurer. It is his duty, besides keeping the society's funds, to 
keep account of the fines incurred by the members. Small 
societies — I have seen the membership list of one which comprised 
only about half a dozen names — may do without any officers 
except a chief (cabecilla). On the other hand, a large society 
may have in addition to all the above officers two or three 
members who may be called a commissariat. These men, instead 
of working on the canals and structures of the irrigation scheme, 

•A Spanish word meaning one who has to do with papers. 



IX. D, 2 Christie: Irrigation in Ilocos Norte 107 

fish and cook for their fellow members while the latter are at 
their labor. 

Nominally the officers are elected, and may be deposed by 
vote at any time. In other words, they are subject to the 
recall. But as a rule, a society has one or more members whose 
influence is preponderating because of property, shrewdness, 
education, or past or present government oflSce, who constitute 
the real controlling force. It must be borne in mind that a 
very large proportion of the members cannot even read or write. 
This fact is sufficiently evidenced by the long rows of marks 
seen at the end of the agreements. The ignorance and humble 
station in life of the mass of the members make it easy for a 
local boss who gets to be the chief of an irrigation society 
to keep control of its activities. 

In the case of those societies whose constitutions I have 
read, the land irrigated is divided into equal shares among 
the majority of the members, with the stipulation, in the case 
of many of the larger societies, of larger shares for one or more 
of the officers. The chief is often thus favored, sometimes to 
the extent of having twice as much allotted to him as the 
ordinary members; the superintendent of construction and the 
secretary-treasurer are also given an advantage sometimes; 
the foremen have no advantage except that they do not do as 
much manual labor as the ordinary members. 

Landowners who do not belong to a given society frequently 
want the association to bring water to their land, or wish to 
enjoy water rights in some canal that passes their land, but 
which they have not helped to build. In such cases, it is often 
possible for them to secure the advantages desired by agreeing 
to give the members of the society a part of the crop. The 
payment demanded is usually high, amounting often to two-fifths 
of the crop. 

The danger of the chief of an irrigation society enriching 
himself at the expense of the labor of the members is realized 
by the Ilocanos, and the article found in the agreement quoted 
above, forbidding the chief to enter into irrigation contracts 
without first submitting the proposition to a meeting of the 
society, is a very common one in instruments of this kind. 

Another common provision is one expressly forbidding a 
member to alienate his share of land without the consent of 
the society. It is often provided that in case a member wishes 
to sell he must give the first choice to a fellow-member. On 
the death of a member, his rights and obligations in a society 
descend to his heirs. 



108 "T^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

A provision sometimes seen in the constitutions of irrigation 
societies in Ilocos Norte is that disputes arising from the work 
or the shares must be submitted for adjustment to a meeting 
of the society, recourse to the courts being punished by expulsion. 

Money for the purchase of building material, such as timber 
or lime, is raised by a levy on all the members, or the material 
may be furnished by members in lieu of work. 

An omission which strikes one forcibly in reading the agree- 
ments is the lack of any definite provision for dividing the 
water supplies. This omission corresponds to one seen in the 
irrigation works ; namely, the almost, though not quite, universal 
lack of any system by which a definite amount of water can 
be drawn from the main canals to the small ditches of the 
individual fields. It seems to be assumed that there will be 
water enough for all. If there is any system to insure rotation 
and equality of supply, I am not aware of it. Doubtless, the 
question of a square deal in this matter comes up and is acted 
upon in meetings of the society. 

These meetings take place in some societies at regular intervals. 
In others, they are called from time to time by the chief. 

As may be supposed, something is required to hold slack 
members of the society to their work. For this reason, in 
most agreements a definite fine is levied for each day's absence 
from work when a call has been issued by the head of the 
society. This fine is expressed in the agreements in terms of 
money, but in fact is collected in kind at harvest time. It is 
the principal duty of the secretary-treasurer to keep a record 
of the number of day's absence of each man and to collect 
the corresponding amount of fines. These go into the common 
fund, which is mainly expended for food and drink for the 
members. 

There is a good deal of difference between societies in the 
degree of strictness with which the payment of fines is enforced. 
Some societies are evidently very slack in this regard ; in others, 
there is a businesslike strictness. 

I have heard of one or two cases of embezzlement on the 
part of the treasurers, but the circumstances of the collection 
of fines, namely, that it takes place under the eyes of so many 
members of the society and that the fines are collected not 
in money but in the form of bundles of rice, easily noted in 
amount and rather difficult to get rid of secretly, serve as 
deterrents to breach of trust. 

Besides the ordinary irrigation societies composed of land- 



IX, D, 2 Christie: Irrigation in Ilocos Norte 109 

owners, I know of at least one society in Ilocos Norte organized 
to do irrigation work for hire. The society comprises about 
thirty men, who are said to own little or no land themselves, 
but who hire themselves out to propietors in return for a share 
of the crop. I have been informed that this society conducts 
the irrigation work for land that produces about 5,625 hecto- 
liters of unhusked rice. The collection is effected at harvest time 
by the secretary-treasurer of the society. These men have a 
recognized chief (cabecilla) at the head of their affairs. I do 
not know what advantage in compensation, if any, is enjoyed 
by the officers of this society. 

It must not be supposed that the members of this society make 
their entire livelihood by doing irrigation work. That work, as 
conducted in Ilocos Norte, lasts only a few months of the year, 
sometimes only a few weeks. During the rest of the year the 
members are free to work at anything they can. In irrigation 
work, as in other matters, it is unusual in Ilocos Norte to see 
specialization. 

All the irrigation societies with which I am acquainted hold 
an annual feast at which they enjoy all the rice, meat, and 
fermented sugar-cane juice that they can hold. The means to 
do this come from the fines levied on sluggards ; often they are 
eked out by the results of the chase. From twenty to forty men 
with nets and dogs can usually get a deer or two or a wild 
pig in Ilocos Norte, and a few men are commonly told off before- 
hand to catch fish. The drink — basi — can be easily obtained in 
exchange for rice. In case means are still lacking, the chief 
levies a contribution of a few centavos on each member. 

Most irrigation societies are placed under the patronage of 
some particular saint, such as San Isidro Labrador (Saint Isidore, 
the Ploughman or Farmer). But as the most opportune 
time for holding the feast is at the conclusion of harvest, it 
is not necessarily held on the day assigned to the patron saint 
in the calendar. 

A feast is preceded by religious ceremonies. Money is paid 
to a priest by the society to celebrate mass on the preceding 
Sunday. If all or most of the members are adherents of the 
Aglipayan organization (the Independent Filipino Church), the 
money goes to the local representative of that body. I have 
known of cases where the members have been divided in their 
allegiance and money has been paid for a mass to the local 
Roman Catholic priest and also to the local head of the Aglipayan 
society. The mass, I was always informed, is applicable to 



110 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

the souls of the deceased members of the society and all those 
persons from whom the members of the society may have 
inherited their land. 

But besides this and other Christian ceremonies, it is the 
rule among the societies with which I am acquainted to perform 
other rites which are not due to the teaching of the Christian 
Church. One of these is performed at the annual feast just 
mentioned. It consists of setting forth food and drink for 
spirits, having in mind not only the ancestors of the members, 
but spirits in general. I have been present several times at 
the annual feast of irrigation societies, and once had the good 
fortune to arrive at the scene early enough to see the offering 
set out for the spirits and to hear the invitation extended to 
them. The offering in this case consisted of plates of rice, of 
two kinds, one of which was the sticky sort called diket. There 
were also dishes of rice cooked with coconut milk (not coconut 
water) and a little basi. These articles were set out on the 
floor of a room in the evening and left untouched until early 
morning. After everything was placed in order, a woman 
went to each window of the room and invited the spirits in turn 
in the words which I found to be, in Ilocos Norte, the commonest 
formula of invitation to them, couched in such general terms 
as to include not merely ancestors, but any other spirits that 
might wish to come. These were the words : 

Come now, come now, sirs, come, come all, all, let the lame have them- 
selves carried, let the blind be led/ 

After this, the room was left empty till morning, when the 
feast began. 

This offering of food and drink to spirits at the annual 
feast is in line with the practice of irrigation societies at other 
times. An important ditch or canal is seldom opened without 
certain preliminary ceremonies of a propitiatory nature. Those 
related below show the practice in the northern two-thirds of 
the province of Ilocos Norte, where I saw more land being 
irrigated from streams than in any other part of the Ilocano 
provinces. Minor details may differ in various towns, but on 
the whole I found an unexpected degree of uniformity. 

When a society has been formed for the purpose of digging 
a canal and bringing a piece of land under irrigation, a cross 
about a meter high is planted where the canal is to be opened. 
Some basi is sprinkled on the ground. Now ensues a wait, 

' Umaikayon Appo, umaikayon, umaikai amin amiriy dagiti pilai obhaenyo, 
dagiti bulsek kibinenyo. 



IX, D, 2 Christie: Irrigation in I locos Norte HI 

which may extend from only one night to several days, to 
see whether or not any unfavorable omen appears to any of 
the members of the society, or a sangkabagi or other spirit 
appears to warn against the proposed undertaking. If an 
unfavorable omen or vision occurs, the place where it is proposed 
to start the canal is abandoned; unless the spirit, if there is 
one in the place, can be appeased by an offering. If a spirit 
warns against beginning the work, an attempt is made to 
learn what sort of propitiation it wants. In case a sacrifice 
is requested, a chicken, for example, the society must learn 
whether the animal is to be set free at the spot or is to be killed 
and cooked. In a society with numerous members there is 
usually at least one who is supposed to know more about spirits, 
omens, etc. than the other members, and his observations and 
advice are acted on. Various unfavorable omens are watched 
for, perhaps the commonest being the falling down or removal 
of the cross. If nothing occurs during the wait to contraindicate 
the digging of the ditch, the work is begun, offerings being first 
put on the platform or altar. These offerings ordinarily consist 
of rice cooked with coconut, chicken, betel-nut for chewing, 
tobacco, and basi. When the canal has been made, another 
ceremony is commonly performed, especially if some difficulty 
is met with in getting the water to run in the ditch. This 
rite consists in killing an animal at the edge of the canal and 
saying the words given below. The animal is usually a pig, 
but I know of cases in which an ox has been sacrificed. The 
animal is killed in such a position that the blood spurts into 
the ditch, while the master of ceremonies recites the following : 

Ditch, this blood is spurted into you in order that your current may be as 
strong as the current of this blood.' 

The body of the animal is then dragged along the bed of the 
canal up to the land to be irrigated. 

It is also a very common practice to sprinkle the route of 
the canal with blood before starting to dig. The throat of 
a pig or chicken is cut, and the animal is dragged along the 
line of route for this purpose. 

I know of an authentic case which occurred near Laoag, 
Ilocos Norte, where a dog's blood was used for sprinkling a 
piece of ground which was to be leveled to make a rice field, 
the dog being eaten afterward. But in this case the workers 
were not Ilocanos but Tingians working for an Ilocano. Whether 

^ Kali naisuyat kenka daitoi a dara tapno Hi peggesna nga agwayawai 
padaen kuma ti danuvimo iti pigsana nga agayus. 



112 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Ilocano peasants sprinkle blood on the ground before leveling 
or clearing ground I do not know positively, but such action 
would be in line with their practice in canal digging. 

I have heard frequently of Ilocanos burying an animal in 
the masonry of the canal intakes or gates, but I am not able 
to vouch for the existence of the practice except in one case 
in which my information seemed thoroughly reliable. In this 
case the man who had performed the act was an Ilocano living 
in San Miguel. He informed me that he had buried a chicken 
alive in the masonry on first constructing it, but on the gate 
or intake being destroyed by a flood he had consulted a Tingian 
as to what he should do. The Tingian recommended that a dog 
should be buried alive when the gate was reconstructed. This 
was done, and according to my informant the gate has stood 
solidly ever since. 

Before taking leave of the subject of irrigation in Ilocos 
Norte, I wish to mention certain unsatisfactory features. One 
is the danger of a local boss who initiates a canal-building 
society or gets control of one already formed claiming the pro- 
prietorship of the works. This is especially liable to be the case 
after the lapse of time has eliminated the original constructors. 
There are several factors which may favor his success in such 
an attempt. As the chief, he controls the original of the 
document organizing the society. It is not difficult to cause 
this paper to disappear in a plausible manner; for example, 
during one of the typhoons or fires which frequently destroy 
the flimsy houses of a provincial town. The frequency of 
destructive flres in the towns of Ilocos Norte during the time 
covered by the memory of men still living is very striking. Even 
if the documents were kept at the town hall, the danger would 
be but little lessened. It would seem that papers of such 
importance should be kept in the provincial building at the 
capital, certified copies being furnished to the chiefs of the 
various societies. 

A point in which improvement is possible lies in the direction 
of definite provision for an equitable distribution of water. 
It may be that there are irrigation agreements in Ilocos Norte 
in which such provision is made. I can only say that I have 
seen none in the various agreements that I have read, which 
were chosen at random in different sections of the province. 
It seems to have been assumed by those who signed these 
papers thai; the proposed works would supply sufficient water 
to all concerned under any circumstances. In point of fact, 
it happens with great frequency that there is not water enough 



IX, D. 2 Christie: Irrigation in Ilocos Norte 113 

to go around under the present haphazard way of distributing it. 

It is probable in the extreme that there are also considerable 
possibilities of improvement in some cases in the line of coordina- 
tion of the work of the various irrigation societies operating in 
a given region. The societies have been organized independently 
of each other at different times to meet the problems of groups 
of cultivators who have had an eye solely to their own needs. 
The consequence has been that some effort has been expended 
and some work accomplished which might have been either 
avoided altogether or made to pay greater returns by coordination 
of effort with other groups. It is, however, a merely academic 
wish to desire such coordination at the present time. No sub- 
stantial improvement in this direction should be expected as long 
as the irrigation societies carry on their activities without 
supervision by the Insular Government. 

Finally, in cases where the Government takes action, such, 
for example, as taking over existing systems of irrigation 
during the process of creating new systems, it is necessary 
to exercise great vigilance to protect the interests of the small 
peasant. It is easily conceivable that in such cases a few 
influential men might claim exclusive right to compensatory 
water rights granted by the Government which ought in justice 
to be divided among a large number of persons who helped 
to build the old systems under a cooperative plan or whose 
ascendants did so. The importance, in this connection, of a 
scrutiny of the original papers organizing the local irrigation 
societies is self-evident. 



ILLUSTRATION 

Plate I. Feed canal in the canon of the Bacarra River. (Photograph by 
Cortes.) 

126083 2 115 



NOTES ON THE POTTERY INDUSTRY IN SAN NICOLAS, 
ILOCOS NORTE 

By Emerson B. Christie 

{From the Museurriy Bureau of Science, Manila, P. I.) 

Three plates 

Pottery of some sort is in use in every household in the 
Province of Ilocos Norte. The principal objects are cooking 
pots, which are also used for carrying and storing water ; tobacco 
pipes; hearths or stoves; extra large jars for molasses or basi 
(a fermented drink made from sugar cane) ; various sorts of 
bowls; linings for wells; and bricks. Pots, jars, pipes, and 
stoves are in practically universal use. Thus, although the 
money value of pottery used in any one house is small, the sum 
total for the province amounts to a considerable investment. 

Part of this money goes out of the province. The large 
jars mentioned are not, as far as I know, made in Ilocos 
Norte. Some come from Manila and a good many from Vigan, 
Ilocos Sur, as containers of molasses or unrefined sugar. There 
are in Vigan a number of Chinese who manufacture these 
large jars. 

The manufacture of bricks and pipes in Ilocos Norte is 
diffused among several towns. Laoag, the capital, and San 
Nicolas make bricks; Piddig and San Nicolas make pipes. 
But the manufacture of by far the largest class of earthenware 
used in the province, namely, cooking pots, is almost entirely 
confined to San Nicolas. I venture to say that if statistics 
on the subject were available they would show that four-fifths 
of all the pottery made in Ilocos Norte, as reckoned in money 
value, is produced in this town. 

San Nicolas is a town of some eleven thousand inhabitants, 
situated almost directly across the river from Laoag. Its lands, 
as at present cultivated, do not suffice for the inhabitants, and 
several hundred persons derive their means of subsistence in 
whole or in part from the manufacture of pottery vessels, 
especially those for cooking and for holding water. 

Bricks are made to a limited extent, mostly for local use. 
Those I saw were poorly molded, and seemed to be poorly baked 

117 



118 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

as well. The manufacture of bricks constitutes an industry 
of scarcely any importance. 

Linings for wells are made mostly by men, owing probably 
to the fact that they are comparatively large pieces and require 
some strength to manipulate. They are frequently made to 
order, in which case their size, of course, depends on the diameter 
of the wells for which they are intended. They are not cast 
in molds, but are built up by hand in the open air by adding 
one layer of wet clay to another. They are then left to dry 
in the sun, after which they are covered, out of doors, with rice 
straw and other combustibles which are fired. Before the 
firing, they are commonly smeared with a mixture of red 
earth and water which gives them a uniform bright red color. 
These linings are usually about 30 centimeters in height. They 
are superimposed one upon another in wells, the top one project- 
ing above the well mouth and serving to keep dirt from falling in. 

For making pipes and cigar holders, clay is dug, dried, 
pulverized, and sifted. The clay is then mixed with considerable 
water, and is left to stand. After a good deal of sediment 
has settled at the bottom, the water is drawn off and left to 
stand in another vessel. The sediment which sinks to the bottom 
of this second vessel is necessarily the finer part of the original 
clay. 

The tools used in making pipes and cigar holders consist 
of a knife, a few small pieces of bamboo, and one or two 
slender metal rods (Plate III, fig. 2). The worker, who in 
almost all cases is a woman, keeps a small dish of oil at hand 
in which to dip her fingers or her tools from time to time, 
to prevent them from sticking to the clay. In default of oil, 
she may use perspiration from her forehead or nose. After 
the clay has been well kneaded, the object is shaped with the 
fingers, then trimmed off with the knife. The bowl of the 
pipe is then cut out with the oblique cutting edge of one of 
the bamboo instruments. A thrust or two with one of the 
metal rods makes the opening for the smoke to pass through. 
After this, the pipes or cigar holders are left to dry for a 
time. Then they are placed in an earthenware bowl filled with 
combustibles, usually consisting of rice straw. The straw is 
set on fire and bakes the objects. 

San Nicolas pipes and cigar holders are usually plain. A little 
ornamentation is sometimes produced by incising the unbaked 
clay with the edge of a piece of bamboo. Many of them are 
blackened by being covered, while still very hot, with rice 



IX, D, 2 Christie: Pottery Industry in San Nicolas 119 

bran. The bran is imperfectly consumed, and leaves a black 
deposit on the clay. 

Undoubtedly the principal clay product manufactured in San 
Nicolas is cooking pots. Thousands of them are made every 
year. The clay is dug from open pits on the outskirts of the town, 
dried, beaten into dust, and sifted. It is then moistened and 
kneaded. Some sand from the river is mixed with the clay 
to prevent cracking. Then the woman shapes the mixture into 
the form of a short thick cylinder and lays it on a round 
board. This board is laid on another board, but it is not 
connected with it by a bearing pin. From time to time she 
gives the upper board a turn with one hand while she works 
the clay with the other. Thus she gets some of the effect 
of a wheel. She has a dish of water at hand, and frequently 
dips her fingers and her tools into it to prevent sticking. At 
first she uses only her fingers to shape the vessel ; later she uses 
a smooth stone which she holds against the inner surface of 
the vessel with her left hand while working on the outside with 
a paddle in her other hand. Her tools consist of a stone, a 
shell, and paddles of various shapes and sizes. With the paddles 
she beats the outside of the vessel, causing it to spread. When 
the vessel is fairly well shaped, she lays it aside for a time 
to set and partially to dry. After this, she starts working 
with it again, giving the last touches. When the vessel is 
completely formed, she smooths the outside with a shell. Then 
she may give it a few strokes with an incised paddle to impress 
on it a simple pattern. It is common for the worker to smear 
the outside of the vessel with red earth mixed with water, in 
order to give it a uniform red color. If she does not do 
this, the clay, which is grayish brown before being fired, turns 
a poor and irregular red color on being burned. As in the 
case of pipes, it is often desired to give the pot a black color. 
This effect is secured in the same way as with pipes. 

A few hearths or stoves and bowls of various sizes and 
shapes are also made. The bowls are made in the same way 
as the cooking pots. The hearths or stoves are built up in 
layers in the open air, and are then covered with straw and 
other combustibles and burned. 

Pottery making in San Nicolas is strictly a household industry. 
To a large extent it takes the place in the family Economic 
system which weaving by hand occupies in most other towns 
of the province. A woman working steadily at making pottery 
may earn from 25 to 30 centavos (12.5 to 15 cents United 



120 r^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

State currency) a day, but in fact the work is taken up and 
dropped according to the family convenience or needs and 
according to the state of the weather. As all cooking pots 
are burned out of doors, without shelter of any kind, the work 
is interrupted by rainy weather. 

Just as the manufacture of pottery is strictly a household 
industry, so the distribution is usually a family affair. It is 
true that some one occasionally buys a cargo of pottery from 
the manufacturers in San Nicolas and takes it up or down 
the coast in a sailboat. But speaking broadly, each family 
that makes pottery sells it to the ultimate consumer. This 
part of the work is also in the main the women's affair. 
There are several towns within a few kilometers of San Nicolas. 
Nearly every morning, if the weather is favorable, San Nicolas 
women may be seen starting for the markets of these towns, 
carrying on their heads large trays loaded with earthenware, 
which ordinarily consists of cooking pots. The pots are kept 
from falling off by a network of cords. The price at which 
the women retail the pots at the markets varies from 1 to 5 
centavos according to size. It often takes a whole day to dispose 
of 50 centavos' worth of pots. 

When the desired market is at a considerable distance from 
San Nicolas, the men of the family often take charge of the 
distribution. They do not use ox carts much for freighting 
earthenware because of the danger of breakage, but sling the 
vessels on the end of the carrying pole (pingga) borne on one 
shoulder. If the load is too heavy for one man, it is slung 
from the middle of the pole and two men take each one end 
of the pole on a shoulder. At harvest time, which is, of course, 
the best season for sales, San Nicolas men may frequently 
be seen carrying their wares even in remote barrios of the 
province. Sales at this time of the year frequently take the 
form of barter, the purchaser of earthenware paying in unhusked 
rice. At this time of the year, also, a considerable number 
of people from all parts of the province go to San Nicolas to 
trade their rice for pottery. 

It is impossible to state accurately the value of the annual 
production of San Nicolas pottery. Taking into account the 
fact that this town practically supplies the whole Province of 
Ilocos Norte, and even sends some wares to Cagayan, I think 
that it amounts to a business of not less than 10,000 pesos 
a year, and probably reaches from 40 to 50 per cent higher. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

(Photographs by Cortes.) 

Plate I 



Fig. 1. Potters kneading clay. 
2. Women shaping pottery. 



Plate II 



Fig. 1. Interior of potter's house. 
2. Woman burning pottery. 

Plate III 
Fig. 1. Peddler of pottery. 

2. Woman making pipes. The deep bowl on her left is for burning 
the pipes. 

121 



Christie: Pottery Industry in San Nicolas.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., IX, D, No. 2. 




Fig. 1. Potters kneading clay. 




Fig. 2. Women shaping pottery. 
PLATE I. 



Christie: Pottery Industry in San Nicolas.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., IX. D, No. 2. 




Fig. 1. Interior of potter's house. 





'■■■ ■ .rji 





Fig. 2. Woman burning pottery. 
PLATE 11. 



Christie: Pottkry Industry in San Nicolas.] 



fPlIIL. JOURN. Sci., IX, D, No. 2. 




Fig. 1. Peddler of pottery. 




Fig. 2. Woman making pipes. The deep bowl on her left is for burning the pipes. 
PLATE ill. 



HISTORY OF THE SPANISH NORMAL SCHOOL FOR MEN 
TEACHERS IN MANILA, 1865-1905* 

By Andrew W. Cain 
{From the Bureau of Education^ Manila, P. I.) 

Four plates 

CONTENTS 
Introduction. 
Preliminary Plans. 
The Royal Decrees of 1863. 

General plan of organization of the normal school. 

Means of support. 

The course of study. 

Who were to be admitted as students. 

Cost to pupils. 

Interior regulations. 

Certificates. 

Responsibilities and privileges of graduates. 
The Equipment of the Normal School. 
The Founding of the Normal School, 1865. 

Existing educational conditions. 

The formal opening. 
Early History of the Normal School. 

Distribution of graduates. 

Program of duties. 

Outline of subjects in the course of study for elementary teachers. 
Contemporary Comment. 

Difficulties in the way. 

Conditions confronting graduates. 

Was the purpose of the school achieved. 

Recollections of a graduate. 
The Normal School is Elevated to the Grade of Superior. 

Organization. 

Support. 

Curriculum. 

Pensioners. 

Regulations. 

Teachers' examinations. 
The Normal School Booth at the Exposition. 
The Pedagogical Academy. 

The First Pedagogical Contest in the Philippines. 
The Normal School under the American Flag. 

A statement to the patrons of the school. 

A statement to the Philippine Commission. 

The creation of the Department of Public Instruction. 

A request for authority to continue the normal school. 

The withdrawal of financial support and final closing of the normal 
school. 
Graduates of the Normal School from 1866 to 1905. 
Bibliography. 

*A thesis written to satisfy, in part, the requirements for the degree of 
master of arts in the University of the Philippines. 

123 



124 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

INTRODUCTION 

This study was undertaken for the purpose of determining 
the extent to which the Spanish Government in the Philippine 
Islands provided for the professional training of its public-school 
teachers. It will be noted that prior to the promulgation of 
the royal decrees of 1863 there was nothing in the Philippines 
that could be termed public education. Previous royal orders 
regarding education had been issued from time to time, but as no 
provisions were made for putting these orders into effect they 
all came to naught. 

When educational reform was finally inaugurated in 1863, and 
thereafter, the work was carried on largely through the Jesuits. 
The Jesuits have a well-established reputation as a teaching 
order. After an exile of nearly a century, they were permitted 
to return to the Philippines in 1852 upon the conditions that their 
missionary fields be limited and that they devote a part of their 
time to the spread of education. The Jesuits gave Spain that 
assistance which made possible the founding of a system of public 
education in the Philippines. The normal school was to be 
at the head of this proposed system of instruction. When 
the plan for the establishment of the normal school was finally 
completed, the school was given over to the Jesuits to be adminis- 
tered as they thought proper. The part of the Government in the 
undertaking was merely to pay the expenses. 

This article is based largely upon original documents which 
heretofore have not been published or translated into English. 
Lack of space forbids my mentioning the names of many to 
whom I am under obligations for assistance. Especial thanks 
are due Father Marcial Sola, prefect of studies in the Ateneo 
de Manila, for placing at my disposal the archives of the Ateneo ; 
Father Miguel Marti, secretary of the Central Seminary of 
St. Xavier, for courtesies extended in allowing me to examine the 
registers and libraries of that institution; and finally to Mr. 
Alexander E. W. Salt, instructor in history in the University of 
the Philippines, for advice, helpful suggestions, and assistance 
rendered throughout the preparation of this paper. 

PRELIMINARY PLANS 

On February 7, 1855, Don Manuel Crespo y Cebrian, governor- 
general of the Philippine Islands (1854-1856), appointed a 
commission to draft a set of resolutions for the schools of the 
Philippines, in compliance with the royal order of November 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 125 

3, 1839. This commission was given the following instructions 
for guidance in its deliberations, and empowered : 

1. To draft a course of study for the schools of both sexes, paying parti- 
cular attention to the teaching of the Spanish language; and to provide 
for uniform teaching in the schools. 

2. To determine the number of men and women teachers necessary for 
the service of the public schools, and to estimate the amount of revenue 
required for their support. 

3. To report upon the necessity of a normal school, the advantages to be 
derived therefrom, the advisability of undertaking the establishment of such 
a school, and to draft a plan for a school from which trained teachers 
suitable for teaching in the provinces might graduate. 

This commission held but few meetings, and accomplished 
but little during the first five years of its existence. Governor- 
General Ramon Maria Solano y Llanderal (1860), moved by 
the tardiness of the commission, delegated an official from the 
office of the executive secretary to draw up a plan for reform 
along lines similar to those intrusted to the commission. Within 
two weeks, this official had completed the work assigned him, 
and his promptness had the effect of spurring on the commission 
to the completion of its task. 

The principal point of debate during the sessions of the 
commission was the teaching of Spanish. The opposition was 
led by Father Francisco Gainza, vice-rector of the University 
of Santo Tomas, one of the most active and influential members 
of the commission.^ His chief argument against the teaching 
of Spanish was that if there was a uniform language in the 
Philippines the door would be opened to Protestantism. It 
was also pointed out by him that Russia and Prussia were 
unable to force their respective languages on unhappy Poland, 
and their failures were held up as examples and warnings 
to Spain. The opponents of Spanish acted also from political 
considerations. They hoped that by keeping alive and in op- 
position the several language groups, they would isolate the 
many separate sources of insurrection. The commission finally 
voted to make Spanish obligatory. 

A report was rendered in 1861, nearly six years after the 
appointment of the commission,^ and two years later the Madrid 
officials promulgated the famous royal decrees, which were 
by far the most significant legislation ever produced by the 

^ See No. 24 of the bibliography. 

' For reports of other commissions and individuals, see Nos. 10 and 32 
of the bibliography. 



126 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

Spanish Government for the cause of public education in the 
Philippines. 

THE ROYAL DECREES OF 1863 

The royal decrees, promulgated by Queen Isabela II on 
December 20, 1863, were the foundation of the system of state 
education in the Philippines.^ A resume of those decrees which 
relate to the Spanish Normal School for men teachers is given 
in this chapter, as they form the basic legislation upon which 
the school rested, and throw light upon its subsequent history. 

In the opening article we read : 

A normal school for primary teachers is to he established in the city of 
Manila^ in charge of and under the direction of the fathers of the Society 
of Jesus. The normal school is to serve as a seminary for religious, 
obedient, and trained teachers for the management of schools of primary 
instruction for the natives throughout the whole Archipelago. 

GENERAL PLAN OF ORGANIZATION OF THE NORMAL SCHOOL 

The decrees provided for a director, at least four teachers, 
such brother coadjutors as might be necessary, one porter, 
and indispensable subordinates. 

The director was to be the official superior, and was to exercise 
authority over all the teachers, employees, and students of the 
school. He was to plan the education and direct the training 
of students, to preside at all literary ceremonies, to visit the 
rooms, to preserve discipline, to correct any infringement of 
rules, and, when necessary, to expel pupils. 

Of the four or more teachers, one was to be spiritual adviser, 
teacher of sacred history, morals, and religion, and was to 
preside at all religious ceremonies. Another was to be prefect 
of manners, to accompany students in their walks, and to attend 
to the general ceremonies incident to the interior life of the 
institution. The remaining teachers were to handle the other 
subjects of the curriculum. 

MEANS OF SUPPORT 

The royal decrees provided that the normal school should 
be supported out of the central treasury of ways and means, 
but as the latter was subsequently suppressed the normal school 
was thereafter supported by a charge upon the local funds.* 

^ See No. 14 in the bibliography. 

* For an estimate of the amount of money necessary for the support of 
the normal school, see page 150. For an account of the final withdrawal 
of Government support, see page 166. 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 127 

THE COURSE OF STUDY 

During the first four years after the opening of the normal 
school, the course of study was to cover a period of two years. 
Thereafter, the time was to be increased to three years. For 
the purpose of perfecting their studies, graduates were to be 
permitted to return to the school for a year of postgraduate work, 
in case this did not interfere with the work of the undergraduate 
students. 

The decrees provided that the course of study should comprise 
the following subjects: Reading, writing, arithmetic, music, rules 
of courtesy, religion, morals, sacred history, Spanish geography 
and history, practical agriculture, physical and natural science, 
geometry, the Spanish language, and the elements of pedagogy. 

The director of the normal school was to select a list of books 
for use in the school. Upon the approval of the superior civil 
government, these were to become the textbooks of pupils and 
were to be used as the basis of the explanations given in the 
schools. When necessary, these texts were to be revised in 
such a way as better to meet educational conditions. 

In the same locality as the normal school, but separated 
therefrom, was to be a primary school composed of nonresident 
boys. This was to be under the supervision of a teacher of 
the normal school, and was to be used as a training school 
for the students. As a requisite for graduation, each student 
was to be required to do at least six months of practice teaching.^ 

Provision was made for a private examination at the end 
of each month in each of the classes of the normal school and 
also for an examination at the close of the first semester, cover- 
ing all of the subjects studied up to that time. As a reward 
for deportment, application, and progress, as well as a mark 
of punishment for bad manners, laziness, and a lack of interest, 
the ratings of all pupils were to be read monthly in the presence 
of the students, the instructors, and the director. At the close 
of each year, public examinations were to be held in the presence 
of the government officials and other distinguished persons 
of the capital. At the close of the examinations, the results 
were to be announced and prizes were to be awarded. 

WHO WERE TO BE ADMITTED AS STUDENTS 

The decrees provided for regular resident students, who were 
to be selected from the several provinces in proportion to the 

° For a description of the manner in which the practice school was con- 
ducted, see pages 147 to 149. 



128 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

population, the total number to be determined by the superior 
civil government, and for a limited number of day students, who 
were to come from reputable families living in the capital or 
in neighboring provinces and to be under the immediate care 
of parents or guardians who would guarantee that the stu- 
dents would complete their course and become an honor to the 
institution. 

The following were to be the requisite qualifications for 
entering the normal school. The prospective student was 
required: (1) To be a native of the Spanish dominions; (2) to 
be 16 years of age;^ (3) to be free from contagious diseases and 
of sufficient health to enable him to fulfill his duties as a teacher ; 
(4) to possess certificates of good conduct; and (5) to be able 
to speak the Spanish language, to know the Christian doctrine, 
and to be able to read and write well. 

COST TO PUPILS 

The regular resident pupils, who were to be selected by the 
council of the superior civil government, were to receive free 
support, medical treatment, school equipment, and tuition, but 
were to be required to furnish their own clothing.'^ The 
supernumerary resident students — that is, those students not 
selected by the government — were to pay 8 pesos per month 
for board. In 1866 this amount was raised to 10 pesos per 
month, in 1870 it was fixed at so much for each study pursued, 
and at a still later date the price was raised to 140 pesos a 
year. 

Each student was required to provide himself with certain 
specified articles of clothing. The total annual cost of his 
clothing was reckoned at 40 pesos. 

After leaving the normal school, the regular resident students 
were required to serve the state for a period of ten years as 
teachers in the public primary schools. 

INTERIOR REGULATIONS 

The royal decrees provided further that "special regulations 
shall detail minutely the organization of the normal school." ^ 

• The minimum age limit was later reduced to thirteen. 

' The government pensioners received an allowance of 10 pesos a month. 
From this amount they paid a part or all of their expenses. 

* The most important of these regulations are given on page 151 et seq. 
The students' daily program of duties is given on page 136. For the details 
of the student's conduct in and about the building, see No. 26 of the 
bibliography. 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 129 

The decrees set aside the following holidays for the school: 
Sundays, feast days, Ash Wednesday, All Saints' Day, the birth- 
day anniversaries of the Spanish sovereigns, the day of the 
patron saint of the superior civil governor, twelve consecutive 
days beginning from Christmas eve, the three days preceding 
Lent and those from Holy Wednesday until Easter Sunday. 
The students were not to leave the institution during any of 
these days. It was provided that there should be a long vacation 
of one and one-half months during the period of greatest heat. 
By a later decree, the vacation period was made to include 
the months of April and May. 

Regarding punishments, the decrees ran as follows: 

The punishments shall be public censure, deprivation of recreation 
and walks, banishment and separation from the other students, and if 
these are not sufficient the definitive punishment shall be expulsion from 
the school. Expulsion shall take place because of any contagious disease, 
for notable laziness and lack of application, for serious lack of respect to 
the teachers, and for bad conduct or depraved morals. 

CERTIFICATES 

It was provided in the decrees that students of the normal 
school who successfully completed all the work of the three-year 
course and passed the prescribed examination with a rating 
of "excellent'' were to receive certificates showing their attain- 
ments ^ and were to be regarded as eligible to teach in the 
intermediate schools. Those who completed the work in like 
manner and passed the examination with a rating of "good" 
or "fair" were to receive certificates indicating their fitness 
to teach in the primary schools. Students who completed all 
of the work but failed of promotion on account of low ratings 
in the examination were to be offered employment as assistant 
teachers. 

RESPONSIBILITIES AND PRIVILEGES OF GRADUATES 

Regular resident students who received the benefits of the 
normal school were to teach in the public school for ten years 
at stations to which they might be assigned by the superior 
civil government. Those who left the school of their own 
accord or were taken from the school by their parents, as well 
as those who were expelled for lack of application or for bad 
conduct, were required to repay to the state the amount expended 
on their education. 

The teachers appointed from the normal school were not to 

^ Facsimiles of certificates are given in the plates. 



130 "^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

be discharged except for legitimate cause and by resolution of 
the superior civil governor, after hearing the interested party. 
The causes for which an action might be brought were faults 
of religion, public or private immorality, lack of zeal in the 
fulfillment of duty, and abandonment of the Spanish language 
in the explanations or in the ceremonies of the school. 

Teachers and assistants were to be exempt from personal 
service as long as they discharged their duties as teachers, and 
even after they ceased to perform these duties, provided they 
had been in the teaching service for fifteen years. 

After five years of service for teachers and ten years for 
assistants, these persons were to become principales^^ 

It was provided that teachers who were disabled in the 
discharge of their professional duties were to receive a pension, 
subject to certain restrictions. The same rule was to apply to 
those who reached the age of 60 in the teaching service. After 
twenty years of service, all teachers were to receive a pension 
equivalent to half the retiring salary. After thirty-five years' 
service, the pension was to be three-fourths of the retiring 
salary. 

Teachers and assistants with certificates were to be preferred 
for appointment to various government positions after ten and 
fifteen years' service, respectively. No examination or other 
test of fitness was to be required. 

In addition to their regular salaries, teachers were to receive 
quarters for themselves and their families and fees paid by 
wealthy pupils. 

THE EQUIPMENT OF THE NORMAL SCHOOL 

A list of the equipment provided for the normal school throws 
light upon the life of the student body, the kind of instruction 
given, and the size and importance of the institution. Moreover, 
it emphasizes the fact that the Spanish Normal School, like nearly 
all of the other schools of the Philippines during this period, was 
a combination of school, dormitory, and chapel. The following 
is a list of the equipment with which the school was provided on 
July 1,1866:^^ 

Reception hall. — Three sofas, 3 armchairs, 12 black chairs, 12 small 
chairs, 2 small tables, 1 image of the Virgin of the Immaculate Conception 
with bell, 1 picture. 

'"The important people of the town. They enjoyed' social distinction, 
and had a limited share in the administration of tlie government. 
" See No. 9 of the bibliography. 



IX. D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 131 

Class rooms. — Sixteen writing tables with 16 railings, 4 extra tables, 1 
small revolving table, 2 tables with low benches, 2 easy-chairs for the 
teachers, 1 large blackboard mounted on 2 supports, 4 easels, inkwells, 
blotting paper, pens, ink, chalk, and sponge. 

Study hall. — Five large double tables, 5 dozen American chairs, 4 lamps, 
maps with chains and frames, pictures, charts, and 1 wall clock. 

Gymnasium and baths. — One trapeze, 2 ninepin sets, 6 large and 4 small 
earthen jars, and bath towels. 

Chapel and sacristy. — One box for ornaments, 1 cupboard for the sac- 
risty, 2 confessional boxes, 1 crucifix, 1 laver, 6 coverings for the altar 
together with 6 sets of small cloths, 1 tabernacle, 6 small brass candle- 
sticks, 2 gilded candlesticks, 1 chalice, lamps, vinegar cruet, carpets, wax 
tapers, and holy-water basin. 

Students' dormitories. — Fifty iron bedsteads, 50 beds, canvas, thread, rope, 
60 narra screens, 18 pieces of rough dimity, 50 chests and small cupboards 
for the rooms, 20 pieces of coconut fiber for curtains, 45 commodes, and 17 
dozen towels. 

Rooms of director, fathers, and lay brothers. — Five bedsteads, 5 mos- 
quito nets, 2 large tables, 2 small tables, 24 chairs, 7 washstands, 7 shoe 
boxes, 4 writing desks, 6 easy-chairs, 6 commodes, and 3 cupboards. 

Dining room. — Six large tables, 2 dozen chairs, 2 couches, 12 benches, 3 
cupboards, 12 dozen plates, 8 dozen pieces of a dinner service, 8 large 
spoons, 24 dozen serviettes, 8 dozen glasses, 8 dozen cups, 6 pepper shakers, 
5 coffee sets, 20 water bottles, 5 servers, 8 soup tureens, 8 preserve dishes, 
and table linen and oilcloth covers. 

Kitchen. — One cooking range complete for more than 100 persons, 1 
heater, 17 saucepans, 1 colander, 5 baking pans, 2 stewpans, 1 funnel, 
2 coppers, 4 knives, 2 cleaners, 3 ladles, 3 skimmers, 2 heaters, 12 jars, 
and 30 dishes. 

Hospital. — One cupboard with glass doors, 1 large table with 10 drawers, 
2 armchairs with stands, and 1 complete medicine chest. 

Servants' room. — Eight bamboo beds, 8 pillows, 8 petates, 12 coverings, 
4 small tables, 2 benches, 2 pairs of tongs, 2 zinc baskets, 2 benches, 6 
clay filters, 2 large saucepans, 6 small tables, 8 baking pans, 8 frying 
pans, 2 coffee pots, 2 milk jugs, 2 small basins and beaters, 1 bread grater, 
2 sieves, 1 lantern, 3 cupboards. 

Miscellaneous equipment. — Altar, cross, chalice, eucharist set, missal, 
incense, bread, wine, rochets, 3 wardrobes, 2 bookcases, pictures for the 
corridors, 1 clock, 40 flower pots, 9 bulletin boards, 6 curtains, 14 table 
lamps, 4 copper candlesticks, 8 benches, brooms, and feather dusters. 

The equipment was at this time valued at 6,000 Spanish pesos. 

THE FOUNDING OF THE NORMAL SCHOOL, 1865 

EXISTING EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS 

At the time of the founding of the normal school, primary 
instruction was exceedingly meager. In most schools there was 
no teaching except that of reading and writing, and in many 
not even the latter. There were very few that gave even the 
most elementary work in arithmetic, and fewer still that taught 

126083 3 



132 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

the rudiments of geography and history. Religious instruction 
was superficial and flimsy, amounting to a mere repetition of 
the catechism, and there was absolutely nothing taught in the 
way of morals and manners. 

No other state of affairs could be possible, as any one who 
desired to teach was permitted to do so, even if he were prompted 
only by the most audacious ignorance : teachers were often found 
who could barely read and write.^^ 

To remedy this condition of affairs, the government proposed 
to establish a normal school, and created a board composed of 
some of the most respectable and competent men in Manila 
to study conscientiously and in detail the manner and method 
of instituting primary teaching. This board, after six months 
of careful investigation and frequent discussion, submitted a 
favorable report, setting forth a plan of elementary education 
for the natives, to be conducted under the auspices of the normal 
school. It was not the purpose of the board to provide a high 
academic education which would not be necessary for the 
teachers, but rather to provide an ordinary, elementary training, 
suitable for the class of individuals for whom it was intended, 
and at the same time to make the training adequate for those who 
might afterward enter commercial life or take higher academic 
work. 

THE FORMAL OPENING 

As we have already seen, the organization and management 
of the normal school was intrusted to the fathers of the Society 
of Jesus. Those who were to take charge of the school arrived 
in the Islands late in June, 1864, having embarked at Cadiz, 
Spain.13 

After resting for a few days, these priests prepared for the 
opening of the normal school in a building located on Calle 
Palacio in the Walled City, Manila. The inauguration and open- 
ing exercises of the school were held on January 23, 1865, the 
Governor-General, Rafael de Echague of Biemingham (1862- 
1865), presiding. Attending this function were the members 
of the Superior Commission of Primary Instruction and many 
other noted guests, all of whom showed their pleasure at being 
present at the inauguration of the first normal school in the 
Philippine Islands. 

'' See No. 27 of the bibliography. 

" Historla de la Escuela Normal de Manila, a ten-page MS. in the Ateneo. 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 133 

On the following day, Father Francisco Xavier was appointed 
director of the school, the priests Jacinto Juanmarti and Pedro 
Lacasas were appointed teachers, Gabriel Pujol and Segis- 
mundo Berengueras taking charge of the domestic arrangements. 
Classes were opened, and a number of pupils were matriculated. 

On December 3 of the same year, the great apostle of the Indies, 
San Francisco Xavier,^* was declared patron of the school. 

EARLY HISTORY OF THE NORMAL SCHOOL 

The first public examinations and the distribution of prizes 
took place about the middle of January, 1866. These examina- 
tions were presided over and prizes were awarded by the superior 
commission of instruction, and were attended by persons of 
religious distinction. 

During the second year the attendance increased to such 
an extent that additional teaching facilities had to be provided. 
The course of study was also better organized, and the pupils 
were required to pursue the various subjects in accordance with 
the regulations. 

In April and May the apartments on the ground floor of 
the building were rearranged, in order that the practice school 
of primary instruction provided for in the decrees might be 
established. This department was maintained as a model school 
for the benefit of third-year students in the normal school 
proper. The classes in the training department were composed 
of pupils ranging in age from 6 to 12 years and residing in 
the vicinity of the school. The instruction included all the 
subjects of a primary education, special attention and time being 
given to the teaching of Spanish. 

On the morning of December 3, the anniversary of the 
patron saint of the school, solemn mass was held in the chapel. 
The afternoon of the same day the hall was beautifully decorated 
with little colored lanterns and the pupils sought relaxation 
in a comedy and in a variety of games, accompanied by the 
orchestra. 

The pupils were not without spiritual instruction and admoni- 
tion. They had daily exercises and instruction in offerings, 
masses, spiritual lectures, and rosary, and were taught to confess 
and receive the sacrament once a month. 

" The name of Father Francisco Xavier, the first director of the normal 
school should not be confused with that of San Francisco Xavier (1497- 
1552), the apostle of the Indies. 



134 T^h^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

The final examinations were held and prizes distributed 
December 19 to 21, 1866. On this occasion, 14 pupils, who had 
completed two full years' work, were granted the title of teacher 
of primary instruction. This was the first class to graduate 
from the normal school. 

In April, 1867, the first examinations were held in the training 
department, the pupils who had distinguished themselves in 
studies and conduct being awarded prizes consisting of books 
and medals. 

In December of this year the general examinations for the 
pupils in professional courses were held, and 25 students received 
the title of teacher. 

Early in 1868 the director and teachers formerly chosen 
were assigned to other duties in the mission, and Father Alejan- 
dro Zans was appointed director. Fathers Pascual Barrado, 
Jose Casadovale, and Santiago Buntas were appointed teachers. 

The number of pupils having increased, it was found necessary 
to provide for 20 additional boarders. 

At the end of the school year examinations were held and 
27 students were granted certificates of graduation. 

By the superior decree of March 22, 1869, the date for the 
opening of the school year was changed from January to June, 
for the greater convenience of pupils and teachers. During 
this year 127 students were registered and 29 received the 
title of teacher. 

The year 1870 was uneventful except that the personnel of the 
administrative and teaching staff was increased to 8 — 4 priests, 
2 brothers, and 2 student assistants. A class of 39 students was 
graduated. 

In 1871 news came from Madrid of the publication of the 
Moret decree transferring the charge of the normal school to 
the secular clergy. This order was received in the Philippines 
with great dissatisfaction by those who had been intrusted with 
the work of the normal school. On the other hand, there were 
those who welcomed the change, as they believed it signified 
greater progress. Arrangements were finally made for the 
withdrawal of the decree before the end of the year. 

As the school year drew toward a close, examinations were 
held in the two grades of the training department and in all 
classes of the normal school. The director and other government 
officials were well pleased with the results of the examinations. 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 135 

and on April 5 prizes were awarded and diplomas issued to 
39 graduates. 

At the opening of the school year in June 125 new pupils 
were admitted and a considerable number turned away for lack 
of accommodations. 

Two material changes in the internal regulations of the school 
were effected at this time. The first of these prescribed the 
time and fnanner of making confessions by both boarders and 
day pupils. The other pertained to the inspection of the 
students in the evening. A priest was placed on duty as door- 
keeper, and the passing in and out of the building after supper 
was thus regulated. 

The feast of San Francisco Xavier was celebrated with especial 
joy. A comedy was given, two balloons were let go, and the 
sky was brilliantly illuminated with hundreds of rockets. 

In 1872 occurred the famous Cavite revolt, but the authorities 
of the normal school were pleased to note that this did not 
have any apparent effect upon the student body. 

In 1874 the superior civil government of the Philippines 
decreed that no petition for admission to the normal school 
should be sent except through a provincial governor. During 
the same year other decrees were issued fixing the number of 
resident pupils. 

On June 22, 1880, a royal order of the ministry of the colonies 
set aside a permanent sum of money to be assigned in the 
budget for the maintenance of the school. It was during the 
same year that the building was destroyed by an earthquake. 
The classes were for a few days accommodated at the Ateneo, 
being held in hallways, corridors, and every other available 
space large enough for a recitation. As it was impossible to 
continue this arrangement for a long period and as no other 
house sufficiently large could be found, the mission of the 
company of Jesuits rented to the government for the use of 
the school a building which it possessed in the neighboring 
pueblo of Santa Ana. This was occupied by the school for a 
period of six years. Meanwhile, seeing that no other means 
were forthcoming for giving this school a suitably large building 
and as the house at Santa Ana was inconveniently located, the 
mission resolved to take under its care the enterprise of erecting 
and equipping a new building. This structure, situated in the 
district of Ermita, was the home of the normal school from 
1886 until the institution finally closed its doors. 



136 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



DISTRIBUTION OF GRADUATES 



The following table shows the places of residence of the 
graduates of the normal school from 1865 to 1887. 



Peninsula teachers 

Abra 

Albay 

Antique 

Basilan 

Bataan .\ 

Batanes 

Batangas 

Bohol 

Bulacan 

Cagayan 

Calamianes 

Camarines 

Capiz 

Cavite 

Cebu 

Cotabato 

Ilocos Norte 

Ilocos Sur 

Iloilo 

Infanta 

Isabela 



8 

4 

12 

4 

1 

9 

3 

77 

20 

84 

23 

2 

14 

40 

31 

23 

1 

45 

42 

38 

1 

9 



Laguna 

Leyte 

Manila 

Mariano (Guam). 

Masbate 

Mindoro 

Misamis 

Morong 

Negros 

Nueva Ecija 

Nueva Vizcaya ... 

Pampanga 

Pangasinan 

Romblon 

Samar 

Surigao 

Tarlac 

Tayabas 

Union 

Zambales 

Zamboanga 



43 

20 

230 

2 

2 

14 

9 

8 

3 

8 

14 

54 

48 

7 

18 

11 

4 

27 

42 

14 

7 



Total 1,076 



PROGRAM OF DUTIES 

The distribution of the time of resident students was as 
follows ; 



a. m. 


p. m. 


5.00 Rise. 


12.30 Lunch, recess. 


5.30 Mass. 


1.45 Rest. 


6.00 Bath, study. 


2.15 Study. 


6.55 Breakfast, recess. 


2.45 Recess. 


7.25 Recitations. 


2.55 Recitations. 


10.00 Recess. 


5.00 Go out from the classes. 


10.10 Drawing, music. 


6.00 Rosary and spiritual lecture. 


11.10 Study. 


6.30 Study. 


Tk 


8.15 Supper, rest. 




9.00 Inspection, retiring. 



OUTLINE OF SUBJECTS IN THE COURSE OF STUDY FOR ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 

The following is an amplification of the principal subjects 
in the course of study for elementary teachers, and is also the 
outline upon which the competitive examinations of teachers 
were based.^^ 



" For an outline of the subjects required for the degree of superior 
teacher, see No. 5 in the bibliography. 



IX. D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 137 

RELIGION AND MORALS 

1. What is religion and in how many ways can it be considered? What 
is the natural and what is the true one? 

2. Who is God and what are his principal attributes? Why do we say 
that God is eternal, omnipotent, immense, spiritual, wise, good, kind, and 
just? 

3. What is man? What is the human body? What is the soul and 
what is the difference between the body and the soul? 

4. Of what does the true religion consist? What is worship and in how 
many ways is it exercised? What is internal worship? Is the internal 
worship sufficient? 

5. What is morality and how is it divided? What is duty? What are 
good or meritorious actions? What are bad actions? 

6. What is meant by moral order and what are its properties? What 
are laws, natural law, divine law? Civil law? 

7. What are punishments and what are rewards? What are natural 
rewards, positive rewards? Positive punishment? 

8. What is conscience? Virtue? Vice? What is the immediate conse- 
quence of virtue and what is that of vice? Of what does happiness in 
this and in the other life consist? 

9. What duties have men to God and what is the greatest of them all? 
How is a knowledge of our duty to God conceived? 

10. What duties has man to himself? How should man take care of 
his soul and his body? 

11. Is man compelled to work? What is idleness and what bad effects 
does it bring? 

12. What is suicide? Is suicide licit? What is fame? Can we be in- 
different to the acquiring of fame? 

13. What duties has man to his equals? How can we contribute to the 
conservation of our equals? 

14. What are the chief duties of children to their parents? After the 
parents who has the preference? To whom do we owe respect and sub- 
mission? 

15. What duties have the parents to their children? Duties of teachers 
to their pupils and of the pupils to their teachers. Mutual duties between 
masters and servants. 

16. What is homicide? Is it licit? Do all the duties that we have 
to our equals require equal accomplishment? 



1. Definition and division of pedagogy. Education and its object. 

2. Importance and necessity. Parts that it comprises. Its agents. 

3. Difference between education and instruction. Principles of education. 

4. Physical education. Importance of air, light, ventilation, clothes, and 
exercise in physical education. 

5. Physical education in the schools. Cleanliness in the school. Other 
matters of sanitation that require attention. 

6. The teacher as a model of cleanliness. How will he inculcate clean- 
liness in the children? Care of the teacher with respect to air and light 
in school and with respect to sick children. 

7. Necessity of varying the school exercises. Care that the teacher 
ought to exercise in order that the children may avoid undesirable places. 



138 The Philippine Journal of Science i^u 

8. Intellectual education. Of what does it consist? What is perception 
and how is it developed? 

9. Attention. Importance of this faculty and way of awakening it in 
the children. How is it sustained and how cultivated? 

10. Memory. What is it? How make it strong and active? 

11. What is the use of imagination? What contributes to its develop- 
ment and what things tend to mislead it? 

12. Judgment. What is the importance of this faculty? What exer- 
cises contribute to develop it? 

13. Esthetic education. Esthetic sentiments. 

14. What does a moral education include? What should the teacher do 
in order that the children may receive a good moral education? 

15. How is religious education inculcated? Fear of God. Obedience to 
his commandments. Means of religious education. 

16. Instruction. Purpose, means, and object of teaching. 

17. What are methods of teaching? Explain the most important of 
these. 

18. Teaching of the Christian doctrine. Sacred and moral history. 

19. Teaching of reading and grades that it comprises. General proce- 
dure in this subject. 

20. Teaching of writing. Its object. To what is this teaching reduced? 
Correction of exercises. 

21. Teaching arithmetic. Verbal and written exercises. 

22. Teaching of Spanish language. Its object and importance. Teach- 
ing of Spanish where another language is spoken. 

23. Systems of teaching; advantages and inconveniences that each offers. 

24. Organizations of the schools according to the existing legislation. 

25. What is discipline? Its base. Prizes and punishments. Discretion 
and judgment ought to be used. 

SPANISH GRAMMAR 

1. Definition of grammar; its division; object of each. 

2. Names of the parts of speech. The noun and its various divisions. 

3. The adjective and its division. Difference between the noun and the 
adjective and rule for distinguishing them. 

4. Number of nouns. How is the plural formed from the singular. 
Gender and its division. 

5. Declension. Use of each of the cases. 

6. The pronoun, its various classes, declension, use. 

7. The article, its division, declension, use, and way of distinguishing it 
from the pronoun in the third person. 

8. The verb, its division and accidents in grammar. 

9. Moods of the verbs, tenses, ways of distinguishing them and of form- 
ing them. Voice and conjugation. 

10. Regular and irregular verbs, impersonal and defective. Conjuga- 
tion of the most common. 

11. The participle and its divisions. The way of distinguishing it from 
the adjective. The verb and its various classes. Adverbial moods. 

12. The conjunction. Its various classes. Figures of diction. 

13. Syntax and its divisions. Concord and its various classes. 

14. The cases of the noun and the rules for each case. 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 139 

15. The use of the transitive verb, of the preposition, and of the conjunc- 
tion. 

16. What is the accusative construction? The nominative? The rela- 
tion of each to the verb. 

17. Construction after the accusative. Construction of the verbs with 
the pronouns. 

18. The grammatical sentence and its various classes. Of what parts 
is each made? 

19. Syntax. Figures of speech. How many are there and of what does 
each consist. 

20. Prosody. Prosodial accent. Syllabication, diphthongs, triphthongs, 
words accented on the last syllable, on the antepenult, or on the penult. 

21. Rules of accents. 

22. Orthography and its parts. Principles that will be used as standards 
of good orthography with respect to the use of the letters. Spanish alphabet 
and classification of the letters forming it. 

23. Use of the letters b and v. Also of g, j, y, x, and h. 

24. Use of i, y, and of m. Duplications of the letters. Use of the 
capital letters. Punctuation and its signs. Cases in which the use of the 
comma is common. 

25. Use of the period and of the other signs used in orthography. Also 
of the Roman numbers. 

ARITHMETIC 

1. Arithmetic, number, amount, and unit. 

2. Entire numbers, fractions, mixed, abstract and concrete, homogeneous 
and heterogeneous numbers. 

3. Numeration and its division into oral and written. Base of a system 
of numeration, and when is it called decimal? Units of first order, of second 
order, etc. 

4. Different orders of units in the decimal numeration. 

5. Absolute and relative value of the cyphers. Modes of writing and 
reading entire numbers. 

6. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Different names 
of the signs. The use of these in arithmetical operations. 

7. Numbers that can be divided. Even and odd numbers. Prime num- 
bers, numbers divisible by 2, 3, 5. 

8. Decimal metric system. How is it distinguished from other systems. 
Models used to express the multiples and divisions of the unit and way 
of verifying them. 

9. Unit of length, its multiples and divisors. Units of surface, their mul- 
tiples and divisors and what relation each bears to the immediate higher 
denomination. 

10. Usual unit of volume and relation it bears to its divisors. Usual 
unit of capacity, its multiples and divisors. Units of weight, their multiples 
and divisors. 

11. Fractions. Numerator, denominator, proper fractions, improper frac- 
tions, way of writing them and reading them. How to reduce a mixed 
number to a fraction. 

12. Simplification of the fractions, reduction of the same to a common 
denominator and way of valuing them. 

13. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of fractions. 

14. Decimal fractions. Nomenclature of the decimal units, place they 



140 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

occupy. Way of reading them and writing them. When are they called 
homogeneous? 

15. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of decimal numbers. 

16. Approximation of the quotient in an inexact division. Reduction of 
ordinary fractions to decimal and from decimal to ordinary fractions. 

17. Complex and simple numbers. Reduction of a complex number to 
the simple form. Reduction. Way of making this reduction in the decimal 
metric system. Reduction from a superior species to another and inter- 
mediate. 

18. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of complex numbers. 

19. Powers of numbers, roots, exponents. Way of indicating a power. 
Names that the powers receive and how to form them. 

20. Square root. Cube root. Way of indicating the extraction of roots. 
Way of finding the square root of an entire number, of a decimal number. 

21. Ratio of numbers, ways of indicating it. Proportion and its funda- 
mental property. Way of finding one of the means. 

22. Rule of three and its division. Way of solving it. When is it simple 
and when is it compound? 

23. Partnership. Three cases that may occur and way of solving them. 

24. Rule of alligation. Mode of solving it. When is it direct and when 
inverse? Interest, how to solve interest when simple and when compound. 

25. Drafts. Different ways of negotiating them. How to find the real 
value and the nominal value. Discount of a draft and how to find it. 

PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF SPAIN 

1. Geography: Its divisions. Astronomical geography, heavenly bodies, 
fixed and errant stars or planets. 

2. Primary planets. What are they? Their double movement. Satel- 
lites. Comets. Solar system and that of Copernicus. 

3. The sun. Its diameter, volume, and distance from the earth. The 
moon. Its diameter, volume, and distance from the earth. 

4. The earth, its movements. Meridians, equator, tropics, polar circles, 
and various zones. Horizon. Cardinal points. 

5. Physical geography. Figure and dimensions of the earth. Continent, 
island, peninsula, coast, cape, isthmus, mountain, mountain range, desert. 

6. Spring, rivulet, river, torrent, lake, sea, gulf, bay, strait, currents, 
tides. 

7. Atmosphere and elements that constitute it. Meteors. Winds, clouds, 
rain, lightning, thunder. 

8. Political geography. Great divisions of the earth. Races of human 
species. Government and its principal forms. 

9. Europe, its population and location, seas that bound it, its capes, moun- 
tains, volcanoes, rivers, islands, and principal straits. 

10. Political divisions of Europe. States of the north and their respective 
capitals. 

11. States in central and southern parts of Europe and their respective 
capitals. 

12. Spain. Its population, its boundaries, climate, capes, mountain 
ranges, and main rivers. 

13. Territorial divisions of Spain. Capital of the monarchy. Ultrama- 
rine possessions and population. 

14. Population, extension, and location of the Philippine Islands. Moun- 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 141 

tain ranges, rivers, lakes, and more important straits. Territorial divi- 
sions. Location and capital of each of the provinces. 

15. Asia, its population, location, straits, rivers, and principal mountains. 
Political divisions and capital of each one of its states. 

16. Location and population of Africa. Seas that bound its coasts and 
large rivers. Political divisions and capital of each one of the states. 

17. Location and population of America. Its mountain ranges and large 
rivers. Political divisions and capitals of its states. 

18. To what is the name "Oceania" given? Climate of Oceania, its divi- 
sion, and islands that form each one of the three great divisions. 

19. History of Spain. What is it and into how many periods is it di- 
vided? First occupants of Spain, Phoenicians, Greeks, and Carthaginians. 
Purpose that they had in entering Spain. 

20. Who were the Romans? Divisions they made of Spain. Resistance 
of the Spaniards and their glorious deeds. 

21. Barbarians of the north who settled in Spain. Kings of that period 
who are of greatest historical interest. 

22. Arabian Spain. Who were the Arabs? Struggle of the Arabs with 
the Christians. Who was the illustrious Caliph who was a warrior and 
was feared by the Christians? Who conquered him and what memorable 
event took place later? 

23. Progress of the small monarchy of Peloyas and his brilliant victories. 
Kings of greater historical importance in this period. 

24. The house of Austria. Origin of this dynasty. Kings of this dy- 
nasty and their notable deeds. 

25. House of Bourbon. Origin of this dynasty. Kings of this dynasty 
and their principal deeds. 

PRINCIPLES OF GEOMETRY 

1. Object of geometry, divisions of the subjects, kinds of figures. 

2. Straight line, curved, broken, mixed. 

3. Circumference, radius, diameter, arc, cord, secant, tangent. 

4. Degrees in which the circumference can be divided and subdivisions 
of these. 

5. Angles, right, acute, and obtuse. 

6. Adjacent angles and value of both angles. 

7. Perpendicular, oblique, and parallel lines. 

8. Divisions of the triangle because of its sides or angles. 

9. Vertex, base, and altitude of a triangle. Value of angles of a tri- 
angle. 

10. What is a quadrilateral? How are quadrilaterals divided? 

11. Parallelogram. In how many ways can it be placed? 

12. The polygon and the different value it has according to the number of 
its sides. 

13. The circle, ring, sector. 

14. Inscribed and circumscribed polygon. 

15. Way of describing a circumference or drawing any triangle or regular 
polygon. 

16. Way of inscribing a regular hexagon in the circumference. 

17. Method of finding the area of a parallelogram, triangle, square, and 
trapezium. 

18. How is the area of a regular polygon found, of an irregular polygon, 
of a circle, of a circular sector? 



142 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science isu 

19. The more important equivalents of the plane figures. 

20. Polyhedron, intersections, dihedral and polyhedral angles. Regular 
and irregular polyhedrons. 

21. How many and what are round bodies? How are they originated? 

22. Volume of geometrical body and unit of volume. 

23. Way of finding the volume of a pyramid, of a prism, and of a; 
rectangular parallelogram. 

24. How is the volume of the regular polyhedron, of the cylinder, and of 
the sphere found? 

25. Relation between two spheres of different radii. 

NATURAL SCIENCE 

1. Natural science and its division into physics, chemistry, and natural 
history. 

2. General properties of bodies. 

3. Three states in which bodies can be found. 

4. Movement and its different classes. 

5. Anemometers and their use. 

6. The barometer, its use, and the principle on which it is based. 

7. The thermometer, its use, and the principle on which graduation is 
based. 

8. Instruments for measuring humidity, on what are they based, and 
what are their uses? How is the electromotive force valued? How is it 
named when it is of high pressure? 

9. Light, how it is propagated, its velocity, and time required to pass 
from the sun to us. 

10. Reflection of the luminous rays, angles they form on falling on a 
polished body. Refraction of the same. 

11. Microscope, eyeglass, and telescope. 

12. Lenses and especial property of the convex, of the concave. Who 
uses the former? Who uses the latter? 

13. Colors that a ray of the sun is composed of and how to decompose it. 

14. Electricity. Its properties. How is it developed? Different ways of 
developing it. 

15. The magnets, the compass, and the electromagnet and their important 
applications. 

16. Simple and compound bodies. Metals and metaloids, properties of 
the former and the latter. 

17. Oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen and their principal properties. 

18. Pure water and of what it is composed. The atmospheric fluid and 
of what it is formed. 

19. Minerals. How do they appear and into how many groups can they 
be divided? 

20. Vegetables. How do they appear, and of what are they composed? 
Divisions. 

21. Organs of nutrition and of reproduction of vegetables. 

22. Functions of nutrition and functions of reproduction in the vegetable 
kingdom. 

23. Animals. How do they appear and of what are they composed? 

24. Nutritive functions for the preservation of the animal. 

25. Four great groups into which they are divided. Subdivisions of each 
of them. 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 143 

ELEMENTARY AGRICULTURE 

1. Agriculture, its object and divisions. 

2. Purposes to which the agriculturist should aspire and conditions neces- 
sary to his success. 

3. Tillable soil, soil test, and means of improving the soil. 

4. Climate for agriculture, its agents and composition of soil. 

5. Improvements of the soil and how they are made. 

6. How to prepare virgin soil for cultivation. 

7. Fertilizer, its different classes and method of application. 

8. Special advantages of mineral fertilizers. Plants that need chalk or 
ashes. 

9. Agricultural instruments, their division and the object of their use. 

10. Object of agricultural labor, preparatory labor, and labor for cultiva- 
tion. 

11. Principal organs of the plant and parts of the flower. 

12. Three ways of planting. Of what do they consist? 

13. How many ways are there to water and how are they varied? 

14. Time of harvesting and way of preserving the fruits. 

15. Among the cereals, what is the richest fruit? How is it planted and 
irrigated? 

16. Two kinds of rice and way of cultivating and cleaning. 

17. Planting of maize and cultivation of barley and buckwheat. 

18. Cultivation of sugar cane and way of propagating the common 
bamboo. 

19. How are leguminous plants cultivated in the Philippine Islands? 

20. Roots and tubercles used for food and how they are multiplied. 

21. Preparation of tobacco seed-beds, how the plants are transplanted, 
and way of harvesting. 

22. Lawns. Plants that can form an artificial lawn. 

23. Usefulness of animals to the farmer; work animals in the field and 
their general characteristics. 

CONTEMPORARY COMMENT 

DIFFICULTIES IN THE WAY 

The early years of the normal school were not without their 
vicissitudes. The following were the most pronounced difficulties 
that confronted the school : 

A lack of competent teachers. — Father Luengo says: ''First 
of all the normal school needs a sufficient and capable staff/' ^® 
The Jesuit fathers, who had been previously banished from 
the Islands, were allowed to return in 1852, upon the condition 
that they devote their attention to higher education and to 
the missionary fields of Mindanao. Great efforts were put 
forth to extend the Christian faith to the new charge. A 
zealous priest writing from Mindanao says: 

By the mercy of God, the conquest of heathen people is continuing at 
a tremendous rate, and I believe that, despite the lack of laborers, God is 

" See No. 19 in the bibliography. 



144 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

blessing our efforts so greatly that the day is not far distant when the com- 
pany of Jesus will say to the Spanish Government: ''It is finished." To-day 
there are many villages that we have settled with converted heathen where 
we once reluctantly undertook the cure of souls." 

This work drew away from the normal school every teacher 
who could possibly be spared. 

A lack of suitable textbooks in Spanish, — An observer voices 
his complaint in these words: 

Going along Calle Rosario on a holiday, we saw three book stalls which 
we thought would be full of pious books. On stopping to examine them, 
great was our surprise when at one alone we found 35 pamphlets and other 
books of prose and verse, all in Tagalog. Not one of the three had a single 
Spanish book. These books (that is, the books seen at the stalls) and cer- 
tain novels, always in the local dialect, circulate through the villages after 
twenty years of the most complete legislation as to primary education and 
the diffusion of the official language.^^ 

It is evident that for these and other reasons the abandonment 
of the normal school by the Jesuits was discussed, but it is equally 
certain that there was an overwhelming sentiment against such 
action. Father Francisco G. Martin Luengo, writing to Father 
Juan Ricart from Surigao under date of January 25, 1881, 
says: 

We have seen the normal school sickening for several years for lack of 
members of our own order who shall do their work ^perfectly and freely. 
The question of abandonment was seriously considered at our conference in 
Manila in 1877. In my opinion, it would be an irreparable mistake to give 
up such an institution as the normal school, which is a strong and powerful 
arm in protecting our power in these Islands. We ought to hold it more 
strongly in order that it may not be torn from us, until the day comes when 
we can place it in good hands, faithful to religion and to the throne of 
Spain, zealous and able to defend our glory. 

The same writer goes on to specify in detail why the normal 
school should neither be abandoned to its fate nor turned over to 
another religious order. 

It would be to the great glory of God, the salvation of souls, and the 
prosperity of the Spanish Crown in these Islands that it should continue 
under our care, for through this means we shall advance the welfare of the 
Islands, since well-trained teachers will be as apostles in their native villages. 

We shall take our share in the spread of the Spanish language, whereby 
new truths may be implanted in the souls of the people. 

We shall secure a place on the education board of Manila, which will be 
a great step toward advancement in the schools and will prevent certain 
troubles which may harm them. 

We shall obtain an influence in the villages, and we shall win the sym- 

" Father Luengo. 

^' See the document referred to in No. 27 of bibliography.. 



IX. D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 145 

pathy of the people. Every schoolmaster who goes out will praise the 
Jesuits, for which reason many persons, especially their relations, will seek 
confession and discuss the affairs of the soul with the fathers of the society. 

If the elementary schools are conducted by the third-year pupils of the 
normal school, an immense good may be done. If possible, the school should 
be situated in the outskirts of Manila. We should have far more children, 
and our administration would have an open field. 

Of the influence of the schoolmaster among the children in the provinces, 
there can be no doubt, since they will be in accord with the teaching of the 
fathers and the rule of the society. 

Let us suppose that we transfer our school to others. Who will take 
charge of it? Will they be religious? It is very doubtful. It is feared 
that, considering the ideas of the century and the tendency which has shown 
itself in Manila in various movements, instead of being religious men they 
will be laymen, and laymen trained in Spanish normal schools, who in their 
ignorance have spoken and still speak to the depreciation of the bishops, the 
parish priests, and family life. 

Let us suppose that the school falls into the hands of some other religious 
order. Whoever they may be, I am doubtful if the normal school would be 
as productive as the government and the country expect. If they belong 
to the religious orders well known in this country, we have sufficient reason 
to distrust their ideas. With regard to education and the spread of Spanish, 
the normal school can show results in support of our arguments. Daily ex- 
perience supports my contention — every day the attitude of the graduates 
toward religion is evident. 

If the school falls into the hands of the religious men of the orders, we 
should be sorry for the results of their experience, as it is always essential to 
have a knowledge of the nature and habits of those to be educated, especially 
in the Philippines. It may be expected that before securing experience they 
will make such serious mistakes as will bring to ruin the plan of primary 
instruction in these Islands, which is one of the fairest jewels in the crown 
of the illustrious and venerable Father Cuevas. Let us look forward to the 
day when we can turn our attention from our parishes to the welfare of the 
normal school. 

CONDITIONS CONFRONTING THE GRADUATES 

A contemporary writer gives an admirable summary of the 
situation, indulging fully in his own opinions : ^^ 

After three years in the normal school, the prospective teacher comes 
fresh from his studies to don the toga of the schoolmaster. He goes to a 
village where he has secured a school. His youth and his inexperience do 
not augur success. If the parish priest lives in isolation from municipal 
affairs because of his character, his manner of life, and his belief that his 
intervention in teaching should be confined to certain definite lines, the poor 
teacher has recourse only to the petty governor who has no especial qualifica- 
tions. It will be truly marvelous if he attains his end, introduces order into 
the school and obtains anything he needs, which is everything. 

In a majority of the villages the people look with absolute indifference 
on the youth whose age is a slight recommendation, since knowledge and 
authority in Malay villages are conceded only to maturity. 

'' See No. 27 of the bibliography. 



146 The Philippine Journal of Science vnA 

New teachers who have recently left the normal school should spend two 
or three years on probation, helping others w' : should be experienced and 
well known for their behavior to the village and the local and provincial 
inspectors. After this apprenticeship, the normal-school graduate would 
enter upon his duties with greater care. 

There ought to be established, under the presidency of the parish priest, 
a board or committee composed of a certain number of resident parents 
chosen for their possession of property and by other qualifications to take 
their turn in looking after the school and giving the teacher moral support. 

These municipal boards should assist the young teachers at the outset; 
should second the watchfulness of the local inspector; and, if they did their 
duty, they would render very difficult, if not impossible, the common fault 
that, where the parish priest fails in his duty of inspection, the teacher does 
as he wishes, and often behaves in a manner that is both reprehensible and 
impossible to correct. 

As for textbooks, their absence is almost unbelievable. We can look for 
no remedy except on the part of the government; since they must be cheap, 
and cheapness can only be obtained by publishing large editions by contract 
and by distributing them wholesale through the provinces. Without text- 
books, it is foolish to hope for the diffusion of Spanish. 

WAS THE PURPOSE OF THE SCHOOL ACHIEVED 

On this point let us hear the testimony of the director of 
the normal school in a letter to the director of civil administra- 
tion dated May 31, 1889: 

The normal school entered upon its academic career and always kept its 
purpose in mind until it could boast of having given the Archipelago over 
1,100 teachers and assistants. As to the quality of the professional training 
which they have received, the normal school has vigorously complied with 
the government regulations, and has lately even done more by devoting 
more attention than the government prescribes to certain subjects. Its 
methods have never been unfavorably criticised, nor have any suggestions 
been modified. On any occasion where the government officials have honored 
the school with their presence, they have expressed themselves as thoroughly 
satisfied with its labors on behalf of education, as happened this year when 
Governor-General Weyler attended the commencement exercises. 

Despite all this, there is a common complaint as to poor teachers and their 
inability to speak Spanish. While there is much exaggeration on this 
subject, due to the fact that modernism is always opposed to the religious 
atmosphere of the normal school, it must be recognized that many of the 
teachers are stupid and careless, that unless their minds are continually 
sharpened they grow rusty as they grow old, and that private affairs usurp 
the place of their studies and their professions. 

But there are honorable exceptions. There are model teachers who carry 
out in full the plan of instruction authorized by the government. And all 
may reach this standard by strict inspection, continuous watchfulness, and 
the stimulus of rewards and punishments. 

There is a general reason why there are only a few good Filipino teachers, 
but there are also many external causes which are partly excusable. The 
most important one is that every year about 50 graduates leave the school. 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 147 

Of these, about a quarter secure positions as teachers, some go home satis- 
fied with the education iiti dady obtained, some look for clerical positions, 
some secure in a short time larger salaries with less work and responsibility 
than would befall them as teachers, while some go on with their studies to 
higher schools to secure a surveyor's or a commercial degree and thus rob 
the schools of the^best educated teachers. These causes would cease if the 
pay of teachers were increased; they now receive less than other employees 
of much inferior education, although they have more work and greater 
responsibility. 

Another reason why Filipino teachers are not careful in the performance 
of their duties is that they have little assistance. Some have no proper 
schoolhouses and no suitable equipment and accommodations, while others are 
confronted by the opposition of parents. Some spend most of their time 
in lowering the standards of their profession and are unable to keep up the 
position demanded of a teacher, until at last they possess little or nothing 
but the name. If then there are poor teachers, this affords no reason why 
the normal school should be characterized as useless. 

We might make complaints on similar grounds to the effect that Spanish 
is little spoken. Fifty per cent of this criticism is exaggeration. Those 
who have spent some years in the country agree that in the last fifteen to 
twenty years they have noticed a remarkable increase in the number of 
those who speak Spanish in the provinces. To hope for universal Spanish is 
to disregard history and linguistics. The Basque and Catalan provinces of 
Spain, Alsace-Lorraine in Germany, and Roussillon in France are examples 
of the fact that, after a lapse of many centuries under a more advanced 
civilization and with more compulsion, primitive dialects have not been 
superseded by the official language. On this account, then, there is no 
charge against the normal school. 

PwECOLLECTIONS OF A GRADUATE 

Don Mariano Padilla, who graduated from the normal school 
in 1888, furnishes the best description we have of the methods 
of teaching practiced in the training department of the normal 
school and in the public schools generally.^^ 

The practice school, supervised by a graduate of the normal school, 
furnished the students an illustration of how to teach, as well as how to 
organize and manage a large school. Each pupil of the third year was 
required to attend this school two weeks before graduating. The method 
of teaching was also studied in the class. The pupil teachers were not only 
required to master the lessons and practical exercises assigned, but were 
also expected to be able to present and explain each subject in such a way 
that it could be understood by the children. 

We studied four systems of teaching, which we called individual, simul- 
taneous, mutual, and mixed. The individual system consisted in teaching 
pupils one by one all the lessons they studied. This system was not appli- 
cable to a large school, but for a few pupils it furnished excellent advan- 
tages as the teacher could instruct according to the capacity and intelligence 
of each. 

"" See No. 21 in the bibliography. 



148 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

The simultaneous system consisted in dividing the school into classes or 
sections and teaching one after another of these. The size of sections 
depended upon the number of pupils in the school and the ability of the 
teacher to handle classes. This system was similar to that which is in 
operation in the public schools at the present time. The system had its 
advantages on account of the superior organization and supervision which 
it made possible, but in the time of the Spanish government the general 
adoption of this system was impossible on account of the scarcity of 
teachers. Owing to a lack of funds in the public treasury, there were 
seldom more than two teachers in a town, one male and the other female. 
As boys and girls did not attend the same schools, one teacher was com- 
pelled to give instruction in all classes and all subjects. In spite of the 
many advantages of this system, it was not then applicable to any consider- 
able number of schools. 

The mutual system consisted in selecting the more advanced pupils of 
the school and organizing them into groups of monitors, who were taught 
at different hours by the regular teacher. The instruction of the monitors 
included both subject matter and methods of teaching less advanced pupils. 
While the monitors taught the several sections, the teacher went about the 
room supervising the work of monitors, correcting errors, and keeping order 
in the school. In the larger schools, this was the most practical system then 
in vogue, but it was far from being perfect. As the teacher was often 
overcome with fatigue on account of his arduous duties, it was impossible 
for him properly to instruct the monitors. 

The mixed system was a combination of the simultaneous and mu- 
tual system. The teacher divided the school into sections of 15 pupils 
each, grouping in the same section those pupils of equal knowledge. He 
then formed, from the most advanced section, two groups of monitors, called 
first and second monitors, whose instruction came direct from the teacher. 
One first monitor and one second monitor were assigned to teach each 
section by turns. The teacher divided his own time into three equal parts, 
one of which was devoted to the instruction of the first monitors, one to the 
second monitors, and the remainder was given to the general supervision 
of the school. The chief merit of this system lay in the fact that it com- 
bined direct supervision by the teacher with the aid rendered by monitors. 

The training department of the normal school was organized under the 
mixed system. The pupils of the third year were compelled to attend this 
department for two weeks. Then the critic teacher in charge of the prac- 
tice school submitted to the director of the normal school a report on the 
work of the student teacher, together with his opinion as to the ability 
of the student to direct a school. 

The following may be said with reference to the movement of classes 
when the practice school was in operation. The ringing of the bell an- 
nounced the beginning of the classes. At once the monitors, one first and 
one second, went to their respective sections. The teacher announced 
in a loud voice what subject was to be taught; for example, Spanish 
grammar. Upon the ringing of the second bell, the first monitors assem- 
bled in an appointed place to receive the instruction of the teacher. At 
the same time, the second monitors took charge of their respective sections. 
The time for teaching grammar having been finished, the teacher rang two 
bells, indicating a change in subjects. At once the whole school became 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 149 

very quiet in order to hear what the teacher was about to announce. With 
the ringing of another bell, the first monitors took charge of sections and 
the second monitors went to their recitations. After the instruction of the 
monitors was completed, the teacher spent the remainder of his time in 
supervision. 

THE NORMAL SCHOOL IS ELEVATED TO THE GRADE OF SUPERIOR 

The fondness of the natives for instruction and ' the great 
increase in educational interest since the founding of the normal 
school led to the conclusion that the course of training offered 
teachers should be prolonged and improved. Accordingly, on 
November 10, 1893, the government of the Philippine Islands 
drew up a proposed decree elevating to the degree of "superior'' 
the normal school for men teachers in Manila, and approving 
provisionally the new regulations for that school. On December 
15 of the same year another decree was issued with orders 
supplementary to the superior decree and the regulations of 
the normal school, approved November 10. In April of the 
following year a royal order of the ministry of the colonies 
confirmed the decrees which elevated the normal school to the 
rank of ''superior.'' That part of the decrees and regulations 
which in any way modified or extended previous decrees is in 
substance as follows : -^ 

ORGANIZATION 

Under the authority of the director, it is provided that there 
shall be at least six teachers, besides one instructor in drawing, 
one for vocal music, one for gymnastics, three assistants, and 
the number of servants and dependents necessary for the school. 
One of the teachers shall be spiritual instructor and have charge 
of the religious ceremonies ; he shall also be instructor in sacred 
history and ethics. Another shall discharge the special duties 
of prefect of morals. The remaining instructors shall be 
occupied in teaching other subjects. 

SUPPORT 

The salaries to be received by the director, instructors, assist- 
ants, and dependents, as well as the expenses for equipment 
and the rent of a building, shall be paid out of the local funds 
of the Islands. 

From a note furnished the director of civil administration 
by the director of the normal school in May, 1889, we obtain 

'^ See No. 14 in the bibliography. 



150 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



the following estimate of the annual expenses of the normal 
school : 

Pesos. 

A director and 4 teachers 4,000 

Three assistant priests 1,200 

One teacher in drawing 600 

Fifteen positions, pupils in school 1,800 

Servants' and waiters' services 600 

Materials for teaching 1,000 

Rent of the normal school building 4,000 

Materials for drawing classes 120 



Total 



13,320 

The normal school continued to receive similar support until 
some years after the American occupation (page 166). 

CURRICULUM 

The course of study then included two grades, elementary 
and superior. The work necessary for obtaining a certificate 
as elementary teacher extended over a period of three years. 
Pupils of the normal school who completed the course prescribed 
for elementary teachers and passed all examinations with an 
average of "excellent'' were entitled to become candidates for the 
degree of superior teacher. Those who did not obtain the mark 
of "excellent," but that of "good'' or "fair," were entitled to 
receive a certificate as elementary teacher and to take charge of a 
school of a lower grade. 

The course of study for elementary teachers was as follows: 



Subject. 



Recitation. 



First year. 



Second year. 



Third year. 



Religion and sacred history 

Religrion and morals 

Spanish grammar 

Arithmetic 

Reading 

Writing 

Music, drawing, and calisthenics 

Manners and right conduct 

Geography 

History of Spain and the Philippines. 

Elementary geometry 

Pedagogy 

Elementary agriculture 



Daily . 



Daily . 



Daily 

do 

do 

Half hour daily. 

Daily 

Biweekly 



Daily 

do 

do 

Half hour daily 

Daily 

Biweekly 

Alternate days _.- 
do 



Daily. 
Do. 

Daily. 

Half hour daily. 

Daily. 



Alternate days. 
Do. 
Do. 



The requirements for the degree of superior teacher were 
a general average mark of "excellent" in the course prescribed 
for elementary teachers and in addition thereto the following : 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 151 

Advanced pedagogy, together with a knowledge of legislation 
in force regarding primary instruction in the Philippines; 
religion and ethics; universal history; algebra; industry and 

commerce; the ordinary phenomena of nature. 

\ 

PENSIONERS 

No tuition was charged, the school being supported by the 
government, but all boarders were required to pay for their 
maintenance. Among the latter class were the government 
pensioners. At one time there were 30 of these, but the number 
was reduced to 20, at a later date to 15, and finally the system 
was abolished altogether, as it was thought unnecessary. The 
allowance of pensioners was 10 pesos per month. 

REGULATIONS 

At the end of each month a review was given covering all 
the subject matter passed over during that month. A private 
examination was given on the work of each quarter, and a 
public final examination at the close of the year. 

The holidays set aside for the normal school were the 
following: Sundays, Thursdays, feast days. Ash Wednesday, All 
Saints' Day, the birthdays of the Spanish sovereigns and of 
the Prince of Asturias, the day of the patron saint of the 
governor-general of the Philippine Islands, the Christmas holi- 
days extending from Christmas Eve until January 2, and the 
Day of the Three Kings. The long vacation extended from 
the close of the examinations, about the last of March, until 
the first of June. 

The merit of pupils was recompensed with honorable marks, 
which were entered in the book of the institution, and with 
annual prizes whose solemn distribution took place at the close 
of the final examinations. 

The following internal regulations, governing the conduct of 
the pupils, were promulgated on November 24, 1893, and in- 
corporated in these decrees : ^^ 

1. Every pupil was required to be: 

(a) A native of the Spanish dominions. 

(b) At least thirteen years of age. 

(c) Free from contagious diseases and in good health. 

(d) Able to speak Spanish, understand the Christian doctrine, read 

and write, and know something of arithmetic. 

(e) Able to write to the director, giving his Christian name, sur- 

name, birthplace, and age. 
(/) Vaccinated. 

"" See footnote 8. 



152 I'f^^ Philippine Journal of Science i^h 

2. The fees for all except government students were 140 pesos a year, 
payable in two installments — on the day of entrance and on the 1st of 
October. Ten pesos were paid as an entrance fee. For this, students re- 
ceived instruction in all classes, including ornamentation and the use of all 
scientific instruments and collections, as far as necessary. 

3. Students were provided with iron bedsteads, beds, white bedclothes, 
washstand, and table linen. They were given the free use of the infirmary, 
dispensary, and the free services of the physician in cases of ordinary 
illness. 

4. If a student left the school before the end of the year, he had the 
right to recover all that he had deposited, except for the unfinished part of 
the month in which he left. For absences or late registration, no more 
than a month's fee was deducted. 

5. A prescribed uniform was required to be worn on certain days.^^ 

6. Every three months a report as to conduct, application, and improve- 
ment in studies was sent to the parents. 

7. A gentle and persuasive method of discipline was used, and every 
effort was made to impress upon the mind of the youth the sentiments of 
honor and noble rivalry. 

8. Pupils were admitted only on the opening day, unless they justified 
their absence on serious grounds. 

9. Pupils were permitted to receive visits from their parents or per- 
sons authorized by them, only once a week, and that during the recrea- 
tion. In no case were they allowed to leave the school with friends or 
write or receive letters without the consent of the director. 

10. Every pupil was required to speak Spanish, even in private conver- 
sation, and to write letters in Spanish only. 

11. No student was allowed to possess money, but parents were permitted 
to leave with the director an amount not to exceed 30 pesos. From this 
fund, sons were granted a moderate weekly allowance to be spent on useful 
or healthful objects or given to the poor. 

12. There were no vacations except at the end of the school year, when 
pupils were not allowed to remain longer in the school. No pupil was 
permitted to leave during the year except in the case of poor health. 

In accordance with the superior decrees of December 15, 1893, the follow- 
ing regulations were set forth, prescribing the manner of holding written 
and oral examinations: 

WRITTEN EXERCISES 

1. The applicant will sharpen the pencils and prepare the pens. 

2. He will write an alphabet of capital letters and another of small 
letters on ruled paper to be furnished him. 

3. He will write from dictation a paragraph taken from a book. 

^' The following clothing was prescribed : Two pairs of white pantaloons, 
2 pairs of colored pantaloons, 2 white jackets, 1 black alpaca coat, 2 black 
ribbons for the neck, 1 black cap, 2 pairs of shoes, 1 pair chinelas, 10 white 
shirts, 2 colored shirts, 12 handkerchiefs, 12 pairs of socks, 4 pairs of 
drawers, 1 mat, 1 pillow, 4 pillowcases, 4 sheets, 2 bed covers, the neces- 
sary toilet articles. (See GrifoPs La Instruccion Primaria en las Islas 
Filipinas, page 20.) 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 153 

4. He will solve problems in arithmetic that have been approved by the 
judges. 

5. He will write a simple explanation of not less than half a sheet on his 
choice of three pedagogical subjects drawn by lot. 

6. The applicant will work in full all problems submitted to him and 
leave all of the explanations on the paper to hand to the examiner. He 
must also explain the pedagogical point involved in the problem. 

7. The examinations will continue for such a time as the judges may 
think fit, not to exceed two hours for writing and the solution of problems, 
one hour for the explanation of pedagogical points, and another hour for 
copying the work. 

ORAL EXERCISES 

1. Questions on some point of a subject drawn by lot, except pedagogy. 

2. A reading exercise in printed letters and in handwriting. 

3. A grammatical analysis of the words and sentences in a dictated 
paragraph. 

4. A simple lesson demonstrating how some part of the work of the 
training school should be conducted. 

The question or exercise upon which each student was expected 
to recite in the oral test was determined in the following 
manner : 

The president of the board of examiners put into a box 
50 balls, each bearing a number. The secretary drew out a 
ball in the presence of the applicant and read the number. The 
applicant was required to take the question or exercise of the 
corresponding number and give an answer at once. The judges 
listened to the recitation and gave the student a mark. The 
judges were also permitted to ask suitable questions. The oral 
examinations did not continue more than half an hour. 

teachers' examinations 

It was provided that examinations be held four times each 
year for the benefit of those who desired certificates as assistants. 
The examinations were conducted by the director and the teachers 
of the normal school. 

The general division of civil administration was empowered 
to issue teachers' certificates upon the recommendation of the 
director of the normal school. 

When there was a vacancy in any of the better positions 
of the teaching service, the place was filled by competitive 
examination : any one who had a certificate as elementary teacher 
was eligible to enter the contest. In case of a tie in the examina- 
tion ratings obtained, consideration was given to the teacher 
of most experience or to the one who had the best record in 
the practice school. 



154 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science i jh 

THE NORMAL SCHOOL BOOTH AT THE EXPOSITION 

The Philippine Territorial Exposition was held in Manila 
in 1895. At this exposition was an exhibit by the Superior 
Normal School. It is interesting to note the contrast between 
that exhibit and those which are given at the present day by 
the public schools at the Philippine Carnival. 

In the center of the hall was a large booth surmounted by 
the sign of the normal school. On the right-hand side hung 
12 geographical and statistical maps, showing the condition 
of public instruction in the Philippines. All of the villages in 
which there were schools were shown, even the number of 
grades in the various schools being given. These maps were 
drawn by the pupils of the normal school under the direction 
of their teachers. On the left side were the plans of the building 
of the Superior Normal School and the observatory of Manila. 
On each side were photographs of the pupils in their holi- 
day, Friday, and ordinary uniforms. There were photographs 
of the various rooms in the building, including the chapels 
of the fathers and the students, the dining room, the study 
hall, the upper classrooms, the baths, the garden, the basin, 
and the gallery. , 

Below these plans were carefully colored maps of Spain 
and the Philippines, surrounded by a collection of trophies 
and prizes and by beautiful copy-book pages, the whole forming 
an artistic and intricate pattern on a bright green ground, 
surmounted by the normal-school shield. This was drawn by 
the boys in the practice school. 

In the center of the normal-school booth was a table with 
drawers, and on its sides two pyramid-shaped stands on which 
were placed the following agricultural implements in miniature : 
A spade, a shovel, a hoe, a rake, a pick, a trowel, a mattock, a 
hatchet, various instruments for cutting, a harrow, a combina- 
tion pickaxe and hammer, a Coleman cultivator, a Scott cultivator, 
a foot ruler, a Crasskill ruler, a Bochin seeder, a lawn mower, a 
hay mower, a riddle, a Bochin straw cutter, a Bochin weeder, a 
modern thrasher, a plow, a two-pronged fork, a small grape 
vat, a coconut vat, a grape squeezer, a well, and a hydraulic 
chain pump. 

In the central cabinet were the following: Different prizes 
given in the Normal School, consisting of medals, diplomas, 
and recitation rewards; the Regulations in Force, as applied 
in the schedule of the course for superior teachers ; the Elements 
of Pedagogy, by Father Jose Murgadas; the three volumes of 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 155 

Spanish grammar lately published by Father Santiago Mazo; 
Yove's Sacred History, in three parts; Carderara's Industry 
and Commerce, dedicated to the normal school. This cabinet 
also contained the work of several provincial teachers, including 
pedagogical and literary articles, and maps and charts of various 
kinds.2* 

THE PEDAGOGICAL ACADEMY 

The pedagogical academy was an association of teachers for 
the study of educational questions and the betterment of the 
teaching profession. The academy was founded by the director 
of the Superior Normal School on February 23, 1894. The 
organic regulations according to which the academy was to 
be governed were approved by the governor-general on July 
20, 1894. These were in substance as follows : 

1. The academy proposes to cultivate the pedagogical studies among the 
teachers of the Philippines, to promote a love for these, and to devise suit- 
able means for their development. 

2. The board of directors shall be composed of the director of the normal 
school as president, the dean of the academic classes as vice-president, two 
councilors to be chosen by the president and vice-president, and a secretary 
to be elected by the board. 

3. There shall be three classes in the academy. The first class shall be 
the superior teachers; the second class, the elementary teachers; and the 
third class, the assistant and the substitute teachers. 

4. In order to be admitted to the academy, it is required that: (a) An 
application addressed to the board shall be filed with the president; (b) 
the credentials of the applicant, together with a statement regarding his 
profession or business, shall be submitted; (c) the applicant shall possess 
a good name and an exemplary character. 

5. Teachers living in the provinces may become members in the same 
manner as others. 

6. The members of the academy will meet fortnightly in the normal 
school, at an hour previously appointed, for a literary performance. The 
meetings will continue for two hours, and the following will be the order of 
business: (a) Call to order; (6) reading of minutes of the last meeting; 
(c) the subject to be discussed will be proposed by the president, and some 
member named by him will talk on the point indicated. In lieu of this, 
a lecture of not more than thirty minutes* duration will be given by a 
member of the society; (d) remarks by the chairman; (e) adjournment. 

On October 1, 1894, the governing board of the academy held 
its inaugural session in the normal school. At this meeting 
a librarian and a director of the pedagogical museum were 
elected. 

We can better understand the purpose of this association 

^* Boletin Oficial de Magisterio Filipino, 1 , 34. 



156 The Philippine Journal of Science 19 h 

and more fully appreciate the work which it accomplished 
by examining the following excerpt from a report of the sec- 
retary. This report included a general review of the work of 
the academy during the first two years of its existence. 

The director of the Superior Normal School, cognizant of the necessity 
of providing some means by which the teachers who graduate from the 
normal school may develop, proposed the establishment of a pedagogical 
academy. This association was the means of impressing upon the teachers 
the dignity and honor of their profession, inspiring them with the desire 
to spread morality and culture among their pupils, to carry intelligence 
from province to province and from town to town, to awaken the families 
to the call of necessity knocking at their doors, and to enkindle in the 
minds of the common people the sentiments of virtue, knowledge, patriotism, 
and Christianity; as these things insure more and more the moral and 
material enlargement of the Archipelago. 

Enough has been said to convince one of the utility and great impor- 
tance of the pedagogical academy. It is filling a want which has been felt 
throughout the history of these Islands, and is destined to remedy many of 
the faults of the teaching profession. 

In corroboration of what I have just said, let us take a look into the past. 
Not long ago, the schools of the Archipelago were rated as woefully defi- 
cient. This condition of affairs resulted from a lack of schoolhouses and 
equipment, a lack of interior organization, poor attendance, the inexperience 
of the teachers, and the want of pedagogical knowledge. It is not my pur- 
pose to censure the Spanish Government nor reprove the teachers, but, with 
my hand upon my heart, I am constrained to lament the fact that in spite of 
the ardent fondness and powerful means put forth by the government of His 
Majesty and the diligence of those in charge of education in this distant 
region the results up to date cannot be compared with those achieved else- 
where in the same time and with the same labor. 

The academy tends to dissipate these difficulties. At first the effect may 
be small, but it will become constantly greater as the fight goes on against 
those things which restrain or annul teaching. 

The academy has already given palpable proof of its vitality and use- 
fulness in disentangling the difficulties that are opposing the instruction 
and education of the Filipino youth. Evident proof of this truth lies in 
the good results reported by the teachers who took part in the literary 
sessions held periodically in the academy. In these meetings, they acquired 
useful knowledge which was entirely new. Even the teachers in the prov- 
inces who did not attend the sessions were benefited by those meetings, 
accounts of which were published in the Official Bulletin for Filipino 
Teachers. 

Our academy has other effective means of instruction. These are the 
pedagogical library and the museum which the academy has been forming 
little by little from the beginning, in order to refresh and enrich the knowl- 
edge of the teachers.^^ 

The following may further serve to show the character of the 
work undertaken by the pedagogical academy. 

^' See No. 5 in the bibliography. 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 157 

THE FIRST PEDAGOGICAL CONTEST IN THE PHILIPPINES 

This contest was instituted by the Pedagogical Academy, 
through its president, the director of the Superior Normal 
School, for the purpose of stimulating interest in matters edu- 
cational. The zest and enthusiasm with which the contestants 
and the audience entered into the occasion show unmistakable 
signs of an educational av/akening. The range of subjects dis- 
cussed and the manner of treatment are not without significance. 
Incidentally, the occasion was representative of the rather strik- 
ing type of literary entertainments which characterized the 
Spanish schools of that day and is still common in the better 
private schools of the Islands. 

This contest was held on December 3, 1895, exactly thirty 
years after San Francisco Xavier was declared patron of the 
normal school. We cannot do better than let the chronicler 
of the time tell the story of the pedagogical contest in his own 
way.-^' 

The occasion was solemnly begun, and it took place in the chapel of the 
Superior Normal School for teachers, the hall eloquent in its simple, but 
fitting decoration. The top of the stage was protected by a curtain artis- 
tically painted for the occasion. Under this artistic dais was placed a 
presidential table which was occupied by the judges of the contest. Sitting 
near this table was the honorary president, his excellency, the governor- 
general of these Islands; on his right, the archbishop of the diocese; and, 
on the left, the major-general of the naval squadron. On both sides, the 
seats in the first row were occupied by the director-general of civil adminis- 
tration, the president of the royal audiencia, and the fiscal and the governor- 
general of Manila. The other seats were occupied by a numerous and 
select audience. 

A symphony executed with great precision opened the meeting. Then 
followed a short opening address by the chairman of the judges of the 
contest. The speech may be summed up as follows: The exordium con- 
sisted in declaring the solemnity, importance, scope, and transcendency of 
pedagogical contests, emphasizing the fact that this, the first to be cele- 
brated in the Philippines, opened a new era and should be marked with 
golden characters in the annals of primary education in the Islands. 

The subject matter of the address was the following: The Greatness of 
the Profession of the Primary Teachers, in which two principal arguments 
were discussed and which formed the body of the address. These two argu- 
ments were: The origin of the profession of teaching and the object of the 
same. In the second argument was considered, in meaning words, the good 
that it gives to individuals, as well as to the family and the community as 
a whole. On the other hand were explained the evils that confront not 
only the vicious teacher, but also the teacher who is negligent in the perform- 
ance of his duties. 

^^ This account is an abridgement of that which appears in Boletin 
Oficial de Magisterio Filipino, 2, No. 1. See No. 23 of the bibliography. 



158 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

The peroration of the speech contained an expression of gratitude to his 
excellency, the governor-general, to the metropolitan archbishop, to the di- 
rector-general of civil administration, to the superior of the Company of 
Jesus, and to the director of the Superior Normal School, for their protec- 
tion and patronage of the first pedagogical contest held in the Philippines 
and for the prizes which they had offered to the winners of the five themes. 
The speaker also thanked the teachers, who had rendered their services to 
make the contest a success, praising those who were awarded prizes, giving 
them his good wishes, and encouraging those who were less fortunate, so that 
in future contests they may also wear the wreath of victory. 

This was followed by the reading of a paper, containing the result of 
the work done and the prizes obtained. The gist of the paper read was 
as follows: Five compositions were awarded prizes for excellence, 28 others 
were rated as "good," while 7 were rejected because the writers did not 
observe the instructions. The paper whose subject was To the Progress 
of the Philippines was unanimously considered by the judges as the best, 
and therefore received first honors. 

After the secretary had read the subject of this composition, the sealed 
envelope containing the paper was brought on a silver plate to his excel- 
lency, the governor-general, who announced the name of the author, Don 
Catalino Sevilla, a teacher, by merit, of the first municipal school of Binondo. 
The author having declined to read his paper, his emotions preventing him 
from doing so, the task was undertaken by Senor Baldosano, whose excellent 
reading helped to emphasize the beautiful thoughts of the composition. 
Immediately after the reading, Senor Sevilla was called to the front to 
receive from the hands of his excellency, the governor-general, the prize 
offered by his excellency. It consisted of the works of Seiior Benor in 
three volumes, Arquitectura de las Lenguas. The volumes were elegantly 
bound in Russian leather; on the obverse was a monogram of the name of 
Jesus, inlaid with silver; in the center was inscribed, in plated letters. First 
Pedagogical Contest. Just below this was inlaid in silver the arms of the 
city of Manila. On the back of each of the three volumes was the silver 
inscription. First Prize, and in the lower part were the silver initials of 
the governor-general, with the crown of a marquis. 

In this paper, the writer expressed his sorrow at the scarcity of children 
attending schools in most of the towns of the Philippines, and gave three 
causes for this sad misfortune, with the corresponding remedies. 

1. Lack of schoolhouses, materials, and furniture. — He proposed a rem- 
edy to the effect that the municipalities should work out a plan for the 
building of schoolhouses. He treated this point with practical wisdom, 
praising all, without laying blame on anybody. 

2. Internal organization of the schools. — He prescribed moderate treat- 
ment. He divided the schools into three classes which might be subdivided 
indefinitely, according to the number of children, and he also presented 
the program of study for each of the sections. He insisted that a teacher 
should prepare the lesson before going to the class and that his explanations 
should be made simple in order to reach the understanding of the pupils. 
He recommended the method of teaching by object lessons. He treated of 
reward and punishment of pupils, citing opinions to substantiate his state- 
ments and alluding to the fact that the Eternal Judge rewards the good 
and punishes the bad. He concluded this argument by saying that prizes 
are not sufficient to gain the love and good will of the pupils. He condemned 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 159 

those teachers who cannot be respected by the pupils without resorting to 
harsh punishment. 

^. Administrative acts of local authorities. — He said that these should be 
efficient and continuous, and finished his essay by quoting the words of 
Governors Izquierdo and La Torre. 

After this, the secretary proceeded to the consideration of the essays for 
the second theme whose subject was A Treatise Concerning the Teaching of 
Spanish in the Philippines. The envelope in which it was inclosed was 
opened by the archbishop of Manila, and the author was found to be Don 
Mariano Leuterio, superior teacher and secretary of the Pedagogical 
Academy. 

He divided his essay into three parts: Importance of the wide extension 
of the Spanish language in all parts of the Philippine Archipelago; legis- 
lative acts conducive to this end; and comments on the Spanish language, 
showing the difference between language and grammar. 

1. The author began with the statement that language is to the nation 
as a mother is to her child, the home to the family, and society to the indi- 
vidual. He went on to prove that the most effective means to spread 
education, agriculture, industry, and commerce in the Philippines is through 
the diffusion of the Spanish language everywhere. 

2. This paragraph showed that the author had fathomed the depths of 
legislation. 

3. This paragraph marked the line between the study of the language and 
the study of grammar and the methods to be pursued for the acquisition of 
both. 

After the reading, Don Mariano Leuterio was called to receive his prize 
from his excellency, the prelate. It consisted of a magnificent geographical, 
statistical, and historical dictionary of Spain and its domains. He received 
an ovation from the audience as he took his seat, after receiving the prize. 

The third theme was A Brief Treatise Concerning the Duties of Teachers 
in the Philippine Islands. The prize was obtained by Don Pedro Serrano. 
Sr. Baldosano read a part of this composition, which was greatly applauded 
by the audience. The giver of the prize, Senor Bores, himself delivered 
the prize, which was an elegantly bound edition of Monlau^s Rhetoric and 
Poetry. 

There were no papers presented for the fourth theme, and the prize, 
offered by the superior of the Company of Jesus, was awarded to the essay 
that got second place in the first theme, whose author was found to be 
Don Florencio L. Gonzales, vice president of the academy, superior teacher, 
and director of the College of the Immaculate Conception. The author 
read a part of this essay, which was greatly applauded by the audience. 
The prize, consisting of the works of Donosa Cortes, in four volumes, was 
awarded by the governor-general. 

The secretary then passed to the fifth theme. Discourse on Teaching by 
the Object Method. Padre Isidoro de la Torre opened the envelope, and 
the superior teacher and proprietor of the school in Quiapo, Don Pedro 
Serrano, received the prize, consisting of a book, Heterodozos Espafioles, by 
Don Marcelino Menendez Pelayo, from the hands of the governor-general. 

After the reading of the records of the secretary was finished, the contest 
was concluded by a hymn sung by the students of the Superior Normal 
School. The press of Manila eulogized the great success of the first peda- 
gogical contest; the director of the Superior Normal School, who had origi- 



160 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

nated the contest; the Pedagogical Academy; and all the teachers who 
contributed to this intellectual competition. 

We cannot close this short description of the pedagogical contest without 
quoting the words of El Comercio, which show the quality of our modest 
celebration: We consider this contest of such importance, that we thought 
to devote a special edition to it, thinking that the celebration of yesterday, 
by its influence upon the culture and advancement of the Filipinos, in all 
spheres of moral development, and the stimulus it gives to public education, 
deserves more attention than the limited applause of a mere local and 
passing comment. 

And although the contest of yesterday has yet to show the public the 
practical application of the varied activities discussed in the various essays, 
yet the knowledge that there exist energy and talent among those most con- 
cerned in primary education in these Islands, as shown in the recent contest, 
namely, among bright young pedagogues, merits the decided help and protec- 
tion of the government and of the public in general ; and these circumstances 
are sufficient to make us dedicate our pen to the contest. It was indeed a 
great lesson that was taught yesterday at the Superior Normal School for 
teachers, which was not perhaps realized by all. As the sound that it pro- 
duced in the atmosphere echoes and reechoes to unknown limits, as a stone 
that falls on the surface of a lake causes the waters to move in concentric 
circles away from it, until they reach the very shore of the lake itself, so 
will the celebration of yesterday extend its undying influence over every 
locality in the Archipelago. It will encourage the unpretentious teacher 
in some dark corner of these Islands to carry on with greater efforts his 
educational work and to live up to the heights of his noble profession; and 
as his extraordinary talents and activities are placed before the eyes of the 
public and receive its applause, his individual efforts will be more and more 
encouraged, and will thus contribute greatly to the welfare of his country. 
May God, in His infinite kindness, make this first pedagogical contest in the 
Philippine Islands the beginning of a new era of progress for the education 
of the Filipino youth. 

THE NORMAL SCHOOL UNDER THE AMERICAN FLAG 

A STATEMENT TO THE PATRONS OF THE SCHOOL 

Soon after Spanish sovereignty came to an end in the Phil- 
ippine Islands, the following circular letter was issued by the 
authorities of the normal school : 

This center of education, well known to the Filipino people as it now is 
in the thirty-third year of its existence, has trained thousands of young 
men for every province in the Archipelago, and still remains open to all 
those who desire to avail themselves of its advantages. 

The few fathers of the society, who conduct the school, will be obliged in 
the future, as in the past, to give its pupils a sound, moral, and religious 
education, so that they may fulfill the desires of the Filipino people, who are 
Catholic and intend to remain so; and second the aims of the United States 
Government in bringing about the welfare of the country. 

Teaching will be given in Spanish, the only language in general use in 



IX, D, 2 Cain: Histoi^y of the Spanish Normal School 161 

the Archipelago, and indispensable now and for a considerable period in 
the future. For this reason, three courses in Spanish are compulsory. 

Three courses with a daily recitation in each will also be given in English, 
since English has not only come to be of great value, but a knowledge and 
use of this language are always necessary. 

As a study of these two languages is somewhat difficult, it must occupy 
a greater part of the time of pupils, to the reduction of other courses which 
may be less important. These are preparatory courses essential to the 
primary and secondary teacher. 

The degrees conferred by the school have such a value that they will be 
recognized by the American Government, and in any case will be sufficient 
proof that the pupil is ready for any position.^^ 

In 1899, Father Pedro Torra, giving evidence before the 
Philippine Commission regarding the educational conditions in 
the Islands, furnished the following interesting statement 
concerning the normal school and its graduates, which is given 
in abstract: 2^ 

In order to be a teacher in an official school, a degree as master from 
the normal school was exacted, but at times when there were no such 
persons holding degrees substitutes were appointed, and only at such times. 

Of those who have graduated from the normal school some have died. 
Others have never cared to teach, having pursued the course only to learn 
Spanish and get a general education. If they had all desired to teach, 
there would have been no scarcity of teachers. The career of teacher is 
an arduous one, involving a great deal of hard work, and they do not care 
to undertake it. The salary which would be sufficient in an ordinary walk 
of life is not sufficient for a teacher. It does not compensate him for the 
amount of hard work he has to do to fit himself for his profession. Those 
who have actually taken up their profession have done it either because 
they have been encouraged to do so by the fathers, or as a simple matter of 
honor. If it had not been for the fathers, hardly any of them would have 
put their learning into practice. Then, too, it must be remembered that in 
the towns there were other things which would bring them much more 
remuneration than they would receive as teachers. For instance, they 
could serve as interpreters for the petty governors, which, without the 
hard work involved in exercising their profession, would bring them a very 
much higher return. The way to induce them to exercise their profession 
would be to give them better compensation, more privileges, and make the 
profession more attractive for them. 

Teaching was obligatory only for those to whom the government paid a 
pension. These were required to teach for a period of ten years. 

The school has no connection with the United States Government, except 
that the latter has continued to pay us the amount the Spanish Government 
gave us, and the courses are continuing. The amount of the endowment 
is 8,880 pesos a year ; but in consideration of the fact that the necessaries of 
life are a great deal more expensive now than formerly, an increase of this 
amount has been asked for through the inspector of schools. An increase 

^^ Copy in the Ateneo, Manila. 

''Report of the Philippine Commission (1900), 2, 285. 



162 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

equivalent to one-third of the present amount is necessary for the continu- 
ance of the establishment. 

The following year, a complete prospectus was issued, showing 
the degrees offered by the school and the conditions necessary 
to obtain these degrees, the entrance requirements of pupils, 
the length of terms, and supplementary classes, and giving an 
account of the practice classes, methods of discipline, terms and 
accommodation offered to boarders, requirements in dress, and 
the course of study. 

The course of study as revised at the opening of the school 
year in 1900 was as follows i^^ 

FIRST YEAR 

Spanish language Recitation daily. 

English language Recitation daily. 

Arithmetic Recitation daily. 
United States, general, and Philippine 

geography Recitations on alternate days. 

Catechism and sacred history Recitations on alternate days. 

Writing Half an hour daily. 

SECOND YEAR 

Spanish language Recitation daily. 

English language Recitation daily. 

Arithmetic and elementary algebra Recitation daily. 

United States and Philippine history Recitations on alternate days. 

Explanation of the catechism Recitations on alternate days. 

Writing Half an hour daily. 

THIRD YEAR 

Spanish Recitation daily. 

English Recitation daily. 

Elementary geometry and surveying Recitation daily. 

Elementary pedagogy Recitation daily. 

Elementary agriculture Recitation daily. 

Religion and morals Recitations on alternate days. 

Lectures on politeness Weekly. 

The study of Spanish and English comprised all the grammar, 
suitable exercises in reading, writing from dictation, analysis, 
translation, composition, and speech making. 

The requirement for candidates for the degree of superior 
teacher was the possession of the degree of elementary teacher 
with a rating of "excellent'' and in addition the following : 

Advanced pedagogy. 

Elements of physics, chemistry, and natural history. 

Studies and literary exercises in Spanish and in English. 

A study of certain religious, moral, and ethical questions of value. 

^^ The prospectus mentioned in No. 25 of the bibliography. 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 163 



Vocal and instrumental music. 
Drawing of every kind. 
Hygienic gymnastics. 
' Meteorology and seismology. 
General principles of fine arts. 

In sending out the above-mentioned prospectus, Father Torra 
inclosed the following circular letter: 

The change that is taking place in the social and religious life of the 
Philippines makes every day more necessary the maintenance and multipli- 
cation of Catholic teaching centers of all kinds and grades, which may 
deserve particular confidence. On the other hand, the attitude of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States on the subject of education in this country is 
unknown. We cannot tell how they will regard institutions that have not 
been established by the Government, and are therefore unofficial, or what 
value they will attach to the degrees won in these institutions, and what 
requirements they will exact in the future. 

The Jesuit fathers, who claim by the help of God to have done some little 
good in the Islands, through the sound instruction and Christian education 
which they have given for many years in the Superior Normal School, are 
anxious to continue at work, if this is for the good of the country. They 
hope that the Government will recognize the value of their work. Up to 
the present, the great majority of those who have obtained the degree of 
schoolmaster in the normal school have used their education both to teach 
and to obtain dignified positions. 

This being so, I am sending you the inclosed prospectus, in order that, 
if you think fit, you may show it to all parents of your acquaintance, whom 
you think may be interested, because the more pupils the normal school 
obtains, the more consideration it will secure: it will be able to interest the 
Government and the general public of these Islands, and more thoroughly 
diffuse the Catholic faith. 

A STATEMENT TO THE PHILIPPINE COMMISSION 

In September, 1900, the director of the Superior Normal 
School addressed to the Philippine Commission the following 
exposition : 

The object of this establishment is the creating of suitable teachers to 
fill the position of schoolmaster in the public schools throughout the Phil- 
ippine Archipelago. It was founded by the Spanish Government and in- 
augurated on the 23d of January, 1865. 

The course covered three years, and included all those subjects usually 
taught in the primary schools. In 1893, an extra course was added to 
amplify the knowledge of the teachers and equip them for giving superior 
primary instruction. By virtue of this improvement, the school was raised 
to the category of a superior normal school. Since the last course wa^ 
completed, the study of the English language has been added in all classes, 
including those in the school of practice. This school of youth is associated 
with the normal school, and in it the future masters are exercised in the 
practice of teaching. 

126083 5 



164 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

The Spanish Government appropriately subsidized this school, and paid 
the expenses of the material and furniture, and therefore the teaching was, 
and still remains, entirely gratuitous. At the close of the Spanish dominion 
in these Islands, the Government of the United States continued to give this 
subsidy, and even made it somewhat larger, up to a little more than a year 
ago. 

The average number of pupils when conditions are normal is: 

In the course for the degree of master 450-500 

In the school of practice 150-200 



Total 600-700 



The present number of pupils is: 

In the course of the degree of master 304 

In the school of practice 201 

Total 505 

The total number of masters up to the present is 1,606 

Annual average 53 

Total number of assistants 340 

Some of the above-mentioned pupils are boarders, and their number has 
varied according to the capacities of the various buildings which the normal 
school has successively occupied. In 1896, the boarders numbered 184; at 
the present time there are 102. The unpeaceful state of the times in many 
provinces of the Archipelago has been the reason that more pupils have not 
entered. 

The school being without suitable quarters, the Company of the Jesuits 
erected in Ermita the building now occupied by the normal school. For 
this undertaking, it was necessary for the mission to burden itself with a 
considerable debt which it hoped to extinguish in a few years by the help of 
the 4,000 pesos^ loan which the Spanish Government offered it, and the 
economies it would be able to make. As it stands now, the structure has 
cost more than 200,000 pesos and at the present could not be erected at three 
times the cost. Therefore, we do not believe that we exceeded the bounds of 
justice when we asked last year of the Government of General Otis an 
increase of appropriation. Nevertheless our petition was rejected. 

The increase of the endowment has become more necessary on account of 
the notable increase in price which articles of actual necessity have reached. 
Without claiming, then, any right by the sacrifice mentioned or the merits 
of our teaching, the writer limits himself to submitting to the consideration 
and wisdom of the Commission the necessity in which the normal school 
finds itself for an increase in endowment, in order that with more ease and 
better results it may continue its work in the future. 

Besides this, in order that this institution may retain its reputed import- 
ance and show a reason for existence, it is necessary that it should acquire 
a special title for the granting of degrees to teachers. This has not been 
done in the last two years. 

It is necessary in the same way to recompense the masters well and to 
stimulate their zeal by all possible inducements, otherwise the last of 



IX, D, 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 165 

them will withdraw from the occupation of teaching to seek more gain in 
other employments or business which call for much less work and subjection. 

The undersigned in the name of the corporation which he represents asks, 
moreover, that if he inspires the Commission with sufficient confidence in his 
corporation it will vouchsafe to leave it entire liberty in the election 
of the teaching staff, texts, and methods of teaching, and above all in the 
teaching and practice of the Catholic religion in the same way as this 
liberty is understood and practiced in the Catholic colleges of the United 
States. 

Finally, as it is of the utmost importance to the teaching institutions 
represented by me to know as soon as possible and with all possible cer- 
tainty for future guidance and determination what is to be the future lot 
of this normal school, I ask the Commission to have the kindness to manifest 
to me, with loyalty and frankness-, its feeling and wishes regarding the 
above-mentioned points and any other which may at the time affect the 
well-being and prosperity of this establishment. 

THE CREATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 

The Commission did not grant the foregoing petition. On 
January 21, 1901, the Philippine Commission enacted the law 
creating the Department of Public Instruction. This Act placed 
all public schools under the immediate charge of the Director 
of Education. Some of the duties assigned this official were 
the general supervision of the entire Bureau, the fixing of a 
curriculum for all public schools,. the prescribing of the attain- 
ments necessary for teachers, the appointment of teachers, and 
the fixing of a definite salary for each. The Act further provides 
that no teacher or other person shall teach or criticize the 
doctrine of any church, religious sect, or denomination, or shall 
attempt to influence the pupils for or against any church or 
religious sect in any public school.^^ 

In contemplation of the foregoing Act, the reasons for declining 
the petition of Father Torra are obvious. While his request 
was in perfect accord with the practices of the Spanish Govern- 
ment, an institution endowed by the Government and managed 
wholly as a private enterprise, without any direction or super- 
vision by the Government, is very unusual under the American 
flag. 

A REQUEST FOR AUTHORITY TO CONTINUE THE NORMAL SCHOOL 

On March 18, 1901, Father Torra wrote Brig. Gen. George 
W. Davis, provost-marshal of Manila, as follows : 

I have the honor to inform you that the school called the Superior Normal 
School for Schoolmasters is about to be incorporated by law, but in the 
meanwhile, according to the president of the Philippine Commission, it 

^^' Act 74 of the Philippine Commission. 



166 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

requires authorization to continue in the work of teaching. The name of 
the school up to the present has been the Superior Normal School for 
Schoolmasters and in the future will be known by this name. 

I hope, sir, that you will be kind enough to grant written authority for 
the continuation of this school on the same conditions as during the last two 
years. 

The following reply to the foregoing communication was 
submitted by Dr. David P. Barrows, at that time city super- 
intendent of schools for Manila : 

This institution, although belonging to and under the direction of a reli- 
gious order, was established by the Spanish Government as a factor in its 
system of instruction, all salaries and expenses being paid from the public 
funds. This arrangement continued after the American occupation by a 
verbal order of the military governor authorizing the payment to this insti- 
tution and to the Ateneo of 1,145 pesos every month for the salaries of the 
teachers and 187.17 pesos for rent of the buildings used by the said religious 
order. The normal school was also furnished material for its classes through 
this department. 

By a recent resolution of the Philippine Commission, this institution 
ought not to receive any aid from the public funds after the present month. 
This school will not henceforth form part of the public-school system, but 
will be on the same footing as any other private school. In section 25 of 
the law establishing the Department of Public Instruction we read: "There 
shall be nothing in this law to prevent, hinder, or stop the formation and 
continuation of private schools in these Islands." It appears that written 
authority is not necessary for the continuation of this institution as a private 
school, but there seems to be no reason why it shall not be given. 

THE WITHDRAWAL OF FINANCIAL SUPPORT AND FINAL CLOSING OF THE NORMAL 

SCHOOL 

On March 30, 1901, Maj. Gen. Arthur McArthur promulgated 
an order authorizing the Superior Normal School to continue 
its work as a private institution, but withholding further financial 
assistance. 

Owing to the unsettled times incident to the war, the increase 
in the cost of living, the withdrawal of financial support, the 
discarding of Spanish as the language of the schools, and the 
change in the- sovereignty of the Islands, the normal school 
was never able to get fairly upon its feet after the American 
occupation. However, it remained open and continued to turn 
out small classes of graduates until 1905, when its doors were 
finally closed after a useful career of forty years.'^^ 

^"^ The present Philippine Normal School is in no way an outgrowth of the 
Spanish Normal School for Men Teachers. For several years the two insti- 
tutions were located on adjoining campuses, but each managed its own 
affairs and sent forth its graduates entirely independent of the other. 



IX, D. 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 167 

GRADUATES OF THE NORMAL SCHOOL FROM 1866 TO 1905 

Graduates. Graduates. 

1866 14 1887 46 

1867 25 1888 59 

1868 27 1889 50 
1869''= 1890 39 

1870 29 1891 40 

1871 39 1892 46 

1872 54 1893 51 

1873 53 1894 111 

1874 65 1895 32 

1875 79 1896 39 

1876 120 1897 26 

1877 78 1898 26 

1878 81 1899^^ 

1879 66 1900 10 

1880 55 1901 12 

1881 51 1902 20 

1882 50 1903 19 

1883 29 1904 25 

1884 33 1905 11 

^^^^ ^^ Total 1,693 

1886 49 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. Barrantes, Vicente. La Instruccion Primaria en Filipinas desde 1595. 

Madrid (1870). — In the Philippine Library. 

2. Blair, Emma H., and Robertson, James A. The Philippine Islands, 

1493-1898. The Arthur H. Clark Company, Cleveland (1904).— A 
documentary history comprising accounts of explorations, military 
expeditions, descriptions of the Islands and their peoples, and records 
of the Catholic missions. 55 volumes. 

3. Ba^es. — A code of regulations applicable to students of Mindanao who 

desire to attend the Normal School. MS. in the Ateneo de Manila, 
dated May 18 (1894). 

4. Bases propuestas entre la Compania General de Tabacos y por la Com- 

pafiia de Jesus. — This document is a preliminary agreement for the 
erecting of the building in Ermita where the Normal School was 
located from 1886 until 1905. MS. in the Ateneo. 

5. Boletin Oficial de Magisterio Filipino. Manila (1895-1898), 1-3.— Co- 

pies in the Philippine Library, the Ateneo, and the Central Seminary 
of San Francisco Xavier. 

6. Comision de Estudios. A statement dated May 3, 1866, giving the 

names of the Commissioners of Instruction. MS. in the Ateneo. 

'^ During the first few years of the history of the normal school, the 
annual sessions closed in December; but in 1869 the time of closing was 
changed from December until the following April; hence the lack of grad- 
uates for 1869. 

^ In 1899 no one took the examination on account of the war which was 
then in progress. 



168 The Philippine Journal of Science i^u 

7. Communication to the Governor-General by the Director of the Superior 

Normal School regarding the renting of a building at Santa Ana, dated 
August 14, 1880. Reply of the Governor-General, dated October 30, 
1880. Letters in the Ateneo. 

8. Creacion Oficial del Observatorio de Manila y relaciolies de la misma 

con la Escuela Normal (1884-1900).— MS. in the Ateneo. 

9. Cuenta de Gastos de Instruccion de la Escuela Normal de Maestros de 

Instruccion Primaria de esta Capital. — This is a statement of the 
equipment, together with the cost of each article. MS. in the Ateneo. 

10. CUEVAS, Jose Fernandez. Plan de Instruccion Primaria, April 20 

(1861). Also, Instruccion Primaria, April 29 (1861).— MSS. in the 
Ateneo. 

11. Datos facilitados al Exmo. Sor. Director de Admon. Civil por el R. P. 

Director de la Escuela Normal a fines de Mayo de 1889. — MS. in the 
Ateneo. 

12. El Seminario y Escuela Normal de San Xavier a Maria Imaculada en 

el quincuagesimo aniversario de su Definicion Dogmatica (1904). — 
MS. in the Ateneo. 

13. Estados de la Escuela Normal. — A series of tables and outlines, giving 

statistical and other information. In the Ateneo. 

14. Grifol, Daniel. La Instruccion Primaria en las Islas Filipinas. — A 

collection of school laws from 1863 to 1894. Manila, 1894. In the 
Philippine Library, the Ateneo, and the Central Seminary of San 
Francisco Xavier. 

15. Historia de la Escuela Normal de Manila (1865-1872).— MS. in the 

Ateneo. 

16. Index of Examinations for the Degree of Teacher (1865-1905). — A 

book in the Central Seminary of San Francisco Xavier. 

17. Instruccion Primaria. Clippings from the Diario de Manila, September 

19 and 20 (1883).— In the Ateneo. 

18. Instruccion Primaria. — Clippings from La Oceania Espafiola, September 

18 and 20 (1880). In the Ateneo. 

19. Luengo, Francisco G. Martin. A letter to Father Juan Ricart, written 

from Surigao, January 25 (1881). In the Ateneo. 

20. Official Register, giving a digest of decrees, correspondence, and other 

information relating to the Normal School. A book in the Central 
Seminary of San Francisco Xavier. 

21. Padilla, Mariano. San Carlos, Pangasinan, graduated 1888. A MS. 

prepared by Mr. Padilla. It is in the possession of the author. Facsi- 
miles of diplomas appear in the appendix. 

22. Parrafo sobre las Escuelas Normales. — A general discussion on secular 

normal schools. MS. in the Ateneo. 

23. Primer Certamen Pedagogico de Filipinas. This is a book of about 100 

pages comprising the proceedings and essays presented in the first 
pedagogical contest. The book is No. 1 of volume 2 of the Boletin 
Oficial de Magisterio Filipino. In the Ateneo. 

24. Proyecto de Plan de Instruccion Primaria y de Establecimiento de una 

Escuela Normal de Maestros en Manila redactado por la Junta nom- 
brada al efecto en 1855, y Presentado al Gobernador General en 7 de 
Marzo de 1861 seguido del voto particular del vocal P. Gainza, Domi- 
nico, sobre Escuelas en idioma Castellano, al cual se opone. — MS. in 
the Ateneo. 



IX, D. 2 Cain: History of the Spanish Normal School 169 

25. Prospectos y Reglamentos de la Escuela Normal de Manila (1900- 

1901). —In the Ateneo. 

26. Reglamento Interior de la Escuela Normal. — MS. in the Ateneo. 

27. Relacion de la Fundacion, Regimen Interior, Desarrollo y Frutos de 

la Escuela Normal de Maestros escrita en 1887. — MS. in the Ateneo. 

28. Report of the Philippine Commission, 1900. Government Printing 

Office, Washington (1900). 

29. Education in the Philippines. Report of the United States Commis- 

sioner of Education, 1902. Government Printing Office, Washington 
(1903), 2. 

30. Ricart, Father Juan. A letter written to the Director of Civil Admin- 

istration, October 1, 1883, regarding the destruction of the normal 
school building. In the Ateneo. 

31. Reyes, Francisco. Comunicacion al Gobernador General por el Presi- 

dente de la Comision de E studios. — MS. in the Ateneo. 

32. Varios Proyectos de Planes de Estudios Redactados por las Comisiones 

Nombrados al Efecto. Manila (1856-1866).— MSS. in the Ateneo. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plates I and II. Certificates issued by the Spanish normal school. 

Ill and IV. Indorsements on certificates issued by the Spanish normal 
school. 

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NEUE HOMOPTEREN VON DEN PHILIPPINEN 

Von L. Melichar 

(Briinn, Moravia, Austria) 

Ein Tafel 

DIETYOPHORIN^^ 

Orthopagus (Udugama, Anagnia) philippinus sp. nov. (Taf. I, Fig. 

1 u. 2.) 

Scheitel doppelt so lang wie zwischen den Augen breit, 
zwischen den vorderen Augenecken eingeschniirrt, die Seiten- 
rander gescharft und aufgerichtet, die Oberflache zwischen den 
Augen zu einem kleinen schwarzen starkglanzenden Knopfe 
erhoben, welcher mit dem ebenso kallosen glanzenden schwarzen 
Hocker der Scheitelspitze zusammenhangt. Eine ebensolche 
schwarze runde Schwiele befindet sich an der Basis der Stirne 
am Ende des Mittelkieles, wahrend die Seitenkiele an der 
Aussenseite von einer Reihe von schwarzen Makeln begleitet, 
sich oberhalb der Schwiele mit einander verbinden. Die 
Seitenkiele der langen Stirne konvergieren nach unten und 
reichen bis zur Clypeusnaht. Der Clypeus in der Mitte und an 
den Seiten gekielt, die untere Halfte dunkelbraun, das Labrum 
an der Basis hellgelb; auf der Clypeusnaht 4 kleine dunkle 
Punktchen die • inneren einander genahert, die ausseren am 
Rande. In der oberen Wangenecke (zur Scheitelspitze) 3 
schwarze Punkte, der 3. dicht am Rande, je eine kleine Makel 
vor der Ocelle, der Fiihlergrube und am unteren Wangenrande. 
Pronotum halb so lang wie der Scheitel, hinten stark stumpf- 
winkelig ausgeschnitten, im Winkel selbst deutlich eingekerbt, 
auf der Scheibe mit 2 eingestochenen Punkten, zwischen denselben 
ein starker hellgelber Langskiel. Schildchen mit 3 Langskielen, 
der Mittelkiel stark, und wie die Schildchenspitze hellgelb. 
Die Fliigeldecken hyalin, glashell, glanzend, mit gelblich braunen 
Adern, einer breiten halbmondformigen Langsbinde am inneren 
Apikalrande ohne hyaline Randflecken, in welcher die Quernerven 
hellgelblich sind, und eine das Stigma nach innen iiberragende 
Langsmakel in der Mitte des Costalrandes. Stigma vierzellig. 
Auf den Seiten der braunen Vorderbrust eine helle breite schrage 
Binde. Der Bauch unregelmassig braun gefleckt. Die Vorder- 
schenkel an der Unterkante erweitert, die Erweiterung vor der 

173 



174 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

Spitze zahnformig abgesetzt, dunkel gefleckt und gebandert, die 
Schienen an der Basis und Spitze und zwei Ringe in der Mitte 
braun. Hinterschienen mit 6 schwarzen Dornen, an der Basis 
derselben schrage schwarze Striche. Vordertarsen und die 
Spitzen der hinteren Tarsenglieder braun. 

Lange sammt Flugeldecken 12.5 mm. {$ , $ ) . 

Luzon, Los Baiios, Mt. Maquiling (C. F, Baker). 

Fiinf Exemplare erhalten. 

CIXIIN.^ 
Dystheatias punctata sp. nov. 

Schmutzig zitronengelb oder rostgelb, mit schwarzen Punkten 
auf den Flugeldecken. 

Scheitel quer viereckig, die Augen nicht uberragend, der 
Hinterrand gerade, auf dem Scheitelrande 2 flache Eindrucke. 
Stirne zum Clypeus verbreitert, in der Mitte ein deutlicher 
Langskiel, welcher sich auf den Clypeus fortsetzt. Ocellen klein, 
die 3. Ocelle nicht vorhanden, Fiihler kurz. Pronotum vorne 
gerade, den Hinterrand des Scheitels beriihrend, hinten winkelig 
ausgeschnitten. Schildchen von den Seiten zusammengedriickt, 
oben flach mit 3 parallelen Langskielen, von welchen der Mittel- 
kiel besonders eleviert erscheint. Flugeldecken stark vertikal 
gestellt, nach hinten allmahlig verbreitert, hinten schief nach 
vorne gerundet. Das Geader mit feinen farblosen Kornchen 
ohne Harchen besetzt. Der aussere und innere Sektor ist im 
ersten Drittel des Coriums gegabelt, der mittlere Sektor einfach. 
Auf der Teilungsstelle der Clavusader, ein schwarzer Punkt, in 
der Mitte des Coriums 2 solche in einer Querlinie stehende 
Punkte, zuweilen treten noch am Costalrande 2 braunliche Plinkt- 
chen auf; am Apicalrande an den Spitzen der Apicaladern 
schwarze Punkte. Fliigel hyalin, nicht getriibt, die Unterseite 
und Beine blass gelblich, zuweilen grlinlichgelb. 

Lange 4-4.5 mm. ($ , $ ) . 

Luzon, Los Bafios (C. F. Baker). 

Dystheatias fuscovenosa sp. nov. 

In der Form und Struktur der vorhergehenden Art gleich, nur 
sind die Sektoren rostbraun und mit ebensolchen Kornchen 
besetzt, das Geader im Apicalteile ist mit der Grundfarbe (blass 
gelblich) gleich. Am Apikalrande dunkle Randpunkte. 

Lange 4.5 mm. ( $ ) . 

Luzon, Los Bafios (C F. Baker). 

Die Gattung Dystheatias Kirk, steht den Gattungen Kirhyana 



IX, D. 2 Melichar: Neiie Homopteren von den Philippinen 175 

Melich. und Ptoleria Stal sehr nahe. Kirbyana unterscheidet sich 
durch den winkelig ausgeschnittenen Vorderrand, Ptoleria durch 
den in der Mitte des Coriums gegabelten mittleren Sektor der 
Fliigeldecken von Dystheatias. 

Genus BENNARIA novum 

Scheitel sehr schmal, stark reduziert, als schmaler nach hinten 
abfallender quer viereckiger Raum wahrnehmbar, so dass von 
oben der grosste Teil der Stirne sichtbar ist. Die Stirne von 
der Seite betrachtet gerundet, lang und schmal, die Rander 
gescharft und aufgerichtet, die Stirnflache glatt, ohne Mittelkiel. 
Clypeus kurz, in der Mitte und seitlich gekielt, an der Clypeusnaht 
die 3. Ocelle deutlich sichtbar. Rostrum diinn, bis zur Mitte 
des Hinterleibes reichend. Fuhler kurz. Pronotum sehr schmal, 
hinten breit winkelig ausgeschnitten. Schildchen so breit wie 
lang, mit 3 parallelen Langskielen. Fliigeldecken an der Basis 
schmal, nach hinten verbreitert, hinten quer gestutzt, mit 
abgerundeten Ecken. Verlauf der Adern wie bei Benna Walk. 
An den Seiten der Brust ein nach aussen vorstehendes stielartiges 
Organ, welches an der Spitze becherartig erweitert und mit 
weissem Sekret bedeckt ist (wie bei Benna). Fliigel hyalin. 
Beine massig lang, Hinterschienen ohne Dornen. 

Von der Gattung Benna Walk, insbesondere durch die nicht 
gekielte Stirne zu unterscheiden. 

Typ. gen : Bennaria bimacida sp. nov. 

Bennaria bimacula sp. nov. (Taf. I, Fig. 3.) 

Braun, die Kiele des Schildchens schwarz. Fliigeldecken 
gelblich braun, mit einer grossen runden schwarzen Makel auf 
der Teilungsstelle des inneren Sektors. Das Geader und die 
Costalrandader schwarzlich. Im Apikalteile 3 bogenformige 
aus braunen Makeln zusammengesetzte Querbinden. Fliigel 
rauchbraun, mit schwarzen Adern. Hinterleib dunkelbraun. 
Beine braunlichgelb. 

Lange 8 mm. 

Luzon, Los Baiios (C. F, Baker). 

TJgyops g^anulatus sp. nov. 

Gelblichbraun. Scheitel klein, trapezoidal, die Basis der Stirne 
von oben sichtbar, auf welcher die beiden Stirnkielaste in die 
Ecken des Scheitels einmiinden. Stirne sehr lang, oben schmal, 
zum Clypeus etwas wenig verbreitert und dann wieder verengt. 
Die Rander fein gekielt. In der Mitte der Stirn ein Langskiel 



176 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

welcher sich im unteren Drittel gabelig teilt, die Gabelaste, 
dicht neben einander eine schmale Spalte bildend, mlinden in 
die vorderen Scheitelecken. Clypeus halb so lang wie die 
Stirne, in der Mitte und an den Seiten gekielt. Die Ftihler 
lang, den Kopf weit uberragend, das 1. und 2. Fiihlerglied fast 
gleich lang, die Fuhlerborste kurz. Pronotum etwas wenig 
langer als der Scheitel, vorne gerade gestutzt, hinten sehr 
schwach gebuchtet, fast gerade, oben mit 3 Kielen und 2 
eingestochenen Punkten. Schildchen so breit wie lang, mit 3 
Langskielen. Die Flugeldecken schmal, lang, 4 mal so lang 
wie einzeln breit, nach hinten nicht verbreitert, hinten einfach 
gerundet. Der aussere Sektor in der Mitte des Coriums gegabelt, 
der aussere Gabelast vor der Queraderlinie nochmals geteilt, 
der 2. Sektor einfach, der 3. Sektor hinter der Mitte geteilt. 
Aus der Queraderlinie entspringen 9 Apikaladem, von denen die 
3. (von aussen) gegabelt ist. Die Apicalzellen sind sehr lang 
und schmal, der Apikalrand hat einen fein quergestrichelten 
Saum. Im Clavus eine Gabelader, deren Schaft in den 
Schlussrand mundet. Die ganze Coriumflache ist mit feinen 
Kornchen besetzt, die auch zu beiden Seiten der Sektoren 
liegen. Die rauchbraune Apikalmembrane ist nicht gekornt, 
nur die Apikaladern fein granuliert, so dass sie bei schiefem 
Lichte wie angenagt erscheinen. Fliigel rauchbraun. Unter- 
seite und Beine blass gelblich, die nicht besonders langen 
Hinterschienen mit 3 Dornen. 

Lange 6 mm. ( 9 ) . 

Luzon, Los Banos (C. F. Baker). 

ACHILIN./E 

Genus TANGINA Melichar 

Tangina Melichar, Horn. Fauna Ceylon (1903), 44. 
Eurynomeus Kirk, Bull. Haw. Sugar PI. Assoc. (1906), 1, 422. 

Tangina qnadripunctulata sp. nov. 

Blassgelb, die Unterseite heller. Auf der Scheitelspitze 2 
schwarze Punkte, und auf dem Schildchen jederseits ausserhalb 
der Seitenkiele ein grosser schwarzer Punkt. Die Augen grau, 
am unteren vorderen Rande derselben eine schwarze Makel. 
Die Stirne ist etwas gewolbt, mit starkem Mittelkiel, die Rander 
fein gekiel. Flugeldecken hyalin blassgelb, der aussere Sektor 
ist vor der Mitte des Coriums gegabelt, beide Gabelaste am 
Ende bogenformig in die Costa einmiindend. (Auf. Taf. II, 
Fig. 19b, Tangina hipunctata Mel. ist die Gabelung des 1. Sek- 



IX, D, 2 Melichar: Neue Homopteren von den Philippinen 177 

tors nicht eingezeichnet.) Hinterschienen mit einem Dorn vor 
der Mitte. 

Lange 3.5 mm. 

Luzon, Los Banos (C. F. Baker). 

Tangina quadrilineata sp. nov. 

Scheitel quadratisch, nach unten geneigt, die Augen nicht 
iiberragend, in der Mitte fein gekielt. Die Stirne wie bei T. 
bipunctata Melich. gebildet, mit einem Mittelkiel, welcher sich 
auf den Clypeus fortsetzt. Kopf und Pronotum gelblichweiss. 
Schildchen gelb mit 2 schwarzen Punkten und zwar befindet 
sich jederseits ein Punkt in der vom ausseren Kiele und dem 
Schildchenrande gebildeten Ecke. Ein grosser schwarzer Punkt 
auf den Seiten der Vorderbrust. Fliigeldecken hyalin, milch- 
weiss, an der Basis mehr gelblich, mit 2 scharfen schwarzen 
Langsstreifen, der aussere Streifen befindet sich auf dem ersten 
Sektor und dem inneren Gabelaste derselben, der zweite nimmt 
den Schlussrand ein. Apicalmembrane iibereinander geschla- 
gen, rauchbraun. Flugel hyalin, milchig getriibt. Die Unter- 
seite und Beine gelblichweiss. Hinterschienen mit einem kleinen 
Dorn vor der Mitte. 

Lange 4 mm. (s , ? ) . 

Luzon, Los Banos (C. F. Baker). 

Majella philippina sp. nov. 

Der Scheitel die Augen iiberragend, schmal, nach vorne 
verschmalert, die Seitenrander blattartig erweitert und auf- 
gerichtet mit den gleichfalls blattartigen Randern der Stirne 
in eine stumpfe Ecke zusammenstossend. In der Mitte der 
Scheitelflache ein feiner Langskiel. Der Scheitel sowie die 
blattartigen Rander derselben und der Stirne weiss, vor den 
Augen an den Seiten des Kopfes 3 schwarze Striche. Die 
Stirne dreieckig, oben einen scharfen Winkel bildend, nach unten 
verbreitert, die Seiten abgerundet, die Flache schwarzbraun, 
mit einer weissen dreieckigen Makel in der oberen Stirnecke. 
Clypeus kurz, braun. Augen schwarz, Fiihler kurz, gelblich. 
Pronotum sehr schmal, der Vorderrand zwischen den Augen 
bis zur Mitte derselben vorgeschoben, dunkel gefleckt, Pronotum 
so lang wie breit, mit 3 parallelen Langskielen, die Oberflache 
schwarz und braun gefleckt, die hintere Partie zwischen den 
Seitenkielen einschliesslich, diese und die Schildchenspitze weiss, 
dasselbst 2 dunkle Punkte zwischen den Kielen und 2 braune 
Stricheln vor der Spitze. An diese weisse Makel schliesst sich 
ein schwarzer Langsstrich, der auf dem Mittelkiele liegt. 



178 'J'he Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

Flugeldecken langlich, hinten stark abschiissig, wie gebrochen, 
und iibereinander geschlagen, braun, an der Costalseite mit 
roten Kornchen, auf den dunklen Adern mit weissen Kornchen 
dicht besetzt. Im Clavus am Schildchenrande ist ein kleiner 
hyaliner Fleck mit schwarzem Punkte auf der weissen Cla- 
vusader. In der rauchbraunen am Apikalrande schmal rot 
gesaumten Apikalmembrane sind die Apikaladem und Queradern 
weisslich, mit schwarzen Piinktchen besetzt. Am Stigma ein 
schwarzer glanzender Punkt mit rotem Hofe in Form eines 
Auges. Fliigel rauchbraun, Unterseite schwarz, die Beine braun, 
die Schenkel schwarzlich, Hinterschienen mit einem kleinen 
Dome in der Mitte. 

Diese Art ist der australisehen M. majella Kirk, ahnlich, doch 
nach der sehr kurzen Beschreibung Kirkaldy's lasst sich die 
Identitat nicht feststellen. 

Lange 3.5 mm. 

Luzon, Los Baiios (C F. Baker). 

Callinesia philippina sp. nov. 

Gelblichbraun mit braunen Flecken gezeichnet. Scheitel etwas 
wenig Ifenger als an der Basis breit, vorne gerundet, flach, die 
Seiten fein gekielt, auf der Scheitelspitze beiderseits des durch- 
laufenden Mittelkieles ein schwarzer Langsstrich. Stirne ziem- 
lich breit, nach oben deutlich aber nicht stark verschmalert, in der 
Mitte gekielt, die Rander fein gekielt und zum Clypeus gerundet. 
Die Stirne gelblichbraun, der Clypeus dunkler. Das Gesicht 
ist stark horizontal geneigt, der Scheitel nach unten abschiissig. 
Ocellen gross, rot, Fiihler globulos. Pronotum halb so lang wie 
der Scheitel, vorne gebogen, hinten gebuchtet, in der Mitte 
gekielt, Schildchen hellgelb mit 3 hellen Langskielen, zwischen 
denselben vorne und hinten und an den Seiten braun gefleckt, 
Flugeldecken hyalin, mit zahlreichen braunen Flecken, welche 2 
nach vorne und innen schrag laufende Binden bilden, am Costal- 
rande mehrere schrage Striche und ein schwarzer Punkt an der 
Basis der 2. Apikalzelle. Die Apicalmembrane rauchbraun. Die 
Unterseite dunkelbraun, die Beine schmutzig gelblichbraun. 

Lange 4.25 mm. 

Luzon, Los Bafios (C. F, Baker). 

Zu dieser Gattung gehort: C fimbriolata Melich., Hom. Fauna 
Ceylon, s. 47 (Paratangia) . 

Nysia alba sp. nov. 

Etwas wenig grosser und breiter als N. atrovenosa Leth. 
Cremeweiss, bloss das Schildchen blass gelb. Der Scheitelkiel 



IX, D, 2 Melichar: Neue Homopteren von den PhiKppinen 179 

parallel, gescharft und aufgerichtet in die ebenso gescharften 
Seitenrander der Stirne bogenformig (Seitenansicht) iibergehend. 
Die Stirne parallel, zwischen die Augen sehr unbedeutend 
verschmalert, in der Mitte nicht gekielt. Clypeus klein dreieckig, 
gewolbt, an den Seiten gekielt. Fiihler kurz, gelblich. Pronotum 
sehr schmaL Schildchen gewolbt, mit einem deutlichen Langs- 
kiel in der Mitte. Fliigeldecken milchweiss, opak, mit weissen 
Adern, der aussere Sektor an der Innenseite, die aussere 
Clavusader auf beiden Seiten gekornt. Verlauf der Adern wie 
bei N. atrovenosa. Sechs Apikalnerven, der 2. und 3. von 
aussen gerechnet gegabelt. Fliigel hyalin, milchweiss. Hinter- 
leibsriicken schwarzlich. Die Unterseite und Beine blass gelb- 
lichweiss. An der Hinterleibsspitze beim $ haufig weisses 
flockiges Sekret. 

Lange 6 mm., Breite 1.5 mm. ( ^ , $ ). 

Luzon, Los Banos (C. F, Baker), 

Lamenia flavescens sp. nov. 

Kopf, Pronotum und Schildchen rotgelb, Fliigeldecken hyalin, 
schwach gelblichbraun tingiert. Augen schwarz. Der Scheitel 
ist quer viereckig. Die langliche Stirne in der Mitte nicht 
gekielt, die Seitenrander gescharft. Augen verhaltnismassig 
sehr klein, schwarz. Unter den Fuhlern eine deutliche lamellen- 
artige Querleiste. Das Geader der Fliigeldecken dunkler, Flugel 
graulichbraun, mit dunklen Adern. Der Mittelkiel des stark 
gewolbten Schildchens ist stark, die Seitenkiele kaum angedeutet. 
Vor der Schildchenspitze eine tief e Querf urche- Beine blassgelb. 

Lange 4 mm. 

Luzon, Los Banos (C F. Baker). 

RICANIIN^^ 
Pochazia marginalis sp. nov. (Taf. I, Fig. 4.) 

Pechschwarz, matt. Stirne schwarz, in der Mitte mit einem 
feinen Langskiel versehen. Clypeus schwarz. Pronotum in der 
Mitte gekielt, mit 2 eingestochenen Punkten. Schildchen mit 3 
Kielen, die inneren Gabelaste der Seitenkielen mit dem Mittelkiel 
vorne verbunden. Fliigeldecken breit dreieckig, der Costalrand 
vor der Apicalspitze flach eingebuchtet, der Marginalrand konvex. 
Die Fliigeldecken schwarz, ein langlicher Randfleck hinter der 
Mitte des Costalrandes und der ganze Marginalrand weiss hyalin. 
Die Costalrandader rostgelblich. Fliigel ranch braun. Die 
Unterseite schwarz, Beine braunlichgelb. 

Lange 13 mm. ; Spannweite 24 mm. 

Luzon, Mt. Maquihng (C. F. Baker) . 



180 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

Pochazina bakeri sp. nov. (Taf. I, Fig. 5.) 

Der P. handlirschi Melich. ahnlich, die Stirne, Unterseite und 
Beine lehmgelb, die Oberseite braun, die Flugeldecken mit 
griinlichem Schimmer auf der Diskalflache und kupferartig 
glanzenden Impressionen am Costal- und Marginalrande. Hinter 
der Mitte der Costa nur ein schmutzig gelblicher hyaliner 
Keilfleck, in den Apikalecken und langs des Marginalrandes 3 
kleine hyaline Punkte. 

Lange 13 mm. ; Spannweite 24 mm. 

Luzon, Los Banos (C. F. Baker). 



TAFELERKLARUNG 

Tafel I 

Fig. 1. Orthopagus philippinus sp. nov. Kopf und Thorax von oben 
gesehen. 

2. Orthopagus philippinus sp. nov. Kopf von vorn. 

3. Bennaria himacula gen. et sp. nov. 

4. Pochazia marginalis sp. nov. 

5. Pochazina hakeri sp. nov. 

181 



Melichar: Neue Homopteren.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., IX, D, No. 2. 




Fig. 1. Orthopagus philippinus sp. nov. Kopf und Thorax von oben gesehen. 2. Orthopagus 
philippinus sp. nov. Kopf von vorn. 3. Bennaria bimacula gen. et sp. nov. 4. Pochazia 
marginalis sp. nov. 5. Pochazina bakeri sp. nov. 

TAFEL I. 



NOUVEAUX CYNIPIDES DES PHILIPPINES 

Par J. J. KlEFFER 
{Bitsch, Germany) 

I. EUCCELIN^^ 

Genus PROMIOM(ERA Ashmead 

Ashmead a donne une courte diagnose du genre Promiomcera, 
mais il n'a pas decrit Fespece typique et jusqu'a present on 
ne connaissait aucune espece qui put s'y rapporter. Meme 
Tespece que nous allons decrire ne concorde pas entierement 
avec la diagnose etablie par Ashmead, les antennes n'etant pas 
filiformes, comme chez Fespece observee par Ashmead, mais 
en massue. 

Promiomoera rufithorax sp. nov. ( 9 .) 

Noir, lisse et brillant ; thorax d'un roux clair, antennes, hanches 
et pattes jaunes, massue antennaire noire. Les antennes se 
composent de 11 articles, dont les deux premiers sont gros, le 
2« globuleux, 3-5 tres minces, graduellement raccourcis, le 3^ 
deux fois aussi long que gros, les 6 suivants subitement grossis, 
un peu plus longs que gros, le dernier en ovo'ide. Thorax aussi 
haut que long; sillons parapsidaux nuls. Scutellum a fossettes 
petites, cupule mediocre. Ailes ciliees, stigmatique droite, trois 
fois aussi longue que la 3« partie de la sous-costale, un peu 
plus courte que le radius, cellule radiale un peu plus longue 
que large, ouverte a la marge dans sa moitie distale, areole 
nulle. Abdomen avec une ceinture rousse a sa base, un peu 
comprime, allonge, aussi long que le reste du corps. 

Taille: 1 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (C. F. Baker). 

Genus SCHIZOSEMA Kieffer 

Schizosema cellularis sp. nov. ( $ -) 

D'un roux marron; vertex noir, antennes et pattes d'un roux 
clair. Front convexe, lisse et brillant comme tout le corps. 
Antennes composees de 14 articles et non de 15 comme d'ordi- 
naire, articles 3-14 subcylindriques, un peu plus longs que gros, 
subegaux ; 3® article non excave ni grossi. Thorax pas plus long 
que haut, sillons parapsidaux nuls. Scutellum avec une impres- 
' sion transversale en avant, sans fossettes, cupule petite, elevee. 
Ailes longues, ciliees, echancrees en arriere de Textremite alaire, 

183 



184 The Philippine Journal of Science i9X4 

nervures pales, cellule radiale ouverte a la marge, exactement 
semicirculaire, cubitus oblitere dans sa I®'* partie, bien marqu6 
et percurrent dans la 2®. Abdomen sans ceinture a sa base, 
a peine comprime, plus long que le thorax, moitie anterieure 
plus sombre que le thorax, moitie posterieure plus claire que 
le thorax. 

Taille: 1.2 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling (C. F. Baker). 

Genus COTHONASPIS Hartig 

Cothonaspis (Hexaplasta) minima sp. nov. ( ? .) 

Noir, lisse et brillant; articles antennaires 3-7 roussatres, 
pattes d'un blanc brunatre. Antennes de 13 articles, dont les 
6 demiers sont subitement grossis, deux fois aussi gros que 
les precedents, presque deux fois aussi longs que gros, subcy- 
lindriques et munis de quatre aretes percurrentes et depassant 
un peu leur extremite, 13® article ellipsoidal, 3-8 beaucoup plus 
minces que les deux premiers, subcylindriques et serres, le 3« 
deux fois aussi long que gros, le 4® un peu plus long que gros, 
5-7 pas plus longs que gros. Thorax tres convexe, subglobuleux. 
Sillons parapsidaux nuls. Fossettes du scutellum petites, cupule 
assez grande, elliptique, avec un point enfonce en avant et un 
autre en arriere. Ailes hyalines, longuement ciliees, nervures 
brunes, cellule radiale triangulaire, ouverte a la marge dans 
les deux tiers distaux, un peu plus longue que large, 3® partie 
de la sous-costale ponctiforme, radius un peu plus long que la 
stigmatique, cubitus oblitere dans sa 1«^ partie, percurrent et 
bien marque dans la seconde. Abdomen comprime, un peu plus 
long que le thorax, ceinture etroite. 

Taille: 0.8 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios (C F. Baker), 

Genus EUCCELIDEA Ashmead 

Euccelidea maquilingensis sp. nov. ( 9 .) 

Noir, lisse et brillant; mandibules, hanches et pattes d'un 
roux jaune. Tete transversale vue d'en haut, triangulaire et 
plus haute que large vue de devant. Yeux allonges et glabres, 
relies a la bouche par un sillon oblique. Joues egalant les deux 
tiers de la longueur des yeux. Antennes de 13 articles, dont le 
2« est globuleux, 3-13 filiformes, pubescents, graduellement 
raccourcis, le 3® presque trois fois aussi long que gros, plus 
mince que les autres, le 12® un peu plus long que gros, un peu 
plus court que le 13®. Thorax aussi haut que long, tres convexe. 



IX, D, 2 Kieffer: Nouveaux Cynipides des Philippines 185 

Pronotum profondement decoupe en arriere. Mesonotum pas 
plus long que large, sillons parapsidaux percurrents, profonds, 
reunis un peu avant le bord posterieur, vers le i posterieur, 
en une arete qui atteint le bord. Scutellum sans fossettes en 
avant, tout le dessus etant occupe par la cupule qui est elliptique 
et creusee en ellipse, surface posterieure perpendiculaire. Ailes 
hyalines, depassant beaucoup Tabdomen, brievement ciliees, 
nervures brunes, cellule radiale pointue, fermee, deux fois et 
demie aussi longue que large, 3® partie de la sous-costale et 
stigmatique tres obliques, la stigmatique de moitie plus longue 
que la 3^ partie de la sous-costale, radius deux fois et demie 
aussi long que la stigmatique, areole nulle, cubitus evanoui en 
avant, percurrent dans sa 2^ partie. Petiole aussi long que gros ; 
abdomen tres comprime, ayant sa plus grande hauteur en arriere, 
ceinture nulle. 

Taille: 1.8-2 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios et Mont Maquiling (C F. 
Baker) . 

II. LIOPTERONIN^^ 

Genus ALLOCYNIPS novum 

S . Tete vue de devant trapezoidale, vue de dessus tres 
transversale. Yeux gros, allonges, glabres, touchant le bord 
occipital, d'un tiers plus longs que les joues. Vertex avec deux 
aretes qui vont du cote externe de chaque scape jusqu^au bord 
occipital, un espace triangulaire et releve, borde par une arete, 
va en s'elargissant depuis les antennes jusqu'au bord occipital, 
ou il renferme les ocelles disposes en triangle. Palpes maxil- 
laires de 5 articles, les labiaux de 3. Antennes filiformes, 
situees un peu avant le milieu des yeux, presque deux fois 
plus distantes de la bouche que du bord occipital, composees 
de 14 articles. Thorax deux fois aussi long que haut, peu 
convexe. Pronotum decoupe en angle posterieurement, son 
milieu presque ponctiforme et portant une spinule courte et 
verticale, les lobes atteignent les ecaillettes. Mesonotum allonge, 
pointu en avant, sillons parapsidaux percurrents. Scutellum 
allonge, graduellement aminci en arriere, presque horizontal, avec 
deux fossettes en avant. Metathorax en cone horizontal et 
court, termine par un anneau auquel s'insere le petiole, comme 
chez Aulacinus, Ailes pubescentes, cubitus ayant son origine 
au-dessus du milieu de la basale, cellule cubitale unique et fermee, 
cellule radiale fermee aussi au bord alaire. Tons les tarses 
plus longs que les tibias, depourvus d'appendices, pattes poste- 



186 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

rieures grossies, crochets tarsaux simples. Petiole aussi long 
que gros, insere au-dessus des hanches posterieures, abdomen 
aussi long que le thorax, graduellement grossi en arriere ou il 
est obtus, non comprime, 2« tergite a peine plus long que le 
3^ non ligulif orme quoique ses cotes soient graduellement retrecis, 
3® et 4^ subegaux, 5® a peine plus court que le 4^, egal au 
6% tous deux declives, 7® perpendiculaire et semicirculaire, les 
3 derniers grossierement sculptes. Le type est Allocynips 
ruflceps sp. nov. 

Allocynips ruficeps sp. nov. ( S .) 

Noir, lisse et brillant. Tete d'un roux clair, avec une ponctua- 
tion grosse et dense. Palpes rouges. Antennes a peine plus 
courtes que le corps, d'un noir brillant, scape le plus gros, de 
moitie plus long que gros, 2^ article presque transversal, 3® 
egalant les 2 premiers reunis, deux fois aussi long que gros, 4-14 
graduellement amincis, trois a quatre fois aussi long que gros. 
Prothorax d'un roux clair, lobes du pronotum a points gros, 
ombiliques et denses. Mesonotum traverse par des aretes 
transversales et assez denses, sillons parapsidaux profonds, 
divergents fortement en avant. Scutellum reticule, a cellules 
ombiliquees, les deux fossettes grandes et separees seulement 
par une arete. Metathorax mat, grossierement ride, pubescent 
de blanc. Ailes anterieures enfumees, cellule sous-costale, 
mediane et sous-mediane presque hyalines, cellule radiale et 
cubitale et une bande le long du bord en arriere de la cellule 
radiale d'un brun noir, cellule cubitale etroite, deux fois aussi 
longue que large, cellule radiale de moitie plus longue que la 
cubitale, trois fois aussi longue que large, 2^ partie du radius 
double de la 1^3® triple de la 2% presque droite, cubitus percurrent. 
Ailes inferieures enfumees dans leur moitie distale, avec 3 
crochets frenaux et la nervation ordinaire des Cynipides. Pattes 
anterieures et intermediaires, y compris les hanches, d'un roux 
clair, pattes posterieures a hanches deux fois aussi longues et 
deux fois aussi grosses que les intermediaires, leur tibia et leur 
tarse densement pubescent de gris, metatarse egalant les 4 
articles suivants reunis, les articles 2-4 graduellement raccourcis, 
5® egalant les 3 precedents reunis. Petiole avec 2 aretes con- 
vergentes en avant, moitie anterieure du 5^ tergite, 6^ et 7^ 
tergite en avant couverts de points denses et tres gros; les 
tergites se prolongent lateralement au-dela des sternites en forme 
de lobes translucides. 

Taille: 7.5 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquihng (C. F. Baker), 



TWO NEW CYPRINOID FISHES OF THE GENUS BARBUS FROM 
LAKE MANGUAO, PALAWAN, P. L 

By Artemas L. Day 

{From the Department of Zoology j College of Liberal Arts, 
University of the Philippines) 

One plate 

During the long vacation at the end of the University year 
1912-13, a joint expedition from the University of the Philip- 
pines and the Bureau of Science was made to Palawan Island 
in the interest of biological study. The party proceeded to 
Taytay, a village of about 30 houses on a bay of the same 
name. From the Coast and Geodetic Survey, I had learned 
of the presence of a lake supposed to be southwestward of 
Taytay. Exploration led to the location not only of one lake 
near Taytay, but of two, one of them, however, being more of 
a swamp full of grass than a lake except in the rainy season. 

Lake Manguao is about 5 kilometers long from east to west 
and from 2.5 to 3 kilometers wide from north to south. The 
greatest depth discovered was 7 fathoms, a little to the south- 
east of Bamboo or Cemetery Island, between the island and 
the shore. There are very many islands in the lake, perhaps 
as many as 25. These vary in size from a mere point of rock 
to those having an area of perhaps 1 hectare. 

Two trips were made to the larger of these lakes. Lake 
Manguao, from which the new species of fishes, described in 
this paper, were taken. With the exception of the shore along 
the south side of the lake, which was mainly a sandy beach, 
there was a shelving shore and small rock fragments, in many 
places falling precipitously into the water. Some of the fishes 
were taken from the extreme northeastern part of the lake 
nearest to the town of Bantolan, but most were taken on the 
western side near the site of the second camp. Many of the 
larger fishes were readily caught with hook and line. The 
smaller ones were taken in large numbers on a small net of 
cheesecloth baited with cooked rice. This was placed in shallow 
water and raised when a considerable number of fishes were 
feeding above it. 

In this paper, ''length of body'' is the distance from the 
tip of snout to the end of the caudal vertebrae ; "length of head" 
means from the tip of snout to the posterior margin of the 
hard opercle; ''length of caudal peduncle'' covers the distance 
from the posterior margin of anal to the uncovered ventral 
margin of the caudal fin ; "length of snout" refers to the distance 

187 



188 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



from the median anterior point of the snout to the nostril; 
"snout to occiput" covers the distance from the tip of the 
snout to the posterior median dorsal line of the head; "height 
of dorsal" and "height of anaF' refer to the distance from the 
distal ends of the longest rays to their proximal ends, even 
though they may be somewhat covered by scales at their proximal 
ends. 

Barbus bantolanensis sp. nov. 

Length of head 2.85 to 3.2 in total length; depth of body 
2.5 to 2.9 in total length; diameter of eye 5.3 to 5.8 in head, 
that is, to the posterior margin of the hard opercle; diameter 
of eye 1.84 to 2.06 in interorbital space and 1.08 to 1.35 in 
snout; rostral barbel 1 to 1.3 in diameter of eye and % to % in 
maxillary barbel. 

Type, No. 2. 

Measurements of 6 specimens of B, bantolanensis are given 
in Tables I and II. 

Table I. — Measurements of Barbus bantolanensis sp. nov. 



Length of body 

Length of head 

Depth of body 

Depth of caudal peduncle __ 
Length of caudal peduncle . 

Length of snout 

Diameter of eye 

Interorbital width _. 

Depth of head.- 

Snout to occiput ._ 

Snout to dorsal 

Snout to ventral 

Length of dorsal base 

Length of anal base — 

Height of dorsal 

Height of anal ___ — 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventral 

Length of caudal 



Specimen No.- 



Per cent J 
b89 
0.320 
0.382 
0.140 
0.185 
0.073 
0.067 
0.101 
0.213 
0.230 
0.601 
0.533 
0.157 
0.089 
0.202 
0.157 
0.174 
0.174 
0.314 



Per cent.^ 
bll8 
0.313 
0.377 
0.152 
0.169 
0.080 
0.059 
0.122 
0.228 
0.245 
0.601 
0.533 
0.156 
0.084 
0.199 
0.165 
0.177 
0.169 
0.305 



Per cent.B. 
bl02 
0.352 
0.352 
0.137 
0.171 
0.088 
0.063 
0.122 
0.230 
0.240 
0.607 
0.578 
0.151 
0.088 
0.215 
0.156 
0.215 
0.186 
0.343 



Per cent.* 
bl05 
0.314 
0.366 
0.147 
0.176 
0.081 
0.061 
0.119 
0.228 
0.240 
0.633 
0.542 
0.166 
0.109 
0.209 
0.142 
0.193 
0.180 
0.333 



Per cent J 
bl07 
0.336 
0.390 
0.168 
0.168 
0.070 
0.065 
0.120 
0.219 
0.240 
0.602 
0.562 
0.154 
0.093 
0.205 
0.158 
0.177 
0.186 
0.336 



13 



Per cent» 
bll6 
0.353 
0.345 
0.128 
0. 176 
0.088 
0.061 
0.123 
0.247 
0.256 
0.626 
0.566 
0.154 
0.079 
0.207 
0.163 
0.216 
0.190 
0.347 



Dorsal raysc _ 

Anal raysc 

Scales in lateral line 

Scales above lateral line.. 
Scales below lateral line. 
Scales before dorsal 



ni-8 
ni-5 

26 
4i 
4 
9 



in-8 
ni-5 

25 

4i 
4 



III-8 

in-5 

25 

4i 

4 

9 



III-8 

ni-5 

26 
4i 
4 
9 



ni-8 
ni-5 

26 
4i 
4 



III-8 

ni-5 

26 

4i 

4 

10 



« Referred to length of body, b Measurement in millimeters. <= Spinous and soft rays, respectively. 



IX. D, 2 Day: Two New Cyprinoid Fishes 189 

Table II. — Proportional measurements of Barhus bantolanensis sp. nov. 



Proportional measurement. 



Specimen No.— 




Head in body 

Depth in body 

Eye in head — 

Snout in head 

Interorbital space in head- 
Third dorsal spine in head. 



3.06 
2.61 
4.83 
4.14 
3.22 
1.70 



Dorsal . 
Anal--- 



Scales 

Scales between lateral line and base 
of ventrals 

Distance from tip of snout to base 
of dorsal in distance from tip of 
snout to end of caudal vertebrae _.. 

Pharyngeals 



b2-l 



III-8 
III-5 

4 



2i 



0.601 
5-3-2 



3.05 
2.62 
5.42 
3.45 
2.81 
1.94 



III-8 
III-5 



2i 



0.621 
(?) 



2.79 
2.70 
5.66 
4.05 
2.80 
1.92 

III-8 
III-5 



3.04 
2.69 
5.30 
3.45 
2.65 
1.81 



III-8 
III-5 



2i 



0.607 0.628 

2-5-3-2 I c 2-5-3-2 



0.626 
c 5-3-2 



Origin of ventrals midwaybetweenoriginof pectorals and of anal. 



a Type. Plate I, fig. 1. 

^ 2. As some were missing, the arrangement could not be definitely determined. 

c Another pharyngeal was found ; it was probably of the first row. 

^ Several pharyngeals were missing. 

^ Origin of ventrals is 0.474 of distance from origin of pectorals to origin of anal. 

Barbus manguaoensis sp. nov. 

Length of head 2| to 3 in total length; depth of body 2.5 
to 2.7 in total length ; diameter of eye 4 to 6 in head ; interorbital 
width 2i to 3i in head, that is, to the posterior margin of 
the hard opercle; diameter of eye 1^ to 2f in interorbital 
space and 1 to If in snout; posterior barbel 1^ times as long 
as the diameter of eye and I of the length of the maxillary 
barbel; third dorsal spine strong, strongly serrated, and 1^ to 
2i in head; anterior side of the first dorsal spine 0.57 to 0.61 
of the distance from the snout to the end of the vertebrae ; origin 
of dorsal porterior to origin of ventral. A distinct large black 
ocellus over the end of the caudal vertebrae, one above base of 
anal, one above base of ventrals, and one elongated area above 
posterior margin of opercle. These spots are more or less 
connected by not very distinct broad black bands. 

Type, No. 15. 

Measurements of 6 specimens of Barbus manguaoensis are 
given in Tables III and IV. 



190 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

Table III. — Measurements of Barbus manguaoensis sp. nov. 



Length of body 

Length of head 

Depth of body 

Depth of caudal peduncle. _. 
Length of caudal peduncle _ 

Length of snout 

Diameter of eye 

Interorbital width 

Depth of head 

Snout to occiput 

Snout to dorsal 

Snout to ventral 

Length of dorsal base 

Length of anal base 

Height of dorsal 

Height of anal 

Length of pectoral 

Length of ventral 

Length of caudal 



Specimen No. and sex. 



Dorsal raysc 

Anal raysc 

Scales in lateral line 

Scales above lateral line.. 
Scales below lateral line . 
Scales before dorsal 



«9. 

Per cent, i 
bll7 
0.350 
0.401 
0.153 
0.179 
0.098 
0.059 
0.126 
0.239 
0.269 
0.640 
0.575 
0.153 
0.094 
0.192 
0.141 
0.205 
0.179 
0.324 

nT-8 
ni-5 

27 
4^ 
4 
9 



»?. 



Percent.^ 
bl32 
0.329 
0.371 
0.141 
0.193 
0.088 
0.056 
0.121 
0.229 
0.242 
0.621 
0.575 
0.161 
0.091 
0.185 
0.141 
0.174 
0.166 
0.300 i 

ni-8 ! 
ni-5 I 

28 j 
4^ I 

'\ 
9 i 



lod". 



Percent.'' 
b89 
0.325 
0.387 
0.142 
0.172 
0.084 
0.067 
0.101 
0.224 
0.235 
0.634 
0.550 
0.162 
0.108 
0.191 
0.146 
0.207 
0.179 
0.337 

II1-8 
III-5 

27 

^l 

4 

9 



26d". 



Percent.^ 

b54 
0.324 
0.370 
0.129 
0.185 
0.083 
0.083 
0.111 
0.222 
0.240 
0.620 
0.527 
0.160 
0.092 
0.231 
0.157 
0.2a3 I 
0. 185 ' 
0.342 I 

in-8 

III-5 , 

27 i 
4i , 

4 ! 

9 : 



29 9. 



319. 



Per cent. 3. 
b52 
0.317 
0.384 
0.157 
0.182 
0.076 
0.076 
0. 105 j 
0.230 I 
0.250 ! 
0.615 
0.528 
0.163 
0.102 
0.240 
0.168 
0.211 
0.192 
0.336 

III-8 

in-5 

27 
4i 
4 
9 



Per cent. »^ 
b59 
•0.336 
0.364 
0.142 
0.184 
0.089 
0.084 
0.117 
0.226 
0.260 
0.630 
0.637 
0.168 
0.084 
0.218 
0.159 
0.210 
0.184 
0.325 

ni-8 

III-5 

27 

4i 

4 



^ Referred to length of body. 

b Measurement in millimeters. 

^ Spinous and soft rays, respectively. 



Table IV. — Proportional measurements of Barbus manguaoensis sp. 









Specimen No.— 






Proportional measurement. 


■ 
















1 








2 92 


9 

3 00 


a 15 j 

3 06 i 


-« 1 

— j- 

3 000 ' 


29 


31 


Head in body _. . 


3 150 


2.83 
2.79 
4.66 


Depth in body . 


2.48 


2.75 


2 57 


2 840 ' 


2 600 


Eye in head 


5.71 


5.86 


3.16 I 


3.750 ; 


4.125 


Snout in head 


3.32 


4.00 


3.56 


4.030 ; 


4.125 


3.81 


Interorbital space in head 


2.76 


2.66 


3.16 1 


2.916 


2. 750 


3.00 


Third dorsal spine in head 


2.27 


2.20 


1.74 1 


1.520 


1.540 


1.75 



a Type, Plate I, fig. 3. 



IX, D, 2 Day: Two New Cyprinoid Fishes 191 

Table IV. — Pr^oportional measurements of Barbus etc. — Continued. 



Proportional measurement. 



Dorsal. 
Anal ._ 



Specimen No.— 



Scales 

Scales between lateral line and base 
of ventrals 

Distance from tip of snout to base I 
of dorsal in distance from tip of ] 
snout to end of caudal vertebra3 __ 

Pharyngeals | 

Origin of ventrals j 



III-8 i 
III -5 

2T:1 



2i 



0.662 
b 5-3-2 



III- 9 
II1-5 

•4 



28:- 



0.625 

b 5-3-2 

midway 



III-8 I 
III-5 j 

4-i i 

i 

2i! 



26 


29 


III-8 


III-8 


III-5 


III-5 


-t 


-li 


2i 


2i 


0.615 


0.615 


b 5-3-1- ? 


b4-2 



31 

III-8 
III-5 



27: 



0.603 
b2-5-3-2 



between origin of pectorals and origin 
of anal. 



a Type, Plate I, fig. 3. 

b 2. As some were missing, the arrangement could not be definitely determined, 
c Origin of ventrals, 0.532 of distance fro morigin of pectorals to base of anal. 

In comparing these new species with Barbus ivis Seale and 
B, Palawan ensis Boulenger, certain striking differences of body- 
proportions are apparent. The length of head in body is much 
less, the diameter of eye in depth of body is much greater, 
the depth of head in body is less, the distance from snout to 
occiput is much less, the length of base of dorsal in body is 
more, the height of dorsal and of anal in body is more, and 
the length of pectoral in body is more in B, ivis and B. pala- 
luanensis than in the two new species here described. 

In these two new species, not only are there three rows of pha- 
ryngeals as stated by Giinther,^ but another row was discovered 
consisting of three pharyngeal teeth, so that the pharyngeals are 
3-5-3-2 instead of 5-3-2. The extra row of pharyngeals was 
also found in specimens of Barbus ivis Seale and B. palawanensis 
Boulenger. 

Unfortunately, several specimens of the species here described 
were dissected before the extra pharyngeals were discovered. 
But because of the fact that they were definitely determined 
in several specimens and because a part of the pharyngeals 
of this extra row were seen in several other specimens, there 
can be no doubt of the existence of the extra row, and it is 
undoubtedly always present in both of these species. In some 
of the fishes dissected, as in B. bantolanensis, No. 45, from which 
the drawing of the pharyngeals was made, these pharyngeals are 
very minute. The microscope is often necessary to identify them. 



^Cat Fishes Brit. Mus. (1868), 7, 3 and 84. 



192 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Those of the extra row differ from the other pharyngeals in being 
not inserted in the bone, but embedded in the tissue surrounding 
the bone. They may thus be easily detached and lost unless 
great care is used in the dissection. 

While working on the species of this paper, I had access to 
the type specimen of Barbus ivis Seale, taken by Seale on Balabac 
Island, August 11, 1908, and to other specimens of this species 
and several specimens of Barbus palawanensis Boulenger, col- 
lected by Seale at Puerto Princesa, Palawan, on August 20, 1909. 
I wish to acknowledge the valuable assistance rendered by Mr. 
Seale while I was working on these species and to express my 
appreciation for the use of his private library on the Cyprinidse. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Gill, Theodore. Some noteworthy extra-European Cyprinids. Smith' 

sonian Misc. Colls, (Quarterly Issue) Feb. 4 (1907), 48, 297-341. 
Boulenger, G. A. List of fresh-water fishes collected by A. Everett on 

Palawan and Balabac. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1905), VI, 25, 185- 

188. 
Jordan, David Starr, and Everman, Barton Warren. The Fishes of 

North and Middle America. Part I. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1896), 

No. 47, 199-329. 
Sydner, John O. The fishes of the streams tributary to Monterey Bay, 

California. Bull. Bur. Fish. (1912), 32. 
Seale, Alvin. New species of Philippine fishes. Phil. Journ. Sci., Sec. A 

(1909), 4, 494-495. 
Gunther, Albert. Catalogue of the Physostomi. Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus. 

(1868), 7, 12-372 (Cyprinidae). 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate I 

Fig. 1. Barbus bantolanensis Day, sp. nov. No. 2. (Drawn by Rodolfo 
Fajardo.) 

2. Pharyngeal of B. bantolanensis, No. 45; A, the additional row of 

teeth. (Drawn by Rodolfo Fajardo.) 

3. Bo/rbus manguaoensis Day, sp. nov. No. 15. (Drawn by Jose 

Santos.) 

193 



Day: Two New Cyprinoid Fishks.1 



[Phil. Journ Sci., IX, D, No. 2. 




Fig 2. Pharyngeal of No. 
45, showing additional 
row of teeth, A. 




Fig. 1. Barbus bantolanensis Day, sp. nov. No. 2. 




Fig. 3. Barbus manguaoensis Day, sp. nov. No. 15. 
PLATE I. 



THE PHILIPPINE 

Journal of Science 

D. General Biology, Ethnology, 
AND Anthropology 



Vol. IX 



JUNE, 1914 



No. 3 



SOME PHILIPPINE SCYPHOMEDUSiE, INCLUDING TWO NEW 
GENERA, FIVE NEW SPECIES, AND ONE NEW VARIETY 

By S. F. Light 

{From the Zoological Laboratory, College of Liberal Arts, 

University of the Philippines) 

Sixteen text figures 

The Scyphomedusse described in this paper are in the museum 
of the zoological department of the University of the Philip- 
pines. Many of them were collected on the joint scientific 
expeditions of the University of the Philippines and the Bureau 
of Science, while others were collected at various times by 
members of the zoological department. They are not the result 
of a systematic collection of Philippine Scyphomedusse which, 
judging from the percentage of new species in the Philippine 
collections of the United States Bureau of Fisheries steamer Alba- 
tross ^ and in the present collection, should produce many new 
and interesting forms. 

The collection includes medusae of 12 species in 11 genera, 
and 1 doubtful immature form. All but three are new to the 
Philippines, and 2 genera, 5 species, and 1 variety are new 
to science. A list of the genera and species follows. Those 
starred are reported from the Philippines for the first time. 
The new genera and species are indicated by black-faced type. 

7. Catostylus purpurus Mayer. 
*8. Mastigias papua L. Agassiz. 
*9. Acromitus maculosus gen. et sp. 
nov. 
*10. Lobonema mayeri sp. nov. 
*11. Lobonemoides gracilis gen. et sp. 

nov. 
*12. Rhopilema visayana sp. nov. 
13. Cassiopea poly poides Keller (?). 



1. Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Hae- 

ckel. 
*2. Dactylometra quinquecirrha L. 

Agassiz, "Chrysaora stage. ^* 
3. Aurellia labiata Chamisso and 

Eysenhardt. 
*4. Cassiopea polypoides Keller var. 

culionensis var. nov. 
*5. Cassiopea medusa sp. nov. 
*6. Cephea cephea (Forskal) Mayer. 



^ Mayer, A. G., Medusae of the World, Pub. Carnegie Inst. Wash. (1910), 
No. 109, 3. 

124685 195 



196 The Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

It will be noted that 8 of the species reported, including 
all the new forms, belong to the suborder Rhizostomse. This 
essentially tropical suborder seems to include the greater part 
of the Philippine forms as 16 of the 29 species and varieties 
reported from the Islands belong to that group. There are 
undoubtedly many medusae new to science and others as yet 
unreported from the Philippines to be found in the waters of 
the Archipelago. While on launch trips, during May and June, 
1913, along the coast of Palawan and the islands between Pala- 
wan and Culion, I saw many medusae not found in this collection. 
Most of them were Rhizostomse, but at least three species of 
Pelagidse were common. Large Beroe-like ctenophores were also 
very numerous, but attempts to preserve them were unsuccessful. 

While I have attempted to give a fairly complete description 
of new species and a sufficiently complete description of old 
species for diagnostic purposes, I have not attempted detailed 
anatomical discussions. In the diagnosis of old species, and 
in matters of general classification, I have, folio wed very closely 
Mayer's monumental work. The Medusae of the World. Full 
synonymies of previously described species will be found in 
that work. 

Mayer describes 20 species and varieties of Scyphomedusse 
which have been reported from the Philippines. The fact that 
all but one of these were reported for the first time from the 
Albatross collection made during the years 1908 to 1910 shows 
how little attention has been paid to the collecting of Scyphome- 
dusae in Philippine waters. The present paper adds 9 species and 
varieties, making a total of 29 species and varieties of Scyphome- 
dusae from the Philippines. A list of these, with localities when 
known, follows. 

1. Carybdea rastonii Haacke, Luzon and Mindoro [Mayer, 1910]. 

2. Carybdea alata Reynaud var. moseri Msiyer =Charybdea philippina 

Haeckel [Semper, I860]. 

3. Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Haeckel, common [Mayer, 1910] [Light, 

1914]. 

4. Periphylla hyacinthina Steenstrup forma dodecabostrycha (Haeckel) 

Mayer [Mayer, 1910]. 

5. lAnuche aquila (Haeckel) Mayer, Mactan [Mayer, 1910]. 

6. Atolla bairdii Fewkes forma valdiviae Vanhoffen, Albatross station 5202 

[Mayer, 1910]. 

7. Atolla wyvillei Haeckel, Albatross station 5201 [Mayer, 1910]. 

8. Pelagia panopyra Peron and Lesueur var. placenta (Haeckel) Mayer 

[Mayer, 1910]. 

9. Dactylometra quinquecirrha L. Agassiz, **Chrysaora stage," Manila Bay 

[Light, 1914]. 
10. Sanderia malayensis Goette, Sulu Sea [Mayer, 1910]. 



IX, D, 3 Light: Some Philippine Scyphomedusse 197 

11. Discomedusa philippina Mayer, Catingan Bay [Mayer, 1910]. 

12. Aurellia labiata Chamisso and Eysenhardt, Masbate [Mayer, 1910], 

Palawan and Manila Bay [Light, 1914]. 

13. Cassiopea polypoides Keller var. culionensis Light, Culion Bay, Culion 

[Light, 1914]. 

14. Cassiopea medusa Light, Culion Bay, Culion [Light, 1914]. 

15. Cassiopea ornata Haeckel, Simaluc Islands, Subic Bay, Luzon and Samar 

[Mayer, 1910]. 

16. Cephea cephea (Forskal) Mayer, Mariveles [Xiight, 1914]. 

17. Cephea octostyla L. Agassiz, Jolo [Mayer, 1910]. 

18. Catostylus purpurus Mayer, Manila Bay [Mayer, 1910] [Light, 1914]. 

19. Lychnorhiza bartschi Mayer, Jolo [Mayer, 1910]. 

20. Mastigias papua L. Agassiz, Mindoro and Palawan [Light, 1914]. 

21. Mastigias ocellata Haeckel [Mayer, 1910]. 

22. Versura maasi Mayer, Bohol [Mayer, 1910]. 

23. Lobonema smithii Mayer, Manila Bay [Mayer, 1910]. 

24. Lobonema mayeri Light, Malampaya Sound, Palawan and Manila Bay 

[Light, 1914]. 

25. Lobonemoides gracilis Light, Palawan [Light, 1914]. 

26. Acromitus maculosus Light, Palawan [Light, 1914]. 

27. Thysanostoma thysanura Haeckel, Mindanao and Mindoro [Mayer, 

1910]. 

28. Lorifera flagellata (Haeckel) Mayer, Albatross station D. 5226 [Mayer, 

1910.] 

29. Rhopilema visayana Light, Palawan [Light, 1914]. 

IMMATURE FORM 

Cassiopea polypoides Keller (?), Port Galera Bay, Mindoro [Light, 1914]. 

Order CARYBDEID^ 

Genus CHmOPSAI]«[XJS L. Agassiz, 1862 

Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Haeckel. 

The bell is dome shaped and 4-sided, with an evenly rounded 
aboral surface. Four laterally flattened, hand-shaped, inter- 
radial pedalia arise from the sides of the bell a short distance 
above the velar margin. Each bears from 5 to 9, typically 
7, finger-shaped projections, each of v^hich gives rise to a very 
long, slender, flexible, hollow tentacle banded with nematocysts. 
There are 4 perradial sense clubs in covered notches in the sides 
of the bell, a little above the level of origin of the pedalia. 
A distinct velarium supported by a bracketlike, perradial f renulee 
stretches partly across the mouth of the bell cavity. The 
central stomach is short and wide, with 4 lanceolate lips with 
simple margins. From each of the flattened perradial sides 
of the stomach arises a pair of gastric saccules which project 
downward into the bell cavity. Each saccule is laterally flattened 
and cockscomb shaped with an irregularly notched margin. 



198 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

This distinguishes the medusa from C. quadrumanits, the most 
nearly related form, which has finger-shaped saccules. 

This medusa was very abundant in Taytay Bay, Palawan, 
and in Culion Bay, Culion, in May and June, 1913. Numerous 
specimens were obtained, including many immature forms. They 
agree exactly with Mayer's description of specimens collected 
in Philippine waters by the Albatross. Much larger specimens 
were seen than any as yet reported, some in Culion reaching 
a diameter of at least 200 mm. There are 7 tentacles to each 
pedalium in by far the greater number of specimens, and these 
tentacles show in life narrow, lavender bands of nematocysts. 
The tentacles are very long, slender, and flexible, reaching a 
length of 1.5 meters or more. They are very delicate, and 
usually break off and remain attached to the clothing or the 
body when encountered in the water. 

The sting of this medusa is very dangerous. One of the 
women in the party of the expedition to Palawan, who was stung 
while in bathing, was very seriously ill. I have described the 
symptoms more in detail in another place.^ Swelling and in- 
flammation began almost immediately in the areas which came in 
contact with the tentacles, and later blisters formed along the 
lines marked by contact with the tentacles. The lower limbs be- 
came swollen, the heart action was impaired, respiratory spasms 
and nervous twitchings of the muscles ensued, and the patient ex- 
perienced intense general pain. The natives of Palawan reported 
a number of deaths caused by the sting of this medusa. 

Mayer reports this medusa in the Albatross collection from 
Masbate, Luzon, and Mindanao, and I have found it plentiful 
in Culion and Palawan, from which it may be seen that it has a 
wide range in the Philippines. 

Family PELAGID^ 
Genus DACTYLOMETRA L. Agassiz, 1862 
Dactylometra quinquecirrlia L. Agassiz, ''Chrysaora stage.'' 

At certain seasons of the year, particularly in October and 
November, this medusa is found in large numbers in Manila 
Bay where it is a menace to bathers and fishermen who hold 
it in great fear. While all the specimens which I have seen 
have shown only 24 tentacles and 32 marginal lappets and 
many of them are apparently sexually mature, this medusa agrees 
so closely in every other respect with D. qidnquecirrha that I 
have considered it as the ''Chrysaora stage" of that species, 

' This Journal, Sec. B (1914), 9, 291. 



IX, D, 3 Light: Some Philippine Scyphomedusse 199 

corresponding to the similar ''Chrysaora stage" of the species 
found in the bays of the Atlantic Coast of the United States. 

The flatly rounded bell is from 70 to 100 mm. in diameter. 
There are 24 marginal tentacles of about equal length. In life, 
these reach a maximum length of almost a meter. In preserved 
specimens, they are seldom perfect and are much contracted, not 
usually exceeding a length of twice the bell diameter. There are 
32 bluntly rounded marginal lappets, and the 2 next the sense 
organs in each octant are usually about one-half as wide as the 2 
between the tentacles. The sense organs are marked by shallow 
notches in the margin. They are covered above by a shelf 
of tissue nearly twice as wide as the length of the sense club. 
Below they are exposed, but lie in deep narrow furrows. The 
mouth arms are complexly folded, presenting along their edges 
regular pairs of extended points. They are from two to three 
times as long as the bell radius in preserved specimens and 
many times as long in life. The umbrella is transparent white, 
and is covered on the exumbrellar surface with tiny, semiopaque, 
white spots. The 16 stomach pouches are semiopaque, the 
dividing membranes entirely transparent, and the exumbrellar 
radial muscle strands opaque white. The gonads are light yellow, 
light brown, or yellow with a lavender tinge, the inner edges 
of the oral palps are light transparent pink to light lavender 
brown, and the tentacles are opaque white. 

This medusa is known to be very dangerous. The natives 
call it fosforo (''match'' in Spanish). This name is used by the 
fishermen, because the long oral artns suggest the stick and the 
bell the head of a match. I have heard of several cases of severe 
poisoning from this medusa both among natives and Americans. 
The native remedy is sugar solution taken internally and external 
applications of vinegar. 

Old ^ has reported a number of cases of poisoning from jelly- 
fish in which there was a definite symptom complex differing 
from that in the case of poisoning by Chiropsalmus quadrigatus 
already mentioned. Mayer ^ cites Doctor Smith ^ as considering 
that these cases of poisoning were due to the sting of Lobonema 
smithii Mayer. It seems more probable that they were due 
to Dactylometra, since it is so com^mon in the bay and is the 
form commonly considered to be poisonous by the natives, 
especially the fishermen. I have not seen L. smithii, but the 

' This Journal, Sec. B (1908), 3, 329. 

'Pub. Carnegie Inst. Wash. (1910), No. 109, 3, 690-691. 

° Dr. Hugh M. Smith, deputy United States fish commissioner. 



200 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

sting of L. mayeri sp. nov., a closely related form, while unpleas- 
ant is not dangerous. I hope to be able to report more fully on 
this matter in the future. 

Order SEM^OSTOME^ 

Genus AURELLIA Peron and Lesueur, 1809 
Aiirellia labiata Chamisso and Eysenhardt. 

The margin is divided into 16 velar lobes. The bell margin 
projects downward from the subumbrellar side as a velumlike 
membrane, forming a fold between each 2 sense organs. The 
tentacles and marginal lappets have moved a considerable dis- 
tance up the sides of the exumbrella. The subgenital ostia are 
very small. 

This seems to be a rather widely distributed form in Phil- 
ippine waters, as Mayer reports it from Masbate from specimens 
in the Albatross collection and we have specimens from Taytay, 
Palawan, and Manila Bay. We have 4 specimens in our collec- 
tion, 2 collected by Dr. R. P. Cowles in Taytay, Palawan, and 
2 from Pasay Beach, Manila Bay. They all show the 16 notches 
in the bell margin, the velumlike subumbrellar membrane mark- 
ing the true margin, and the very small subgenital ostia which 
characterize A. labiata, so I have considered them as belonging 
to that species in spite of rather marked individual differences 
and differences in proportion as compared with other specimens 
whose measurements are given by Mayer. 

The smallest specimen (D in the table) is relaxed, flabby, 
and without definite shape. The bell is only 10 mm. thick at 
the base of the mouth arms, and the whole medusa has the 
appearance of having completely relaxed in death. The marginal 
tentacles are very slender and flexible, and are from 12 to 15 
mm. in length. 

In another specimen (B in the table), the bell thickness at 
the base of the mouth arms is 25 mm. The material of the 
umbrella has a very solid, stiff consistency, and is thick up 
to the tentacle zone. It appears to be in a state of contraction, 
and nearly all the marginal tentacles are tightly contracted. 
The velumlike margin is here represented only by a very slight 
fold which has the appearance of a line connecting the sense 
organs. The thick bell with a solid consistency and the rounded 
genital pouches and small ostia give it a resemblance to A. solida 
Browne. Owing to the condition of the specimen, it was impos- 
sible to determine the arrangement of the sense organs, but 
the 16 velar lobes show that the medusa is A. labiata. 



IX, D, 3 



Light: Some Philippine Scyphomedusse 



201 



Measurements of Aurellia lahiata. 



Specimen. 


Diameter 

of the 
umbrella. 


Diameter 
across the 
zone of 
gonads. 


Length of 
each 
mouth 
arm. 


A _ _ 


mm. 

225 
167 
150 
145 


mvi. 
107 
86 
65 
50 


TYitn, 
1*00 
71 


B - 


C- - 


D 


65 





Order RHIZOSTOM^ 

RHIZOSTOMATA PINNATA Vanhoffen 
Genus CASSIOPEA Peron and Lesueur, 1809 
Cassiopea polypoides Keller var. culionensis var. nov. (fig. 1). 

Type, — No. C. 2420, zoological collection, University of the 
Philippines. 

The disk is flat, from 120 to 150 mm. in diameter, with a 
broad, shallow sucker cavity and a central thickened area. The 
thickened outer margin of the sucker cavity 
is from 15 to 20 mm. from the margin of 
the bell, and the diameter of the sucker is 
about two-thirds of the bell diameter. The 
margin is thin and divided into from 16 
to 20 parameres by as many sense organs. 
There are twice as many radial canals as 
sense organs, and there is no ring canal. 
Each paramere has 5 blunt marginal lappets, 
the lappet in the center of each paramere 
being the largest, the 2 ocular lappets being 
about one-half as wide as the 2 on each 
side of this central lappet. The sense or- 
gans show no pigment spot. The mouth 
arms are from 1.25 to 1.5 as long as the 
bell radius, and project considerably beyond 
the bell margin. They are cylindrical or 
somewhat dorsally flattened in their proximal portions and 
higher than broad in their distal portions. The arms give rise 
in their proximal portion to about 3 pairs of short, alternately 
arranged lateral branches beyond which the arm divides to form 
from 3 to 5 long branches which may in turn subdivide. There 
are numerous, small, berrylike vesicles between the mouths over 
the entire surface of the arms. In most specimens, there is 
a central flattened appendage in the center of the arm disk 




Fig. 1. Cassiopea poly' 
poides Keller var. 
culionensis var nov., a 
sense organ from the 
subumbrellar side. 
Much enlarged. 



202 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



surrounded by a whorl of smaller similar appendages. This 
central appendage reaches a length of 30 mm. and a width 
of 40 mm. The arms may have toward their distal ends a 
number of ribbonlike or leaflike appendages, reaching a 
length of 20 mm. and a width of from 8 to 15 mm. Of 
the 27 specimens in the collection, 10 have the large central 
appendage and a whorl surrounding it, 11 have a large central 
appendage without a surrounding whorl, 3 have no enlarged 
appendage, and 3 have enlarged appendages on the arms but 
none in the center of the disk. 

The central stomach is circular in outline, and is encroached 
on from below by the 4 gonads. Twice as many radial canals 
as sense organs originate from it and extend to the margin, giv- 
ing off branches which form a very complex network of anas- 
tomosing vessels. The rhopalar canals increase in size toward 
the margin, while the interrhopalar canals become small distally. 

In preserved specimens the umbrella is light olive green. 
On close examination dull white bands may be seen running to 
each sense organ. The mouth arms usually exhibit 3 color zones : 
A central circular area which is yellow, a zone composed of the 
portions of the arms projecting beyond the disk which is also 
yellow, and between these zones a zone of green. The append- 
ages are opaque white, and contain a network of canals, giving 
them a leaflike appearance. The color of the live medusa is very 
similar to that of the preserved specimens. 

Measurements and numbers of sense organs and of marginal lappets to a 
paramere of lA specimens from Culion. 



Specimen No. 


Diameter 
of the 
bell. 


Diameter 

of the 
arm disk. 


Length of 
the mouth 

arms 

(from the 

center of 

the arm 

disk). 


Sense 
organs. 


Marginal 
lappets 
to a para- 
mere. 


1 


mm. 
121 
129 
120 
128 
145 
130 
130 
143 
151 
145 
145 
154 
118 
150 


mm. 
50 
58.5 
55 
58 
57 
58 
60 
50 
79 
62 
63 

68.5 
60 
60 


mm. 

95 

89 

90 

99.5 
104 
112 

99 
102 
145 
120 
114 
176 

95 
120 


20 
20 
16 
20 
19 
17 
20 
19 
17 
17 
16 
19 
18 
16 


5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 


2 


3 


4 - 


6 — - 


6 


7 


8.__ 


9 


10 


11. . 


12 


13 ._ 


14 





IX. D, 3 Light: Some Philippine Scyphomedusse 203 

The museum has 27 specimens of this new variety of C. 
polypoides collected by Dr. L. E. Griffin and Mr. L. D. Wharton 
in Culion Bay, in October, 1911. They were present in great 
numbers in the bottom of a boat slip near the Leper Colony 
pier. I found them in the same place in May, 1913, and Dr. 
Ernest Clements, the superintendent of the Leper Colony, tells 
me that they are nearly always to be found there. This boat 
slip is from 1 to 2 meters deep, is protected from storms, and 
has a sandy bottom; it seems to be an ideal habitat for the 
medusae. They were all found lying with the exumbrellar 
surface downward and looked, as Keller^ has remarked of 
C. polypoides forma typica in the Red Sea, extraordinarily like 
some large sea anemone. They are able to retain their hold 
firmly by means of the sucker cavity. Indeed, when the pre- 
served specimens are placed with the exumbrella down in a 
glass dish, it is practically impossible to turn them over by 
lifting on the arms and arm disk. The living medusae on 
being turned over immediately begin to pulsate. At each con- 
traction, the arms of one side are pulled farther in and bent 
upward thus lifting the disk on that side. A final pulsation 
causes it to fall over on the exumbrellar surface, the pulsations 
cease, and the arms and margin are slowly adjusted. 

This medusa resembles C. polypoides forma typica in general 
appearance, in the number of lappets to a paramere, in the length 
and branching of the mouth arms, in the canal system, and to 
some extent in the coloring. While it differs in some particulars, 
such as in the shape of the central stomach and the lack of 
pigmentation in the sense organs, I do not consider these dif- 
ferences sufficient to warrant the making of a new species in a 
genus which contains so many intergrading forms, and so I have 
considered it as a new variety of C. polypoides to which I have 
given the name culionensis as Culion seems to be a constant 
habitat of the medusa. 

In coloration of the bell and in the arrangement of the 
appendages of the mouth arms, this form approaches most 
nearly to Keller's color variety "rosse." 

Cassiopea polypoides Keller ( ?) . 

One immature medusa collected in Port Galera Bay in May, 
1912, differs from C polypoides var. culionensis in having 
pigmented eyespots, in that the arms do not project beyond 
the bell margin, and in the arrangement of the appendages 

'Zeitschr, /. wiss, Zool (1883), 38, 634. 



204 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

of the mouth arms. It has besides the berrylike vesicles a 
small central appendage, surrounded by a double whorl of 8 
appendages, 2 in the axil between each two arms supported 
by the same interostial pillar. The appendages of the inner 
whorl are smaller than those of the outer whorl. Near the 
distal end of each arm is a large ribbonlike appendage reaching 
a length of 15 mm. and a width of 4 mm., which is surrounded 
by a number of similar but smaller appendages. Besides these, 
there are scattered among the mouths a number of small leaf like 
appendages. 

The entire medusa is, in formalin, a dull grayish white. 

Measurements of the specimen in millimeters: Diameter of 
the bell, 55 ; diameter of the arm disk, 25 ; length of the mouth 
arms (measured from the center of the disk) , 26. Number of 
sense organs, 17; number of lappets to a paramere, 5. 

While this is probably an immature individual of C. polypoides 
forma typica, it is impossible to place it definitely, so I have 
indicated it as a doubtful immature example of that species. 

Cassiopea medusa sp. nov. (figs. 2 ^nd 3). 

Type, — C. 2421, zoological collection. University of the Phil- 
ippines, from Culion Bay, Culion. 

The disk is flat with a broad, shallow sucking surface bounded 
externally by a circular raised area and having a broad thickened 
central disk. The disk measures 260 mm. in diameter, the suck- 
ing surface 180 mm., and the raised central disk 115 mm. 
The raised margin of the sucking surface is 15 mm. wide, 
and its outer edge is 25 mm. from the bell margin. 

There are 17 sense organs, and each paramere contains 7 
irregular, very blunt marginal lappets which are often more 
distinct as spaces between grooves in the exumbrella than as 
actual lappets in the very thin and nearly smooth margin. 
The sense organs are very small, slender clubs hidden in deep 
clefts. They are covered above by a shelf of exumbrellar tissue, 
but they are quite distinct from the subumbrellar side. They 
are without pigmented eyespots. The 8 large mouth arms arise 
from an 8-sided arm disk 114 mm. in diameter. They are 
170 mm. in length, send off numerous small lateral branches 
in their proximal portion, and divide distally into 3 main 
branches, which are again subdivided. The mouths and branches 
are much more scattered than in C. polypoides, and arising in 
the axils of the branches and between the mouths from the 
center of the disk to the distal ends of the branches are hundreds 
of transparent appendages. These appendages are of two types 



IX, D, 3 



Light: Some Philippine Scyphomedusse 



205 



which graduate into one another — a small, inconspicuous, ribbon- 
like form and a large, very flexible form, cylindrical at the 
base, flattened toward the outer end, and containing a broad 
central canal. These reach a length 
of 110 mm. and a diameter of 7.5 
mm., giving the animal an appear- 
ance remarkably suggestive of the 
classical Medusa, hence the specific 
name. The canal system consists, as 
usual in the genus, of an equal num- 
ber of ocular and interocular canals. 
The former run to the sense organs 
at the margin, while the latter break 
up into branches some distance in- 
side, which anastomose with those 
from the ocular canals to form a net- 
work of canals running out to the margin. The subgenital ostia 
are small and considerably longer than broad as opposed to C. 
polypoides. 




Fig. 2. Cassiopea medusa sp. nov., 
a sense organ and the adjacent 
canal system from the subum- 
brellar side. Very much enlarged. 




Fig. 3. Cassiopea medusa, a portion of a mouth arm, showing the scattered mouths and the 
very typical appendages. X 1. 

In the preserved specimen the disk is opaque white with a 
slight grayish or greenish tinge. The mouths are light yellow, 
the arms and appendages are transparent white, and the canals 
are outlined in semiopaque white. 



206 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

This very interesting and distinctly new Cassiopea is rep- 
resented by a single specimen collected by Dr. L. E. Griffin 
and Mr. L. D. Wharton in Culion Bay, where it was found 
with C. polypoides var. culionensis. It is most nearly related 
to C. polypoides and C xamachana, but it is differentiated from 
them as from all other species by the numerous very large ap- 
pendages, by its very large size, and by the combination in one 
medusa of the following characteristics : 7 lappets to a paramere, 
mouth arms longer than the bell radius, and an unpigmented 
sense organ. 

Owing to the extreme fragility of the specimen, it is impossible 
to make as complete a description as might be desired. 

RHIZOSTOMATA DICHOTOMA Vanhoffen 
Genus CEPHEA Peron and Lesueur, 1809 
Cephea cephea (Forskal) Mayer. 

I have a single worn specimen of this widely distributed 
species collected at Mariveles, Manila Bay, in January, 1912. 
It is undoubtedly a form of Cephea cephea as shown by the 
deep clefts of the sense organs and the high, heavily warted 
central dome. The bell diameter is 220 mm., and the distance 
from the lower surface of the arm disk to the top of the dome 
is 120 mm. The 8 mouth arms arise in 4 pairs. Each arm is 
shorter than the bell radius, and shows decided lateral compres- 
sion in the proximal portion. The two outer branches are 
considerably stouter than the inner branches. The mouths are 
borne only on the faces of the main branches and their sub- 
branches. Scattered among the mouth arms are numerous short, 
ribbonlike, narrow appendages which when contracted have a 
berrylike appearance. These reach a maximum length of 40 
mm., most of them being from 10 to 20 mm. in length. There 
is a very conspicuous set of folded ridges containing the radial 
muscles and extending from the arm disk to the ring canal, 
which is about 50 mm. from the margin. On these ridges are 
numerous very small, flexible, cone-shaped projections. The 
circular muscles which are also distinct folds lying between the 
ring canal and the margin are interrupted, partially at least, in 
the rhopalar radii. The canal system agrees with that given by 
Mayer for Cephea cephea, except that the ocular canals are 
considerably wider, in their distal portion at least, than are 
the interocular canals. The subgenital ostia are small, half- 
moon shaped, convex below, and concave above. 

The central dome of the exumbrella is 80 mm. high and 



IX, D, 3 Light: Some Philippine Scyphomedusde 207 

about 70 mm. in diameter. It is covered at the bottom with 
small granular warts. Toward the top, these increase in size, 
reaching at the apex a length of 18 mm. and a diameter of 
14 mm. They are irregular, and may be slender and pointed 
or irregular and massive. 

The margin is not in a good state of preservation, but there 
are evidently 8 sense organs, which lie in deep notches, and 
about 80 marginal lappets — 8 velar and 2 ocular between each 
two sense organs. The lappets show very plainly as thicken- 
ings of the gelatinous material, but are not distinct at the edge 
where they are joined by a web. The dome is transparent rosy 
pink, shading to light blue at the apex. 

RHIZOSTOMATA TRIPTERA Vanhoffen sensu Maas 
Genus CATOSTYLUS L. Agassiz, 1862 
Catostylus purpurus Mayer. 

The disk is somewhat flatter than a hemisphere in preserved 
specimens, but more convex than a hemisphere in life. The ex- 
umbrella is smooth. The 8 rhopalia are flanked by short, nar- 
row, bluntly rounded lappets. In each octant there are 4 cleft 
and 2 simple velar lappets ; in all, 10 velar terminal lappets to an 
octant. In the whole bell there are 96 marginal lappets, 16 
rhopalar, and 80 velar terminal lappets. In any octant the velar 
lappets are arranged as follows : One cleft lappet, 1 simple lap- 
pet, 2 cleft lappets, 1 simple lappet, and 1 cleft lappet. 

The arm disk at the base is about half as wide as the bell 
diameter, and is much smaller at the level of origin of the 
mouth arms. The long, narrow genital ostia are nearly as 
wide as the interostial pillars. They are constricted by a thick, 
wide median projection which extends from the arm disk. A 
long finger-shaped or swollen papilla is seen on the subumbrellar 
surface. It arises on the outer margin of the ostia in the 
line of the rhopalar canal. The subgenital porticus is unitary 
and cruciform. 

The mouth arms are from 0.75 to 1.25 as long as the bell 
radius, and the mouths extend to the extreme tip of each arm. 
In living specimens, particularly those that are immature, a 
considerable part of the mouth arms is covered by edges of the 
bell. In preserved specimens the bell is flattened and the edges 
are turned in, leaving the mouth arms exposed. 

The circular muscles extend uninterruptedly from the arm disk 
to the margin, being most prominent between the circular canal 
and the margin. 



208 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

Sixteen radial canals, 8 of which are rhopalar and 8 adradial, 
leave the cruciform central stomach. The ocular canals extend 
past the ring canal to the sense organs, while the adradial 
canals end in the ring canal. The fine-meshed network of canals 
outside the ring canal extends to the margin. The coarser 
inner network is always connected with the adradial canals, 
seldom with the ocular canals, and never with the stomach. 

The sense organs have in life brilliant silver spots which 
fade in preserved specimens. The size of these ocelli is in 
inverse ratio to the size of the medusa. 

The medusa is deep purplish brown in life, and fades to dull 
brown in formalin. 

This is the commonest medusa of Manila Bay. During the 
months of November and December it is especially abundant on 
the beach at Pasay just outside of Manila. The fishermen say 
that these jellyfish are blown in by southwest winds which pre- 
vail during these months. The largest specimen in the collection 
measures 105 mm. in bell diameter, but I have seen many con- 
siderably larger specimens. Mayer reports this species as living 
on the bottom in shallow water. I hardly think this is the case, 
as they are always to be seen on or near the surface in shallow 
water along the beach and in the esteros (brackish water canals) , 
where they sometimes occur in countless numbers. The im- 
mature medusae vary considerably. Some are transparent white, 
and resemble in general appearance the immature forms of 
Acromitus maculosus *gen. et sp. nov. which is described later 
in this paper. The chief and most apparent difference is, of 
course, the absence of appendages of any kind on the mouth 
arms of Catostylus. Others resemble in general form the mature 
medusae, but have such striking differences that I have thought 
it worth while to give a short description of one of them. 

Catostylus purpums Mayer, immature form. 

The bell, which measures 27 mm. in diameter, is more con- 
vex than a hemisphere when relaxed and much more so in con- 
traction. The margin in life hangs down below the short mouth 
arms, but in f ormahn is curved inward exposing the mouth arms. 
There are 8 prominent rhopalia, which in life have a bright 
silvery color. The exumbrellar sensory pit is broad and shallow 
and dendritically grooved. The ocular lappets are roundly 
pointed and longer than the velar lappets. There are typically 
10, sharply pointed, narrow, velar lappets between each 2 ocular 
lappets arranged as in the adult medusa. 

The subgenital ostia are irregular in size and from once 



IX, D, 3 Light: Some Philippine Scyphomedusse 209 

to twice as wide as the interostial pillars. The genital porticus 
is unitary and cruciform. The circular muscles extend uninter- 
rupted from the outer end of the arm disk to the margin. 

The arms are 6 mm. long. Each has a swollen area near 
the base, culminating on the outside in a laterally projecting 
point beyond which the arms are decidedly narrowed. The 
mouths are on the lower and inner surfaces of the three branched 
arms. 

In life, the medusa is deep, rich plum; in formalin, it is pur- 
plish brown. 

This immature form was collected from a seine at Pasay 
Beach, Manila Bay, October, 1913. It is particularly interesting, 
because of the presence under the edge of the margin of several 
small cyclopslike Crustacea, evidently leading a commensal 
existence. Four of these crustaceans were found, each lying 
just below a sense organ and along the line of a rhopalar 
canal, the head end lying innermost. They were all females 
with well-developed egg sacks, and were difficult to make out 
in position as they have many minute brown pigment spots 
scattered over the body, giving them the same general color 
as the medusa. 

I have since found that these Crustacea are to be found in 
great numbers on living specimens whether mature or immature 
and are not confined to any one region of the medusa. 

Genus MASTIGIAS L. Agassiz, 1862 

Mastigias papua L. Agassiz. 

There are 3 immature and 2 mature specimens of this medusa 
in the collection from Port Galera Bay, Mindoro, collected during 
May and June, 1912. I saw many small specimens in Taytay 
Bay, Palawan, in May, 1913. 

These forms differ somewhat from the typical M. papua, and 
while these differences coincide to some extent with those noted 
in M. papua var. sibogse Maas they differ to about the same 
extent. They seem to be intermediate in form between M. papua 
var. sibogse and M. papua forma typica, and the specimens differ 
among themselves as to coloration, length of filaments, etc. 
These facts lead me to believe, as Mayer says, that there are 
numerous very closely related or even intergrading forms in 
this genus. It would be interesting to compare large series of 
these medusae from localities joining two rather widely separated 
habitats, say Japan and Papua, getting series from Japan, 
Formosa, Luzon, Mindanao, Jolo, Amboina, and Papua. I have 
no doubt that the individuals of such a series would so inter- 



210 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

grade as to make it necessary to consider them as local forms 
of a single very variable species. 

The largest specimen in the collection measures 60 mm. in 
bell diameter, and the arm disk is 33 mm. in diameter. The 
arms measure 35 mm. in length from the center of the arm 
disk, and project only slightly beyond the edge of the disk. 
There are 8 rhopalia, with large, cup-shaped, pigmented ocelli 
and long, pointed, ocular lappets. Between each 2 sense organs 
are 9 rounded or bluntly pointed velar lappets. The subgenital 
ostia are three times as wide as the interostial pillars. There 
are 7 anastomosing interocular canals in each octant. The 
rounded clubs are scattered on the mouth arms, and the terminal 
appendages which are somewhat less in length than the bell 
diameter are distinctly 3-sided and show a network of internal 
canals. The general color in life is light greenish blue, shading 
into light brown, purple, or olive green. The exumbrella is 
covered, particularly in the mature medusa, with prominent white 
spots. Those above the ring canal are double-headed or dumb- 
bell shaped. The rhopalar canals are outlined by a broad violet 
or deep blue band. The arm clubs are violet or blue at the 
tip and base with intermediate zones of olive green, gray, and 
white. In preserved specimens the colors fade with the excep- 
tion of the violet band on the circular canal, which is not 
present in some immature medusse, and the violet bases of 
the terminal appendages. 

Genus ACROMITUS novum ^ 

Generic characters, — Rhizostomata triptera with scattered 
filaments and axial, terminal, filamentous appendages on the 
oral arms. The cruciform stomach gives rise to 16 radial 
canals, 8 of which are rhopalar and 8 adradial and inter- 
rhopalar. The rhopalar canals extend beyond the ring canal 
to the margin, while the adradial canals end in the ring canal. 
Externally, the ring canal sends off many small canals which 
anastomose and form a network between the ring canal and 
the margin. Internally, it gives off several larger canals on 
each side of each rhopalar canal which anastomose and join 
the rhopalar canals. The exumbrellar sensory pits show radiat- 
ing furrows. The subgenital porticus is unitary and cruciform. 
The circular muscle is partially interrupted in the rhopalar radii. 

The type species is A. maculosus sp. nov. from Taytay Bay, 
Palawan. 

' a/cpos, at the point, terminally; /^tVos, a thread. 



IX. D, 3 



Light: Some Philippine Scyphomedusse 



211 



The genus Acromittts is most closely related to Catostylus 
on one hand and less closely to Lychnorhiza and Crambione 
on the other. It resembles Catostylus in its canal system, the 




Fig. 4. Acromitus maculosus gen. et sp. nov., lateral view of the medusa. X 8/9. 

shape and structure of its mouth arms, and in the presence 
of furrows in the sensory pit, but differs from it in having 
filaments and an axial terminal appendage on each mouth arm. 

124685 2 



212 The Philippine journal of Science 1914 

While resembling Lychnorhiza and Crambione to some extent 
in its canal system, in having filaments on the mouth arms 
and in the presence of radiating furrows in the sensory pits, 
it differs from them in having an axial terminal appendage, 
in that the internal branches of the ring canal join the rhopalar 
canals, and in that the circular muscles are interrupted, partially 
at least, in the rhopalar radii. It differs from Mastigias in that 
the exumbrella sensory pit is furrowed, in that the interocular 
canals are regular in number (8) and in position and do not 
anastomose, running directly from the central stomach to the 
ring canal, and in that the axial terminal appendages of the 
mouth arms are long, slender filaments and not clubs. It differs 
from Pseudorhiza in having slender terminal appendages, in 
the presence of filaments on the mouth arms, in that the sensory 
pits are furrowed, and in the absence of a central mouth. It 
differs from Phyllorhiza in having axial terminal appendages 
and in that the inner branches of the ring canal do not reach 
the stomach. It differs from Versura in that the interradial 
canals are separate and in the presence of a definite ring 
canal. It diflfers from Lobonema most strikingly in the small 
size of the marginal lappets and in the absence of windowlike 
apertures in the oral arms. It differs from Lobonemoides 
gen. nov. in that there are not more than 8 rhopalia, in that 
the interocular canals do not extend to the margin, and in 
that the axial, terminal appendages of the mouth arms are 
filamentous. 

Acromitus maculosus sp. nov. (figs. 4, 5, and 6). 

Type. — No. C. 2081, zoological collection. University of the 
Philippines. 

The bell reaches a width of 90 mm. or more, and is hemi- 
spherical or somewhat flatter than a hemisphere. It has a 
solid consistency, being thick in the central region and thin out- 
side the ring canal. The surface of the exumbrella is covered 
with minute, bluntly cone-shaped projections. There are 8 
rhopalia, each with a pigmented area and a deep, triangular, 
grooved, exumbrellar sensory pit. The marginal lappets are 
typically 80 in number — 8 pointed velar lappets in 4 pairs and 
2 narrow pointed ocular lappets being present in each octant. 
The grooves between the pairs of velar lappets are deep, and 
extend some distance up on the exumbrellar surface. The arm 
disk is about 1.2 or 1.25 of the bell radius. The genital ostia 
are from 1.3 to 1.5 as wide as the column between them. They 
have a regular but sinuous outline, and are partially closed by 



IX, D, 3 



Light: Some Philippine Scyphomedusse 



213 



a median flaplike projection from the outer margin. The sub- 
genital porticus is cruciform and unitary. 

The mouth arms vary in length from 1.3 to twice the bell 
radius. The proximal area, in the adult, is about 0.25 of the 
arm length and considerably more in the immature medusa. 
It is narrow and unbranched, and bears mouths only on its 
inner side where they extend to the center of the arm disk. 
The distal portion has the shape of a 3-cornered pyramid, the 
branches of the wings of the mouth arms extending alternately 
in opposite directions. The mouths are found only on the outer 
surfaces of the secondary branches of the 'three main divisions 
of the mouth arms, but these branches are so elongated laterally 
as to cover the bare spaces between the 
branches and present in all directions a 
surface composed of fringed mouth open- 
ings interspersed with filaments. The cap- 
itate tentacles fringing the mouths are very 
numerous and heavily loaded with nema- 
tocysts. The filaments are covered with 
large nematocyst warts, giving them a 
knobbed and knotted appearance. The fila- 
mentous axial terminal appendages are about 
as long as the mouth arms and very flexible. 
They contain a central canal, and are covered 
with nematocyst warts considerably smaller 
than those of the other filaments. The cen- 
tral ducts of the mouth arms join in pairs 
before passing into the stomach, the ducts 
of the two arms arising from a common 
interostial pillar uniting. Each of these 4 
main ducts enters the outer end of a stomach 
pouch. The main duct of each mouth arm gives off about 6 
small branches to the mouths of the upper portion of the mouth 
arm. At the point of origin of the two outer arm branches 
it gives off 3 main branches, one to each arm branch, and con- 
tinues beyond that point to the tip of the mouth arm as a small 
central canal giving off a few small branches to each of the three 
arm branches and is continued as the central canal of the 
terminal filament. The canals to the two outer arm branches 
are broad and bifurcated near their outer ends. 

The stomach is cruciform in shape, the 4 lobes tapering some- 
what toward the outer ends. From the outer extremity of each 
lobe there are given off 3 radial canals, a central rhopalar canal 
and an ardradial canal on either side arising from the outer 




Fig. 5. Acromitus ma- 
culo8U8, an exumbrel- 
lar view of a sense 
organ; diagrammatic. 
Much enlarged. 



214 The Philippine Jou7mal of Science im 

edge of the end of the lobe. In the cleft between each two 
lobes, a rhopalar canal is given off. So, of the 8 rhopalar 
canals, the 4 perradial canals — since they arise from the ends 
of the stomach lobes — are short and the 4 interradial canals — 
since they arise between the stomach lobes — are long. The 8 
rhopalar canals extend straight to the sense organs, while the 
8 interocular canals end in the circular canal. The area of 
the bell between the circular canal and the margin is filled 
with a network of anastomosing canals, taking their origin from 
the outer surface of the ring canal and intercommunicating with 
the branches of the rhopalar canals. Arising from the inner sur- 
face of the circular canal on each side of each ocular canal 
is a series of anastomosing canals usually 3 in number, which 
joins the ocular canals by a common lateral branch. This canal 
network has, typically, no connection with the interocular canals 




Fig. 6. Acromitus maculosus, an exumbrellar view of a portion of the bell, showing the canal 
system as seen when injected ; somewhat diagrammatic. 

which run directly from the stomach to the ring canal without 
branching or anastomosis. 

There is a wide band of circular muscles covering the space 
between the margin and a line a little external to the level 
of the ends of the stomach pouches. The part of the muscle 
band lying within the ring canal is interrupted in the 8 
rhopalar radii, while that outside the ring canal is only partially 
interrupted. 

The whole medusa is pale blue in life, the color being deepest 
along the radial canals and oral arms. The exumbrella is covered 
with circular, ring-shaped, solid, elongated, or irregular spots. 
In life, these are iridescent purplish black to dark brown. In 
specimens preserved in formalin, the blue fades to slightly 
opaque white with a faint bluish tinge and the spots fade to 
bronze brown and finally dissappear. 



IX, D, 3 Light: Some Philippine Scyphomedusse 215 

These medusae were common in the shallow water along the 
beach at Taytay, Palawan, in April and May, 1913. Great 
numbers of immature forms were present the second week in 
May. They first appeared after a very severe wind storm of 
several days' duration, but were never noted in the deeper waters 
of the bay. 

Measurements of the type specimen in the collection of the zoological 
department of the University of the Philippines y No. C, 2081. 

mm. 

Bell diameter 90 

Length of the mouth arms 60 
Length of the bare proximal portion of the mouth arm 15 

Diameter of the arm disk 50 

Width of the inturned portion of the exumbrella 15 

Diameter of the largest exumbrellar spots 5 

Width of the subgenital ostia 20 

Width of the interostial pillars 15 

Numerous specimens of the different stages of this medusa 
were collected at Taytay, Palawan, in the summer of 1913 by 
Dr. R. P. Cowles and myself while on the joint scientific expedi- 
tion of the University of the Philippines and the Bureau of 
Science. During the time in which they were numerous in the 
vicinity of Taytay, I visited neighboring islands and other parts 
of Palawan, but was unable to find the medusa. 

Among the numerous immature specimens, some variations 
and abnormalities are to be noted. The time at which the spots 
appear on the umbrella seems to vary. Some specimens whose 
umbrella is but 15 mm. in diameter show distinct spots, while 
others which have reached a diameter of 40 mm. show no 
markings at all. In the immature forms, the spots are arranged 
in more or less circular groups of 4 or 5 which coalesce to form 
the large spots of the adult form. The proximal portion of 
the mouth arms is more prominent, and makes up a larger 
portion of the arms of the immature medusa. The canal system 
of the bell seems the same in mature and immature specimens, 
but the side branches of the upper portion of the main canals 
of the mouth arms are conspicuous in the immature forms. 
The canal pattern is strikingly brought out by injecting pure 
Delafield's hsematoxylin through an opening in the center of 
the exumbrella. The only notable variation is that in a very 
few cases the inner canal network is connected to the adradial 
canals as well as to the interradial and perradial canals. This 



216 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

connection is very slight, and is by no means common. One 
specimen has 5 stomach lobes, 5 gonad lobes, 9 mouth arms, 
18 radial canals — 10 of them rhopalar and 8 adradial — and 96 
marginal lappets. There are 9 rhopalia present, and as the 
margin is gone at the end of another rhopalar canal we may 
say there are 10 rhopalia, so it is as if a new area equivalent 
to a quadrant has been developed in this specimen to correspond 
to the extra stomach lobe, lacking, however, two adradial canals. 
In another specimen there are 18 canals, but 5 of them — 3 
adradial and 2 rhopalar — arise from a single enlarged stomach 
pouch. Another specimen has 10 mouth arms, 4 of them develop- 
ing from a single interostial pillar, but the canal system is 
of the normal type. At first glance, the canal system of the 
bell of this species appears to be very similar to that of Catos- 
tylus piirpurus Mayer, to which it is undoubtedly closely related. 
But in the injected specimens of C purpurus it can be seen that 
the internal network of canals from the ring canal is connected 
most conspicuously with the adradial canals, while in A. macu- 
losus it is connected with the rhopalar canals and typically not 
at all with the adradial canals. 

I have given the species the name maculosus, as the spots 
on the umbrella constitute one of its most striking specific 
characters. 

Genus LOBONEMA Mayer, 1910, emended 

Generic characters. — Rhizostomata triptera, in which the velar 
lappets are greatly extended, tapering to pointed ends. The 
mouth arms show numerous filaments, and the mouth-arm mem- 
branes are perforated by windowlike openings. There are from 
8 to 16 rhopalia, twice as many radial canals as rhopalia, and a 
ring canal which gives off an anastomosing network of vessels on 
both its inner and outer sides. The inner network does not 
connect with the stomach. All of the radial canals extend 
beyond the ring canal, the ocular canals always to the sense 
organs. The subumbrella shows a well-developed system of 
ring muscles extending from the mouth-arm disk to the margin, 
interrupted partially or not at all by the radial canals. There 
are numerous prominent tapering papillae upon the exumbrella. 
There is an exumbrellar sensory pit above each rhopalium, whose 
floor is covered with radiating dendritic furrows. 

This is Mayer's original definition emended so as to include 
Lobonema mayeri sp. nov. 



IX, D, 3 



Light: Some Philippine S<^yphomedusse 



217 



Lobonema mayeri ^ sp. no v. (figs. 7, 8, and 9). 

Type. — No. C. 2424, zoological collection, University of the 
Philippines. 

During the middle and latter part of May, Malampaya Sound 
on the west coast of Palawan contained great numbers of this 
very beautiful and interesting medusa. Two specimens were 





«^i^i\'fM???\n 




Fig. 7. Lobonema mayeri sp. nov., a quadrant of the exumbrellar surface, showing the papillse, 
sense organs, and tentaclelike marginal lappets. X h- 

taken in as perfect a condition as was possible in the case of 
forms with such long and fragile arm filaments. 

The bell is much flatter than a hemisphere both in preserved 
and living specimens. The portion of the bell beyond the ring 

* I have named this species in honor of Dr. A. G. Mayer without whose 
Medusae of the World the completion of this report would have been ex- 
tremely difficult if not impossible and who (1910) described the genus 
Lobonema and the only other known species, L. smithii Mayer. 



218 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 




Fig. 8. Lobonema mayeri, a mouth arm, showing the appendages, the windowlike openings, 
and the irregular arrangement of the ducts ; somewhat diagrammatic. X h- 

canal, which is a considerable distance from the margin, is very 
thin, and hangs down as a sort of fringe when floating. The bell 
is from 340 to 500 mm. in diameter measured from a sense club 
to the one 180° from it. Medusae having 
a diameter of at least 500 mm. and prob- 
ably much more were very numerous. 
The subumbrella is covered with very 
flexible tapering papillae, increasing in 
size and number toward the center of 
the exumbrella where they reach a length 
of 60 mm. and a basal diameter of 15 mm. 
Those in the center of preserved specimens 
are stiff and solid at the base, but their 
tips like the entire papillae toward the 
outer position of the exumbrella are very 
soft, shrunken, and without rigidity. In 
life, they are all conical and flexible, 
waving about in the currents of water. 
Toward the center of the exumbrella, the 
Fig. 9. Lobonema mayen, a rather broad bases of thesc papillae cover 

sense organ from the ex- ^-j^q entire SUrface. 

umbrellar side. Much en- im^^i^^i -,» , 

larged. The 12 to 16 rhopalia are very short 




IX, D, 3 Light: Some Philippine Scyphomedusse 219 

with broad swollen ends, and are covered above and below by 
shelves of tissue, the exumbrellar shelf being very short and the 
subumbrellar much larger. No pigment spots are present. The 
exumbrellar sensory pit it small, rather deep below, and dendrit- 
ically grooved. It lies in the surface of an oval, papillalike, 
raised area. The ocular lappets are short, plump, and closely 
approximated, being 4 mm. in length from the base of the ex- 
umbrellar sensory pit to the tip and 3 mm. in diameter. There 
are from 70 to 80 complete marginal lappets, from 3 to 6 in 
a paramere. Some of the lappets show a distal bifurcation. 
The lappets are elongated, tentaclelike, tapering to a point. 
They reach a length of 200 mm., measured from the inner 
end of the cleft, are very slender and flexible distally, and have 
the appearance of true tentacles. For about 25 mm. of their 
inner length they are joined by a web. They are concave 
below and convex above, with thin edges. They contain a 
number of large longitudinal canals joined by small lateral 
branches, and no muscle fibers could be detected in stained 
sections. The velar grooves of the exumbrella are about 25 
mm. and the ocular grooves are about 12 mm. long. The rhopalar 
clefts are V-shaped rather than Y-shaped as in L. smithii. 
From 24 to 32 radial canals, half of them rhopalar and half 
interrhopalar, leave the central stomach. There are always 
half as many sense organs as canals. The ocular canals extend 
to the sense organs in the margin, but the interocular canals while 
extending for some distance beyond the ring canal are lost in 
the network of anastomosing canals before reaching the margin, 
differing in this character from L. smithii. This is well shown 
by injecting one of these canals with Delafield's hsematoxylin. 
There is a distinct ring canal about 45 mm. inward from the sense 
club zone giving off an anastomosing system of canals internally 
and externally, which connects with both the ocular and inter- 
ocular canals but not with the central stomach. 

The bell between the arm disk and the ring canal is from 
25 to 30 mm. in thickness, while from the ring canal to the 
margin it is not thicker than 10 mm. The thickest point is 
at the level of the ring canal, where there is a circular swollen 
subumbrellar area over which the radial canals curve to meet 
the ring canal whose greatest breadth is at right angles to the 
plane of the subumbrella. At this point, just before it joins the 
ring canal, there is a bulbous enlargement of each ocular canal. 

There is no radial muscle. The circular muscles form a series 
of circular folds between the arm disk and the zone of the 
sense organs. That part of the muscle band which lies within 



220 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science im 

the ring canal is completely interrupted in the ocular radii and 
thinned in the interocular, while that portion lying outside the 
ring canal is thinned in the ocular radii and only slightly so 
in the interocular radii. 

The arm disk is two-thirds as wide as the bell radius, very 
thin in the center, and swollen and rounded along the outer 
edge. The subgenital ostia are compressed, are twice as wide 
as the interostial pillars, and have a small papillalike projec- 
tion in the center of their subumbrellar lip. The subgenital 
porticus is unitary. The gonads are in the form of long lines 
in the thin reduplicated and folded wall of the stomach. On 
each side of these lines of reproductive organs are lines of blunt 
gastral filaments. These reduplicated membranes are inflated 
and pushed out through the subgenital ostia in the two specimens 
in the collection. Each of the interostial pillars contains a 
slitlike false ostium about two-thirds as wide as the pillar. One 
specimen examined had a large cone-shaped papilla on the upper 
margin of this false ostium, while others did not. 

The supporting membranes of the 3 main branches of the 
mouth arms are pierced by windowlike openings. Typically, 
there seem to be 2 in the membrane of each wing, but the 
weakened arm membranes have broken down in most of the 
arms. In no arm are there more than 2 in each wing, in 
some none at all, and in others the branch is only attached 
by its upper edge, the membrane between the openings having 
given away. The mouth arms are equally spaced, the two 
arms arising from the same interostial pillar being widely 
separated, the base of each extending partly over the adjacent 
subgenital ostium. The proximal portion of each arm is about 
one-half the length of the 3-winged distal portion. The fringed 
mouths extend on the inner surface to the center of the arm 
disk. Scattered among the mouths are very numerous filaments. 
Those of the central disk and the proximal portion of the arms 
are slender, threadlike filaments. Toward the distal portion 
they increase in length and become spindle-shaped, circular in 
cross section, and tapering to a long threadlike portion. The 
larger filaments contain an axial canal, and reach a maximum 
length of 200 mm. and a diameter of 10 mm. 

In life, the medusa has an exquisite color scheme of purple, 
violet, and rose pink. The gonads are, as a rule, pink, the 
general color is violet, and the fringe of tentaclelike marginal 
lappets purple. These colors vary considerably in intensity 
and arrangement. In f ormalian, the entire medusa is milky gray 
and the gonads and mouth fringes are yellow. 



IX, D, 3 Light: Some Philippine Scyphomedusse 221 

These medusae with their numerous tentaclelike velar lappets, 
their exumbrellar papillae, and their arm appendages — all of 
which are very long, slender, and flexible and all of which are 
colored some shade between rose pink and purple — present a 
most striking and beautiful appearance, and as they are found 
on or near the surface are most conspicuous objects. 

Numbers of young fish of the genus Caranx were found living 
in the mass of filaments and mouth arms. 

L. mayeri differs from L. smithii in that it has from 12 to 16 
rhopalia instead of 8, in that the circular muscle is completely in- 
terrupted in the ocular radii, in that it has a false ostium in 
each interostial pillar, and in that the interocular canals do not 
reach the bell margin. 

I have handled this medusa and have seen and experienced 
the results of the sting which are very similar to those of a 
nettle sting and are not at all serious. This is surprising in view 
of the statements of Dr. H. M. Smith as given by Mayer with 
regard to the closely related L. smithii Mayer.^ It seems 
to me much more probable that the cases of poisoning reported 
by Old ^° were due, as I have said before, to the ''Chrysaora 
stage" of Dactylometru quinquecirrha which is common in the 
harbor. The Filipinos state that the latter form is very pois- 
onous, and a number of instances are known in which it has 
caused severe symptoms of poisoning. 

I append a table of comparative measurements and the num- 
ber of rhopalia and lappets to a paramere of the two specimens 
of L. mayeri in the collection. 

Measurements of Lobonema mayeri sp, nov. 



Specimen 
A. 



Specimen 
B. 



Bell diameter - - millimeters 

Arm disk, diameter do__ 

Maximum length of the velar lappets __do-- 

Number of rhopalia 

Number of velar lappets 

Width of the subgenital ostia - millimeters— 

Width of the interostial pillars - do. 

Width of the pillar cavity (false ostium) __ do. 

Length of the mouth arms from the center of the arm disk do. 



350 

125 

180 

12 

«3-6 

c75 

32 

25 

180 



340 

110 

200 

16 

D3-4 

c70 

33 

22 

180 



*6 in 4 parameres, 5 in 2, 4 in 5, and 3 in 1. c More than twice the width of the pillar, 

b 4 in 13 parameres and 3 in 3. 

^ Pub. Carnegie Inst, Wash. (1910), No. 109, 3, 690. 
'' This Journal, Sec. B (1908), 3, 329. 



222 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

Genus LOBONEMOIDES novum 

Generic characters, — Lobonema-like Rhizostomata triptera in 
which the marginal lappets are pointed but not greatly extended. 
The mouth-arm membranes are not perforated by windowlike 
openings. There are more than 8 rhopalia, twice as many radial 
canals as sense organs all extending to the margin, and a ring 
canal. The ring canal gives off externally a network of anas- 
tomosing canals, extending to the margin, and internally a series 
of anastomosing canals on each side of each rhopalar canal, which 
do not reach the stomach and are connected with the rhopalar 
canals but not the interrhopalar canals. The exumbrellar 
sensory pits are furrowed with radiating dendritic grooves. 
Each mouth arm bears numerous small scattered appendages and 
one large terminal spindle-shaped appendage, all of which taper 
to filamentous outer ends. 

The type species is L. gracilis sp. nov. from Taytay, Palawan. 




Fig. 10. Lobonemoides gracilis, an exumbrellar view of half the bell, showing the canal system, 
the marginal lappets, etc. X 1. 

Lobonemoides gracilis sp. nov. (figs. 10, 11, 12, and 13). 

Type. — No. C. 2422, zoological collection. University of the 
Philippines. 

The bell is flat, 50 to 85 mm. in diameter, and very trans- 
parent. The stomach and canals are semiopaque white and the 
gonads opaque white. That part of the bell which lies outside 
the ring canal is very thin and flexible, while the central portion 
is rather thick and stiff. This outer thin region is about 17 
mm. wide in the type specimen. The bell is 7 mm. thick out- 
side the ring canal, 14 mm. high through the outer edge of 
the arm disk, and 10 mm. high through the center of the arm 
disk. There are a few scattered papillae on the exumbrella. 



IX, D, 3 



Light: Some Philippine Scyphomedusse 



223 



increasing in size toward the center. They are small, slender, 
and flexible, and reach a length of 2 mm. and a basal diameter 
of 0.5 mm. In preserved specimens they lie flat on the disk. 

There are 14 rhopalia and twice as many radial canals, all 
extending to the margin. The sense organs are very short, thick 
clubs lying at right angles to the plane of the bell with the 
swollen end toward the exumbrellar surface. Between each 
pair of sense organs, there are 6 marginal lappets — 4 large 
pointed triangular .velar lappets between 2 small pointed ocular 
lappets. The rhopalar canals are somewhat larger than the 
interrhopalar canals, and divide distally to form a U-shaped 
sinus in the upper part of the ocular lappets. In the curve 




Fig. 11. Lohonemoides gracilis gen. et sp. nov., ventral view of the medusa. X i- Two of the 
mouth arms of this specimen are aborted. 

between the limbs of this sinus lies the sense organ. The ex- 
umbrellar sensory pit is dendritically grooved. The ring canal 
lies at the outer edge of the swollen central region of the bell, 
and its greatest breadth is at right angles to the plane of the 
umbrella. The radial canals curve over this swollen area to the 
ring canal, which gives off externally and internally a set of anas- 
tomosing canals. The external network Is connected in a 
number of places with both the ocular and interocular canals, 
and it approaches the latter more closely and is joined to it 
in a greater number of places. Internally, a network of 3 
or 4 anastomosing canals is given off by the ring canal on 
each side of each ocular canal to which it is joined in 2 or 3 



224 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



places. The interocular canals internal to the ring canal are 
broader than the ocular canals, and show a sinuslike broadening 
where they join the ring canal. Beyond the ring canal the 
interocular canals are small and are closely surrounded by the 
network of anastomosing canals, while the ocular canals maintain 
a uniform size to the margin and have on either side just 
outside the ring canal a small area free from the anastomosing 
canals. 

The arm disk is 50 mm. in diameter, swollen in the zone 
of origin of the arms, and thin in the center of the disk. The sub- 
genital ostia are 18 mm. in width and 4 mm. high, with a 
concave upper and swollen convex lower lip. The interostial 

pillars are 9 mm. wide. The 
subgenital porticus is unitary 
and square. Each gonad lies in 
a complex series of folds in the 
floor of the stomach. The folds 
are longest in the center and 
shortest at the ends, where at 
the level of the center of the 
interostial pillars the gonads are 
separated from one another by 
a very short space. Thus the 
outer edges of the gonads out- 
line a square area, the corners 
of which coincide with the cen- 
ters of the interostial pillars. 
The bases of the pillars are 
rounded, and the edge of the 
portion of the arm disk between 
them is straight, so the arm disk 
may be considered 8-sided — 
rounded and straight faces alternating with one another — or 
more exactly 4-sided, each corner being rounded. The outline 
of the stomach is square, but the invaginated gonads have so 
encroached on it as to leave only a narrow cruciform cavity 
whose outer ends are joined by a marginal sinus from which 
the radial canals originate. 

The arms are about equally spaced. The two arms on a 
common interostial pillar are widely separated, so that the base 
of each arm lies over the outer one-third of a gonad. The 
arm disk at the base is a little wider than the bell radius, 
while at the point of origin of the arms it is only five-ninths 
as wide as the bell radius. The arms are 50 mm. long from 




Fig. 12. Lohonemoidea gracilis, a dia- 
firrammatic representation of a quadrant 
of the bell from the subumbrellar side, 
showing: the subgrenital ostium, canals, 
etc. X 1. 



IX, D, 3 



Light: Some Philippine Scyphomedusx 



225 



the center of the disk, and so a little longer than the bell 
radius. They are very flexible. The inner wings bear mouths 
to the center of the disk. The distal 3-winged portion of the 
arm is about one-half the total length of the arm. The branches 
are slender and delicate, and the fringed mouths are not crowded, 
except toward the tip of the arms. At the center of the disk 
is a slender filament, and around this a whorl of similar fila- 
ments, one in the axil between each pair of arms arising from 
a common interostial pillar. Scattered among the mouths are 
a few similar but smaller filaments. At the end of each mouth 




Fig. 13. Lobonemoides gracilis, lateral view of one mouth arm and an interostial pillar, 
showing the ducts as seen in an injected specimen ; diagrammatic. X 1. 

arm there is a large spindle-shaped appendage tapering to a 
filamentous distal end and having a central canal. Scattered 
on the distal ends of the arms are a few similar but smaller 
appendages. The terminal appendages reach a length of 45 
mm. and a maximum diameter of 6 mm. 

Each of the very narrow, interradial limbs of the stomach 
receives two ducts from the mouth arms, one (fig. 13, a,) at 
a point about one-third of the distance from its outer end to 
the center and the other (fig. 13, b) at the outer end. These 



226 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



two ducts originate from the point of junction of three main 
ducts in the mouth arms. The central one (fig. 13, c) is formed 
by the union of the ducts, which run along the outer edge of the 
inner wing of the two arms supported by a common pillar and 
give off smaller ducts to the branches of their inner wings. 
This union occurs not far from the disk center in the axil 
between two mouth arms supported on the same interradial 
pillar. The other two (fig. 13, d) are the main central ducts 
from the same two mouth arms. Each of those two main ducts 
divides at the point of origin of the two outer arm wings 
into 3 main branches, the two larger of which run to each of 
the outer arm wings and join the ducts running along the 
outer surfaces of these wings. These and the main ducts of 
the arms are often double (fig. 13). The smaller one runs 
through the center of the arm, giving off branches to the outer 
ducts of the 3 wings till at the tip of the arm it and the outer 
ducts of the 3 wings are joined. The main duct of each arm 
sends off in its proximal portion one large connecting branch 
and numerous smaller connecting branches to the outer duct 
of the inner mouth arm. 

The medusa is transparent white, and the gonads are yellow. 

There are 3 specimens of this new and interesting medusa 
collected by Dr. R. P. Cowles along the beach at Taytay, Palawan. 
Measurements of them are given in the following table. 

Measurements of Lobonemoides gracilis sp. nov. 



Specimen. 


Bell di- 
ameter. 


Arm-disk 
diameter. 


Lengrth 
of the 
mouth 
arms. 


Width of 
the sub- 
genital 
ostia. 


Width of 

the inter- 

ostial 

pillars. 


Type C. 2422 _._ _ 


mm. 

85 
70 
47 


m,m. 
50 
44 
84 


mm. 
50 
44 
30 


mm. 
18 
16 
12 


mm. 
10 
8 
5 


Cotype A 


Cotype B . _-, _ . 





This is a very puzzling form to place systematically. It may 
possibly be a growth form of Lobonema mayeri or some other 
species of that genus, for in many ways it resembles these 
medusae, but it lacks the two main generic characters of 
Lobonema, the tentaclelike marginal lappets and the perforated 
arm membranes. Further, it was collected on the east coast 
of Palawan, whereas L. mayeri was found only on the west coast. 
The gonads of Lobonemoides gracilis are well developed although 
not fully mature, and its sense organs and the arrangement of the 
canals of the mouth arms are different from those of L. mayeri. 



IX, D, 3 Light: Some Philippine Scyphomedusse 227 

For these reasons, I have decided to consider it as a mature form 
which necessitates the formation of the new genus to which 
I have given the name Lobonemoides, because of its resemblance 
in certain characters to Mayer's genus Lobonema. 

The classification of a form such as this brings in question 
the purpose of systematic work. As I see it, the function of 
such work is to bring before scientific workers the forms of 
life in such a way as to make possible their differentiation 
and consequently to allow of their being placed in a general 
system and used as a basis for scientific inductions. The 
binomial system of nomenclature has been adopted as the most 
practical method of accomplishing this end. The placing of 
scientific data before the world is the essential part of such 
a work. The mere introducing into the literature of the group 
of a new generic or specific name is the smallest part and 
should be but a means to an end. It seems to me, therefore, 
that the possibility that these names may in the future become 
synonyms should not prevent the worker from accomplishing 
this purpose. For example, I might have described the above 
species as a doubtful, immature form of L. mayeri. But this 
denies a place in the classification and nomenclature of the group 
to a very interesting medusa form, which in so far as present 
data is concerned is a new species of a new genus and concern- 
ing which there may be no more data for years. It practically 
buries it from all but a very few workers; whereas, if it be 
given a generic and specific name it receives a place in the 
nomenclature of the group and is thus brought to the attention 
of all workers, and the question as to whether it is a mature 
form or not will, no doubt, be sooner settled and the medusa 
put in its proper place. If it be a growth form, the name 
which I give it will become a synonym and be discarded, but 
it will have accomplished the purpose for which it was given. 

RHIZOSTOMATA LORIFERA Vanhoffen 

Genus RHOPILEMA Haeckel, 1880 

Rhopilema visayana sp. nov. (figs. 14, 15, and 16). 

Type. — No. C. 2423, zoological collection. University of the 
Philippines. From Taytay Bay, Palawan. 

The bell is from 200 to 400 mm. in diameter, and is hemi- 
spherical or more convex than a hemisphere. The central por- 
tion which forms the upper wall of the stomach is thick and stiff, 
while the remainder is very thin and flexible. The exumbrella 
is covered with numerous small, pointed, spinelike projections. 

124685 3 



228 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 




These are about 0.5 mm. in basal diameter and 
0.75 mm. high. They are scattered over the 
surface, are about 2 mm. apart at the margin, and 
increase in number toward the apex, where they 
are only about 0.5 mm. apart. Scattered among 
these on the sides of the exumbrella are a few 
low, flatly rounded papillae about 1.5 mm. in 
diameter and 0.5 mm. in height. 

Each of the 8 rhopalia shows a distinct, brown, 
pigmented area. There are typically 8 thin, 
rounded, velar lappets in each octant. The free 
outer ends and the deep irregular grooves between 
them are free from the projections found on 
the rest of the exumbrella. The width of these 
lappets is variable, and their outer ends sometimes 
show bifurcation. 

The canal system is very similar to that of 
R, hispidum Maas, the 16 radial canals extending to the margin. 
Each adradial canal shows a sinuslike swelling at the point 
of origin of its innermost and largest branch. The radial 



Fig. 14. Rhopilema 
visayana s p . 
nov., an exum- 
brellar view of a 
sense organ, 
showing the ad- 
jacent canals as 
seen in an in- 
jected specimen. 
Enlarged. 




Fig. 15. 



Rhopilema visayana, subumbrellar view of a quadrant, showing the canal system, the 
radial muscles, and the subgenital ostium with the three papillae. X J. 



IX, D, 3 



Light: Some Philippine Scyphomedusx 



229 



canals divide the radial muscle into triangular areas which are 
widely separated proximally. 

The genital ostia are as wide as the interostial pillars, and 
are partly closed by 1 large median papilla and 2 smaller, lateral, 
elongated, roughened, wartlike papillse, each lying in the line 
of a radial canal. The partitions between the 4 genital cavities 
are narrow but complete. 

The arm disk is supported by 4 broad, flat pillars. The 
distance from the base of one of these to the base of the one 
opposite it is 170 mm. The united arms arise from the center of 
the arm disk, and are only 60 mm. in diameter where they leave 




l^j^^-^^w^.-f' 



Fig. 16. RhopUema visaycuna, a diagram of the arrangement of the ducts of two mouth arms 
supported by a common pillar and of their scapulets. X i. 

the disk. The mouth arms, measured from the outer surface of 
the arm disk, are 190 mm. in length. They are united proximally 
for more than two-thirds of this distance, the distal free portion 
measuring 75 mm. When the arms are spread out, the specimen 
is 200 mm. from the tip of one arm to the tip of the arm 180° 
from it, the central united portion being 50 mm. across at this 
point. The 3-winged portion of the arm makes up less than 
one-half of the free distal portion of the arm. Each of the two 
outer wings bears a dichotomously divided branch near its origin, 
and is divided distally into 4 flattened, tapering, nearly naked 
branches. Scattered among the mouths are appendages of three 
types: Long, flexible, somewhat flattened, filamentous append- 



230 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

ages; shorter, flattened, ribbonlike appendages; and pointed, 
spindle-shaped or wedge-shaped appendages, the largest of which 
is usually terminal. 

The scapulets are about 65 mm. long and 45 mm. wide at the 
base, their upper and outer surfaces bearing numerous mouths, 
among which are many long, filamentous appendages. The 
scapulets are branched along either side, and are deeply bifurcated 
at the outer end. 

Each interostial pillar contains a main duct which enters the 
outer end of one of the 4 stomach lobes and is formed by the 
union of the main ducts of the 2 mouth arms arising from the same 
pillar. The main ducts of the 2 arms unite somewhat beyond 
the scapulets, and the main duct formed by their union receives 
on each side a duct formed by the union of the ducts of the two 
scapulets of that side. The main duct of each mouth arm re- 
ceives a number of smaller ducts from the inner surface of the 
mouth arm and a very large duct from each of the 3 outer wings 
of the distal portion of the arm. 

The color in both preserved and living specimens is opaque 
white. 

This medusa was very common in Taytay Bay, Palav/an, during 
May, 1913. Nearly every specimen examined contained one or 
more living individuals of a species of a crab, Charibdis {Gonion^ 
emus) crucifera (Fabr.) M. Edwards. These crabs were con- 
siderably paler than is typical for the species, which would seem 
to indicate a somewhat extensive residence within the medusa. I 
have also seen the medusa accompanied by large numbers of small 
fish apparently belonging to the genus Caranx. In some instances, 
these fish were seen to be eating the medusa, but in all such cases 
the medusa was dead. When the medusa was alive, they seemed 
to maintain a commensal relation. The fish would be seen play- 
ing about among the mouth arms and appendages and on being 
alarmed would disappear under the edge of the bell, between the 
arms or in the subgenital porticus. A similar condition was found 
in the case of Lobonema mayerL I am told that R, visayana 
which is closely related to the common edible medusa of Japan, R, 
esculenta Kishinouye, is used for food by the inhabitants of the 
east coast of Leyte where it is preserved in vinegar. As it is 
apparently a common form in the Visayas (hence the name), 
there is no reason why it should not form a staple article of food. 

It is very closely related to R, hispidum Maas, but differs from 
it in having a distinct pigmental area in the sense organ, in 
having its mouth arms united for more than two-thirds of their 
length, and in having 3 wartlike papillse in the mouth of the 
subgenital ostia. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

(Drawings by Santos, Fajardo, and Penya) 
TEXT FIGURES 

Fig. 1. Cassiopea polypoides Keller var. culionensis var. nov., a sense organ 
from the subumbrellar side. Much enlarged. 

2. Cassiopea medusa sp. nov., a sense organ and the adjacent canal 

system from the subumbrellar side. Very much enlarged. 

3. Cassiopea medusa^ a portion of a mouth arm, showing the scattered 

mouths and the very typical appendages. X 1. 

4. Acromitus maculosus gen. et sp. nov., lateral view of the medusa. 

X 8/9. 

5. Acromitus maculosus, an exumbrellar view of a sense organ; dia- 

grammatic. Much enlarged. 

6. Acromitus maculosus, an exumbrellar view of a portion of the 

boll, showing the canal system as seen when injected; somewhat 
diagrammatic. 

7. Lobonema mayeri sp. nov., a quadrant of the exumbrellar surface, 

showing the papillae, sense organs, and tentaclelike marginal lap- 
pets. X 1/2. 

8. Lobonema mayeri, a mouth arm, showing the appendages, the 

windowlike openings, and the irregular arrangement of the 
ducts; somewhat diagrammatic. X 1/3. 

9. Lobonema mayeri, a sense organ from the exumbrellar side. Much 

enlarged. 

10. Lobonemoides gracilis, an exumbrellar view of half the bell, showing 

the canal system, the marginal lappets, etc. X 1. 

11. Lobonemoides gracilis gen. et sp. nov., ventral view of the medusa. 

X 1/2. Two of the mouth arms of this specimen are aborted. 

12. Lobonemoides gracilis, a diagrammatic representation of a quadrant 

of the bell from the subumbrellar side, showing the subgenital 
ostium, canals, etc. X 1. 

13. Lobonemoides gracilis, lateral view of one mouth arm and an interos- 

tial pillar, showing the ducts as seen in an injected specimen; 
diagrammatic. X 1. 

14. Rhopilema visayana sp. nov., an exumbrellar view of a sense organ, 

showing the adjacent canals as seen in an injected specimen. 
Enlarged. 

15. Rhopilema visayana, subumbrellar view of a quadrant, showing the 

canal system, the radial muscles, and the subgenital ostium with 
the three papillae. X 1/2. 

16. Rhopilema visayana, a diagram of the arrangement of the ducts of 

two mouth arms supported by a common pillar and of their scap- 

ulets. X 1/2. 

231 



NOTES ON PHILIPPINE ALCYONARIA 

PART II : LEMNALIOIDES KUKENTHALI, A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF 

ALCYONARIA FROM THE PHILIPPINES AND A DISCUSSION OF THE 

SYSTEMATIC POSITION OF THE NEW GENUS 

By S. F. Light 

(From the Zoological Laboratory, College of Liberal Arts, 
University of the Philippines) 

One plate and 8 text figures 

Genus LEMNALIOIDES novum 

Generic characters, — The colony is upright, treelike, or bushy, 
and consists of a number of stems coalesced in one or more 
groups for some distance above the base. The tubular, non- 
retractile polyps are scattered singly or in little groups on the 
branches and lateral and terminal twigs. The spiculation of 
the cortex and the canal walls is similar to that in Lemnalia. 
The tentacles contain a very few, very small, scattered spicules, 
and the stomodseum contains no spicules. The tentacles beai: 
more than one row of pinnules, and show a median longitudinal 
band of muscle fibers on their outer surfaces. The type of the 
genus is Lemnalioides kukenthali sp. nov. 

Lemnalioides kiikenthali sp. nov. (Plate I; text figs. 1 to 6). 

Type. — This species is described from a single well-developed 
colony from one of the shallow reefs in Port Galera Bay, Min- 
doro. No. C. 254, zoological collection. University of the Philip- 
pines. Collected by S. F. Light in May, 1912. 

The colony, which is 115 mm. in height and 110 mm. in greatest 
breadth across the polypary, arises from a small somewhat en- 
crusting base, 38 mm. in length and 25 mm. in width. It consists 
of 2 main stalks or groups of stems which divide at a height of 
about 40 mm. to form a number of stems or main branches. 
These are divided and subdivided toward their outer ends to form 
a number of distally directed, closely approximated branches. 
On the slender, lateral and terminal twigs of these branches 
and scattered to some extent on the branches themselves are 
the large, tubular, nonretractile polyps. They arise singly or 
in little groups, and are all expanded in the type specimen 
(Plate I), where they average from 1 to 2 mm. in length and 

233 



234 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 




Fig. 1. Spicules from the 
polyp and tentacles of Lem- 
nalioides kiikenthali; a, a 
polyp spindle showing the 
axis to be seen in cleared 
specimens ; b, a spindle 
from the distal end of one 
of the double rows, showing 
the axis and the divided and 
sculptured distal end ; c, 
tentacle spicules. X 112.5. 



about 0.5 mm. in diameter. The lateral twigs decrease in length 
from as much as 9 mm. at the base of a branch to 3 or 4 mm. 
toward the tip of the branch. The lines of the canal walls are 
distinct on the stem and branches, and each polyp can be plainly 
seen to be the termination of a canal. 
The stomodseum is long, thick walled, and spindle-shaped, 
and contains no spicules. In an aver- 
age polyp it is 0.6 mm. in length 
and 0.2 mm. in greatest (central) diam- 
eter. The tentacles are large with a 
double row of short thick pinnulse on 
each side and a median band of muscle 
fibers on the outer surface (fig. 6). 
They contain only a very few, small, 
scattered spicules. 

The polyp armature is not heavy, and 
consists of smooth spindles in an ir- 
regularly transverse arrangement on 
the body of the polyps. Distally, they 
form a double row of 5 or 6 pairs of 
spindles at the base of each tentacle 
(fig. 6). 

The polyp spindles are rather irregular, bent, or curved, with a 
few low projections, and a narrow, distinct, central axis, and ap- 
pear, in cleared specimens, to be more like flexible fibers than stiff 
spicules (fig. 1, a). They are from 0.15 to 0.20 mm. in length 
and from 0.005 to 0.008 mm. in diameter, and have somewhat 
swollen and divided ends. This is particularly true of the distal 

ends of the spindles of the double rows 
which are mushroomed and much 
divided and sculptured (fig. 1, 6). 

The very few tentacle spicules are 
irregular forms found in the crotch 
between two tentacles and here and 
there in the pinnules of the lower 
part of the tentacles. They range 
from 0.04 to 0.05 mm. in length, and 
are sculptured over their entire sur- 
face, particularly heavily at the outer ends (fig. 1, c). 

The spicules of the stem and branch cortex are spindles. They 
are numerous, but do not seem to have the hard brittle character 
of the spicules of Lemnalia, as the cortex of the colony except at 
the base is soft and pliable. In the upper stem, these spindles are 
smooth and curved and are very similar to those of the polyp 




Fig. 2. Spindles from the stem 
cortex of Lemnalioides kiiken- 
thali; a, from the upper stem ; h, 
from the mid stem. X 112.5. 



IX, D, 3 Light: Notes on Philippine Alcyonaria 235 

but with a wider, more conspicuous axis and with slightly en- 
larged, divided, and roughened ends (fig. 2, a). Among them 
are a few heavier spindles, whose axes are not distinct and which 
show a few projections on the convex surface (fig. 2, 6). Prox- 
imally, the spicules of the latter type increase in number and 
become rougher and more irregular. Some of these spindles have 
numerous blunt projections in zones, others have projections on 
the convex surface, some of them graduate into 4-rayed forms and 
forms approaching the double stars or capstanlike forms of so 
many species of Lemnalia (fig. 3). In the extreme base, these 
double stars and capstanlike forms predominate (fig. 5). 

The spindles of the branch cortex reach a length of 0.15 mm. 
and a diameter of 0.01 mm.; those of the cortex of the upper 
stem are from 0.17 to 0.29 mm. in length and from 0.008 to 0.015 
mm. in diameter ; those of the cortex of the middle of the stem 
are from 0.18 to 0.3 mm. in length and from 0.009 to 0.02 mm. 
in diameter. The curved spindles of the cortex of the lower 
stem are from 0.05 to 0.19 mm. in length and from 0.019 to 




Fig. 3. Spicules from the cortex of the lower part of the stem of Lemnalioidea kiikenthali. 

X 112.5. 

0.036 mm. in diameter, and the club-shaped forms are from 
0.08 to 0.12 mm. in length, from 0.04 to 0.05 mm. in greatest 
diameter, and about 0.025 mm. in least diameter. The spicules 
of the base are from 0.057 to 0.08 mm. in length, from 0.04 to 0.07 
mm. in maximum diameter, and about 0.02 mm. in least diameter. 

The spicules of the canal walls are similar in form throughout 
the whole colony, being smooth, rodlike bodies with roughened, 
expanded, and divided ends (fig. 4). These increase from an 
average length of 0.25 mm. and a diameter of 0.009 mm. in 
the branches to a length of 0.5 mm. and a diameter of 0.026 
mm. in the base. 

The cortex of the entire colony contains large numbers of 
unicellular algse. These are particularly numerous toward the 
base, and give the cortex a characteristic appearance in cleared 
specimens when examined under the microscope. 



236 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 





Fig. 4. The ends of 
two spicules from 
the canal walls of 
Lemnalioides kuken- 
thali, near the base 
of the colony. X 230. 



The stem is yellowish brown and the polyp-bearing portion is 
light brown in formalin. 

I have named the type species of the genus in honor of Prof. 
Dr. Willy Kukenthal, whose epoch-making work in bringing 
order out of chaos in the classification of the Alcyonaria is too 
well known to need recounting here. 

I was pleased to see in a recent reprint (1913), which the 
author kindly sent me, that Kukenthal has come 
to the conclusion that the first four species, in- 
cluded in his revision of the Nephthyidse 
(1903), in group A of the key to the species of 
the genus Lithophytum as well as L. elegans, 
brassica, and armatum belong to the genus 
Lemnalia and to a new genus Paralemnalia 
rather than to Lithophytum. As the classifica- 
tion stood before, Lemnalia and Lithophytum 
overlapped and neither was clearly defined. I 
had been forced to this conclusion by a study 
of the large collection of Nephthyidse in the 
museum of the University of the Philippines. It was first and 
most strikingly brought to my attention when separating the 
species into generic groups. Following Kukenthal's key to the 
genera of the Nephthyidse (1903), a distinct group of species was 
found which seemingly belonged to Lemnalia, and a study of the 
literature of that genus confirmed me in that opinion. On study- 
ing the key to the species of Lithophytum, however, I found the 
same group of species to agree very closely with certain of the 
species of group A of that genus. A further 
study of the descriptions of the species in 
group A convinced me that some of them 
were of the same genus if not of the same 
species as the specimens in our collection, 
which after a careful study of the works of 
Gray (1866), Bourne (1900), and Kukenthal 
(1903) I concluded were, without the pos- 
sibility of mistake, species of the genus Lem- 
nalia Gray emend. Bourne emend. Kukenthal. By placing the 
five species africana May, elegans May, flava May, brassica May, 
and armatum Ktikth. in the genus Lemnalia, Kukenthal has put it 
and the genus Lithophytum on a clearer and more workable 
basis as he has clearly shown in his Alcyonarien des Rothen 
Meeres. 

In this paper, Kukenthal also describes the new genus Para- 
lemnalia to receive the species thrysoides Ehrbg. and flabellum 





Fig. 5. Two spicules 
from the cortex of the 
extreme base of Lem,' 
nalioides kukenthali. 
X 112.5. 



IX, D, 3 Light: Notes on Philippine Alcyonaria 237 

Q. and G. (including Ammothea digitatum May) , both previously 
placed by him in the genus Lithophytum, and a new species P. 
eburnea, thereby further clearing up the situation in the genus 
Lithophytum. He diagnoses the new genus Paralemnalia as 
follows : 

Die von einer gemeinsamen Basis entspringenden glatten sehr rigiden und 
zerbrechlichen Hauptstamme sind nicht weiter verzweigt, hochstens konnen 
sie sich gabeln. Die Polypen sitzen direkt an diesen Hauptstammen, und 
zwar stets einzeln, niemals in "Biindel," *^Buschel" oder "Katzchen" vereint, 
die Polypen sind retraktil, und ihr unterster Teil kann mehr oder wenig 
deutlich zu einem Kelch umgebildet sein. Die Kanalwande sind diinn, aber 
dicht erfullt mit einem Netzwerk spindelformiger Spicula. In ihrer Gestalt 
schliessen sich die Spicula der verschiedenen Regionen an die von Lemnalia 
an. Verbreitung; Indopazifischer Ozean, in flachem Wasser. 

This new genus has for its type species Ammothea thrysoides 
Ehrbg. which Gray (1868) placed together with Ammothea 
(Alcyonium) ramosa (Q. and G.) in his new genus Verrilliana. 
His diagnosis of this, as of so many other genera, Lemnalia for 
example, was not only incomplete but incorrect, and was ignored 
by subsequent workers. In the case of Lemnalia, although the 
description was incorrect, the species described, including the 
type species (that is, the first one named, as no type was de- 
signated), did belong to a distinct genus, and Bourne when he 
revised the genus retained Gray's name, Lemnalia. In the case 
of Verrilliana, however, of the two species named as belong- 
ing to the genus, Ammothea ramosa was given first and is, 
therefore, since no type was named, the type species of the 
genus. This form, however, is undoubtedly a species of the 
older genus Ammothea (now Lithophytum), and thus the name 
Verrilliana, the type species having been removed or rather re- 
turned to another genus, becomes a homonym. This, together 
with the very poor diagnosis, would seem to afford ample reason 
for dropping the name Verrilliana. 

Ktikenthal speaking of this point says: 

Est ist mir daher ganz unmoglich, den namen Verrilliana fur die von mir 
aufgestellte Gattung wieder zu verwenden, um so mehr als Gray ausser der 
A, thyrsoides auch noch das Lithophytum arboreum (Q. and G.) zu seiner 
neuen Gattung rechnete. 

Beide Arten haben aber nicht das geringste miteinander zu tun, * * *. 

He evidently refers here to Alcyonium ramosa of Quoy and 
Gaimard, which Gray gave as the first species of his genus 
Verrilliana, as I find no references to Lithophytum arboreum 
(Q. and G.), and Lithophytum arboreum, the type species of 
the genus Lithophytum, was named by Forskal. In either case, 
Ktikenthal is eminently correct in finding no resemblance be- 



238 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

tween such forms as Paralemnalia thyrsoides and such charac- 
teristic Lithophyta as L. ramosa and L. arboreum. 

Our collection contains a number of specimens of the type 
species of this genus, Paralemnalia thrysoides (Ehrbg.) Kiiken- 
thal. They are from three rather widely separated regions: 
Bantayan Islands; Sabong (near Port Galera Bay), Mindoro; 
and Batas Island on the east coast of Palawan. I found it 
especially abundant on the reefs of the Sulu Sea side of Palawan, 
where it was one of the common reef Alcyonaria. The spreading 
colonies with their stiff upright stems reach a diameter of more 
than a meter, and are usually found associated with Alcyonidss 
to which they have a superjficial resemblance. It is one of the 
most beautiful of the Philippine reef Alcyonaria. The expanded 
colony has in life a soft velvety appearance, owing to the long 
flexible polyps which reach a length of from 10 to 15 millimeters. 

An examination of the stomodseal walls of these specimens has 
demonstrated the presence of numerous spicules (fig. 8) some- 
what similar to those found in the stomodaeal walls of Lemnalia 
(fig. 7). 

Judging from May's description and drawings (1899) and from 
a study of a large collection of Lemnalia in our museum, I 
suspect that Ammothea digitatum May which Kiikenthal has 
included with L. flabellum as Paralemnalia flabellum is a species 
of Lemnalia rather than of Paralemnalia or at least an inter- 
grading form. A reference to May's figures (1899) of Am- 
mothea digitata will show that the stems are branched. The 
diagnosis is further based on the retractility of the polyps and 
their arrangement singly on the stems. These characters must 
be used with caution as it is very difficult to differentiate between 
extreme contractility and retractility of polyps. A number of 
species of Lemnalia in our collection have polyps which are 
scattered singly on the stems and twigs and which are so strongly 
contractile as scarcely to show above the surface and yet they 
are unmistakably species of Lemnalia. 

Paralemnalia, however, as may be easily seen by a comparison 
of the type species, P. thrysoides, with any species of Lemnalia, 
is a distinct genus related to Lemnalia and Lemnalioides. It 
forms with these two a series of closely related genera of which 
Lemnalioides is most nearly related and Paralemnalia least 
nearly related to the genus Lithophytum. The method of branch- 
ing, the form of the colony, the arrangement of the polyps, and 
the proportion between the barren and polyp-bearing portions of 
the colony are similar in Lemnalia and Lemnalioides, but different 
from that in Paralemnalia. Lemnalia and Paralemnalia, on the 



IX, D, 3 Light: Notes on Philippine Alcyonaria 239 

other hand, have the characteristic stomodseum spicules which 
are not found in Lemnalioides. The tentacle spicules also, which 
are numerous in Paralemnalia and Lemnalia, are very few and 
scattered in Lemnalioides, and may very probably be found to 
be entirely absent in species as yet undiscovered. 

In 1896 Klikenthal described and figured Ammothea carnosa, 
a new species from Ternate. In his revision of the Nephthyidse 
(1903), he includes this species in group A of his key to the 
species of the genus Lithophytum, where its characters would 
naturally place it as the group was at that time defined. Since 
that time, two of the five species in this group, L. fiavum and 
L. africanum, have been removed (Klikenthal, 1913) to the genus 
Lemnalia and two others, L. thrysoides and L. flabellum, to 
Kukenthars new genus Paralemnalia. This leaves L. carnosum 
as the only member of group A remaining in the genus Litho- 
phytum, and this in spite of the fact that Klikenthal says (1903) : 

Vorliegende Art bildet zusammen mit L. africanum^ fiavum und digitatum 
eine naturliche Gruppe innerhalb der Gattung Lithophytum. 

The excellent figures and description of A. carnosa show it to 
have characteristics which suggest a relationship to Lemnalia, 
Paralemnalia, and Lemnalioides. The small polyp-bearing area 
restricted to the anterior portion of the colony; the colony con- 
sisting of a number of stems united for a part of their length; 
and the typical form and size of the spicules, their arrange- 
ment on the polyps, and their presence (supposedly in consider- 
able numbers) in the canal walls are all characters which suggest 
relationship to these genera. The absence of stomodseum spicules 
and the absence (or apparent absence) of tentacle spicules pre- 
vent A. carnosa from being included in the genus Lemnalia, and 
this character together with the branching colony exclude it 
from the genus Paralemnalia. But the presence of very few 
tentacle spicules and, possibly, as only one form has been 
examined, their entire absence is characteristic of the genus 
Lemnalioides. The form of its cortex and canal-wall spicules, 
and also their size and arrangement, are strikingly suggestive of 
Lemnalioides kilkenthali. It seems probable then that a re- 
examination of the type in the light of the recent changes in 
the genus Lithophytum would show Lithophytum carnosum 
(Klikth.) to belong to the genus Lemnalioides proposed in this 
paper or to be a form connecting that genus with Lithophytum. 

While in many ways the genus Lemnalioides, as the name 
indicates, approaches the genus Lemnalia to which it is un- 
doubtedly closely related as I have shown above, the differences 



240 



The Philippine Journal of Science 




seem to me to be of generic value. In my study of a large col- 
lection of Lemnalia in which Lemnalioides kukenthali was at 
first included, I found that the differences between it and any 
species of Lemnalia in the collection were so much greater than 
the differences between the most widely different species of Lem- 
nalia that it seemed impossible to place it with them in that 
genus. With the addition of the five species transferred from 
Lithophytum and the new Philippine species, the genus Lemnalia 
will contain some 20 or more species. As further collections in 
the Philippines and elsewhere will undoubtedly add to this 
number and as these species are closely related and very dif- 
ficult to differentiate from descriptions without specimens for 
' comparison, the separation from the genus of any 
natural group seems to be amply justified. 

The Philippine species of Lemnalia all show on 
dissection more or less numerous, characteristic 
spicules in the walls of the stomodseum (fig. 7). 
I have found no references to such spicules in any 
species of Nephthyidse except Gersemnia studer 
(Koch). Gray (1866), Bourne (1900), and 
^^>^ Kiikenthal (1903 and 1913) evidently overlooked 
these spicules, and I have no doubt that a re- 
examination of the type specimens would show 
them to be present in all the known species of 
Lemnalia, This oversight is not to be wondered 
at as these spicules are very seldom to be seen 
unless the stomodseum is dissected away from the 
rest of the polyp and would not be discovered 
except by accident or by a more thorough mor- 
phological investigation than is usually under- 
taken in purely systematic work. They would 
probably escape detection in a histological investigation, also, such 
as that made by Bourne (1900) as the material must be decalcified 
before sectioning. I found dissection under the binocular mi- 
croscope of specimens cleared in clove oil to be the best method 
of separating the stomodseum and studying the spicules of its 
walls. I have examined the stomodseal walls of several of the 
species of Lithophytum, Nephthya, Dendronephthya, Stereo- 
nephthya, Capyiella, and Siphonogorgia in our collection, but 
find the stomodseum. to be without spicules of any kind. In 
Paralemnalia thrysoides, however, as I have mentioned above, 
I found stomodseal spicules to be abundant. 

In all the Philippine species of Lemnalia, there is a single row 
of pinnules on each side of the tentacle. Bourne (1900) notes 



Fig. 6. Two ten- 
tacles from a 
cleared specimen 
of Lemnalioides 
kukenthali, show- 
ing the median 
muscle bands, 
the double rows 
of pinnules, and 
the double rows 
of polyp spicules. 
X 48.5. 



IX, D, 3 



Light: Notes on Philippine Alcyonaria 



241 



the same condition in L. nitida (Verrill), and judging from the 
figures of Bourne (1900), M^y (1899), and Kukenthal (1903) 
the same is probably true of all the previously described species. 

All the species of Lemnalia described by Bourne, Kukenthars 
L. umbellata, and the Philippine species have numerous tentacle 
spicules. There are no tentacle spicules mentioned in the de- 
scriptions of May's species, but I have no doubt that, as in the 
case of the stomodseal spicules, a reexamination of the type 
would show them to be present. 

Kukenthal (1913) has emended his earUer diagnosis of 
Lemnalia (1903) to read: 

Von einer gemeinsamen, oft stark verbreiterten Basis erheben sich ein 
Oder mehrere ausserlich glatte, wenig biegsame Hauptstamme, die sich an 
ihrem oberen Ende in verschiedener Weise verzweigen und an ihren End- 
zweigen in Biindeln oder Biischeln aber niemals in "Katzchen" angeordnete 




Fig. 7. Two spicules from the stomodseal 
walls of an undescribed species of Lemnalia. 
X 1,000. Actual lengths, 0.038 and 0.0532 
mm., respectively. 



Fia. 8. A spicule from the stomodseal walls 
of Paralemnalia thrysoidea (Ehrbg.) 
Kukenthal. X 1,000. Actual length 
0.0513 mm. 



Polypen tragen. Die Polypen sind nicht retraktil. Die Kanalwande sind 
diinn, aber dicht erfullt mit einem Netzwerk spindelformiger Spicula. 
An der Polypenwand finden sich neben grosseren, schlanken, bedornten 
Spindeln kleinere vor, bei denen die Dornen in ein Paar Kranzen angeordnet 
sind. Die Tentakel enthalten plattenformige, fein skulpturierte Spicula. 
In der Rinde der Aste liegt ein dichtes Netz schlanker, meist gekriimmter 
Spindeln, die nach der Basis zu mit kleineren, mehr sternformigen Spicula 
untermischt werden. Verbreitung; Indopazifischer Ozean, in flachem Was- 
ser, auf Korallenriffen. 

I have found no small spicules in the polyp walls having 
two zones of projections as spoken of in the above diagnosis 
("schlanken, bedornten Spindeln kleinere vor, bei denen die 
Dornen in ein Paar Kranzen angeordnet sind.*') I have found 
such spicules, however, in the stomodseal walls of all the specimens 
I have studied, and I have also found them in very small numbers 
in the oral surface of a few species, and they are present in 



242 The Philippine Jourmal of Science 1914 

large numbers in the tentacles of two species. It seems very- 
probable that the spicules here referred to are the stomodseal 
spicules which may sometimes be made out through the polyp 
walls of cleared specimens. 

I propose still further to emend the diagnosis of the genus 
Lemnalia to read as follows : 

Genus LEMNALIA Gray emended 

Generic characters, — The colony is upright, stiff, or rigid, and 
consists of one or more stems arising from a common often 
broadened base. The stems may or may not be coalesced prox- 
imally in one or more groups for a portion of their length. They 
divide distally to form numerous branches and twigs. The 
polyps are not retractile, but may be so strongly contracted as 
to appear retractile. They are scattered singly, or in little 
groups, on the branches and lateral and terminal twigs. The 
tentacles bear on each side a single row of pinnules. The thin 
canal walls contain a close network of spindle-shaped or rod- 
shaped spicules whose ends are usually roughened, enlarged, 
and divided. The spicules of the polyp wall are spindles usually 
forming 8, more or less, distinct converging double rows in the 
bases of the tentacles; those of the branch cortex are spindles 
forming an interlacing felt work over the surface; those of the 
stem form a thick layer of spindles, club-shaped forms, 4-rayed 
forms, and double stars, the last predominating toward the base. 
The tentacles contain numerous spicules which may be of three 
types, curved or rod-shaped forms, finely sculptured flattened 
sclerites, or slender, irregularly branched, rod-shaped spicules. 
The walls of the stomodseum contain small, sculptured or un- 
sculptured, rod-shaped or flattened, irregularly branched spic- 
ules, usually having two zones of projection and often showing 
bifurcation of one or both ends. 

Lemnalioides it will be seen differs from Lemnalia as thus 
diagnosed, in that the tentacles contain very few spicules, in 
that the stomodseum contains no spicules, and in that there is 
a double row of pinnules along each side of the tentacles. Two 
other characters which may prove to be specific rather than 
generic in value are the presence in the mid line of the outer 
surface of each tentacle of a longitudinal band of muscle fibers 
and the presence in the ectoderm of Lemnalioides of little 
batteries of nematocysts which I have as yet been unable to 
find in any species of Lemnalia. 

Lemnalioides differs from Paralemnalia most distinctly in its 
softer consistency, in its more treelike colony form, in that 



IX, D, 3 Light: Notes on PhUippine Alcyonaria 243 

the polyps are sometimes arranged in little groups and are 
borne on the branches and twigs, in the absence of stomodseal 
spicules, and in the scarcity of spicules in the tentacles. 

Because of these differences, I consider Lemnalioides a natural 
genus between Lemnalia and Lithophytiim. It approaches Litho- 
phytum in that the tentacle spicules ,are few and scattered and 
in the absence of stomodseal spicules. It further approaches 
it in its softer consistency and more treelike colony form. It 
is much more closely related to Lemnalia, however, which it 
resembles in its colony formed of proximally coalesced stems, 
in that the polyp-bearing portion of the colony is confined to 
a small distal portion of the colony, in its mode of branching, 
and very strikingly in the spiculation of the canal walls and 
cortex. 

A further characteristic of Lemnalioides which separates it 
together with Lemnalia and Paralemnalia from Lithophytum as 
from all other nephthyid genera is the presence of very numerous 
long, sticky, elastic mesenterial filaments, extending to the base 
of the colony. This would seem to be a character which, together 
with the very characteristic form, size, and arrangement of the 
spicules of the canal walls and cortex and the presence of distinct 
polyp-bearing and barren portions of the stem with the prepon- 
derance of the barren portion, might justify the separation of the 
three genera Paralemnalia, Lemnalia, and Lemnalioides as a sub- 
family, Lemnaliinse, within the family Nephthyidse. 

LITERATURE 

Bourne, G. C. On the Genus Lemnalia Gray with an Account of the 
Branching Systems of the Order Alcyonacea. Trans. Linn, Soc. Lon- 
don (1900), II, 7, 521-538, 3 plates, 3 text figures. 

Gray, J. E. Descriptions of Some New Genera and Species of Alcyonid 
Corals in the British Museum. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1868), 2, 
441-445 (woodcut). 

KUKENTHAL, W. Alcyonaceen von Ternate. Nyphthyidae Verrill und Si- 
phonogorgiidae Kolliker. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Natur- 
forschenden Gesellschaft (1895), 23, pt. 1, 81-144, 4 plates. 

Idem. Versuch einer Revision der Alcyonarien. II. Die Familie der 
Nephthyiden. 1. Thiel. Zool. Jahrb., Syst. (1903), 19, 99-172, 3 plates. 

Idem. Alcyonaria des Roten Meeres. Expeditionen S. M. Schiff "Pola" in 
das Rote Meer, nordliche und sudliche Halfte, 1895-96-97-98. Zool 
Ergeb. (1913), 29, 1-33 (reprint), 3 plates, 27 text figures. 

May, W. Beitrage zur Systematik und Chorologie der Alcyonaceen. Jena. 
Zeitschr. f. Naturw. (1899), 33, 1-180, 5 plates. 

124685 4 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate I. Lemnalioides kilkenthali gen. et sp. nov. The colony, natural size. 
(Photograph by Cortes) 

TEXT FIGURES 
(From camera lucida outlines) 

Fig. 1. Spicules from the polyp and tentacles of L. kilkenthali; a, a polyp 
spindle showing the axis to be seen in cleared specimens; 6, a 
spindle from the distal end of one of the double rows, showing 
the axis and the divided and sculptured distal end; c, tentacle 
spicules. X 112.5. 

2. Spindles from the stem cortex of L. kilkenthali; a, from the upper 

stem; b, from the mid stem. X 112.5. 

3. Spicules from the cortex of the lower part of the stem of L. kilken- 

thali. X 112.5. 

4. The ends of two spicules from the canal walls of L. kiikenthalii 

near the base of the colony. X 230. 

5. Two spicules from the cortex of the extreme base of L. kilkenthali. 

X 112.5. 

6. Two tentacles from a cleared specimen of L. kilkenthali, showing the 

median muscle bands, the double rows of pinnules, and the double 
rows of polyp spicules. X 48.5. 

7. Two spicules from the stomodaeal walls of an undescribed species of 

Lemnalia. x 1,000. Actual lengths, 0.038 and 0.0532 mm., 
respectively. 

8. A spicule from the stomodasal walls of Paralemnalia thrysoides 

(Ehrbg.) Kiikenthal. X 1,000. Actual length, 0.0513 mm. 

245 



Light: Notp:s on Philippine Alcyonaria.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., IX, D, No. 3. 




PLATE I. LEMNALIOIDES KiJKEiMTHALI GEN. ET SP. NOV. THE COLONY, 
NATURAL SIZE. 



NOTES ON JAPANESE LEPIDOPTERA AND THEIR 
LARV^: PART 1 

By A. E. WiLEMAN 

{Manila, P. I.) 

Three colored plates 

RHOPALOCERA 

While residing in Japan, I took a keen interest in the varied 
and curious forms of lepidopterous larvae met with, an interest 
further stimulated by the perusal of works such as those of 
Owen Wilson and of Buckler. 

With the exception of Nawa, Nagano, Matsumura, Miyake, 
and Sasaki, who have published articles in the Insect World 
(Konchu Sekai) and in other periodicals, few Japanese authors 
have devoted much attention to describing and figuring the larvse 
of Japanese Lepidoptera which are comparatively unknown to 
science, and I felt that a wide and almost inexhaustible field of 
labor existed in this particular branch of entomological research. 
Therefore, I decided to figure the most interesting larvse met 
with in my collecting rambles which have extended to many 
parts of Japan. As I was unable to make drawings of these 
specimens, I engaged the services of a Japanese artist, Hisashi 
Kaido, in order that they might be accurately represented. In 
the course of two years, 1901 and 1902, while residing at Kobe 
and Hakodate, I accumulated 200 colored drawings, some of 
which will be used to illustrate this series of articles. 

Hisashi Kaid5, at the time that I engaged him, had no 
experience in figuring larvse, but I think the general results 
he has attained are very satisfactory. 

Apart from the pleasure which the enthusiastic lepidopterist 
feels in being able to identify any curious larva he may meet by 
referring to the plates of special works and to descriptions and 
figures of the various stages of butterflies and moths, he may 
render much valuable assistance to the specialist in classifying 
species, and for this reason all individual efforts are welcome 
in a field where the harvest is great but the laborers are few. 

For the scientific classification of Rhopalocera and Heterocera 
not only a knowledge of structure, such as wing venation and 

247 



248 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

the genitalia, is necessary, but also a knowledge of the ova, 
larva, and pupa is required; and this is gained by tracing 
the life history of a species. In this respect I regret to say 
that my paper is incomplete as I have been unable to work 
out the life history of each species recorded. My aim has been 
merely to figure as many species of larvse as I could collect 
and to accompany these figures with brief descriptions which 
have been taken from the original drawings by Hisashi Kaido — 
not from the living pupa and larva. In describing larvae, I have 
taken the head as the first segment. 

As this paper is written with the thought of its aiding Japanese 
and other lepidopterists who may be working upon Japanese 
species, I have made a special point of quoting in the synonymy 
references to the works of Japanese authors. In some cases, 
the larvse figured by me have also been previously figured either 
in colors, or in black and white, by Nawa and Nagano at Gifu.^ 

A most interesting characteristic of many lepidopterous larvae, 
especially among the Heterocera, is their adaptability for har- 
monizing in color with their environment so closely that it is 
difficult to detect them. This is termed protective resemblance 
and may be special or general. Poulton,^ has written at great 
length on this subject, and gives a table by which the colors 
of animals are classified according to their uses. As I shall 
have occasion to refer to this table when commenting upon the 
protective resemblance of certain larvae figured, more especially 
with reference to species of Heterocera, I reproduce the data 
here as Table I with the consent of the publishers. 

In order to obviate confusion I will say that Tokio, or Tokyo, 
the capital of the Japanese Empire, which in Japanese is called 
Dai Nihon Teikoku, is situated on an island equally well-known 

"" Insect World {Konchu Sekai) (1897-1913), 1-16. Other Japanese 
authors to whom I have referred in the course of this paper are the 
following : 

Matsumura, Catalogus Insectorum Japonicum (sic.) (1905), 1 (no 
plates); and Nihon Senchu Dzukai (Thousand Insects of Japan) (1907), 
4; (1909), supplement 1; (1910), supplement 2; (1911), supplement 3; all 
of these deal with Japanese Lepidoptera in the Japanese language, accom- 
panied by many uncolored plates. 

Miyajima, Nihon Chorui Dzusetsu (Japanese Butterflies) (1904), with 
many colored plates. 

Various details occurring in these works concerning the larvse of the 
species figured by me and their food plants, the times of appearance, and 
geographical distribution of the imago have been incorporated in my notes. 

^ The Colours of Animals. 2d ed. London, Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner 
& Co. Ltd. (1890), i-xiii + 1-360. 



Oversized 
Foldout 



IX, D. 3 Wileman: Notes on Japanese Lepidoptera 249 

by any one of the three names of Hondo, Honto, or Honshu. 
Dai Nihon Teikoku is translated as the Japanese Empire or 
Great Japanese Empire, in the same way as the British Isles 
are known as Great Britain. 

Matsumura ^ calls the island on which the capital is situated 
Honto, and later ^ he calls it Honshu. For the sake of uniformity, 
I have adopted the name he uses in his latest work. Yezo he 
calls Hokkaido, as the name Yezo is but little used by modern 
Japanese. There will be no confusion with regard to the two 
large islands of Kyushu and Shikoku which are only known by 
these names. 

The following are the names, given in their geographical order, 
of the chain of most important islands under Japanese rule, 
extending from Saghalien to Formosa. 

Karafu-to (Saghalien), southern portion only Japanese. 

Chishima-to (Kurile Islands). 

Hokkaido (Yezo). 

Hondo, Honto, or Honshu, on which the capital, Tokyo, and the ports of 

Yokohama and Kobe are situated. 
Shikoku. 

Kyushu (Kiushiu). 
Tanegashima. 
Yakushima. 

Shichi-to (Linschoten Islands or Cecilia Archipelago). 
Ryukyu-to (Loochoo Islands), consisting of the Hokubu-to (northern group), 

Chubu-to (central group), and Nambu-to (southern group). The two 

latter groups are also known, respectively, as the Sannan and Miyako 

Islands. 
Ogasawara-jima (Bonin Islands), to the east of Formosa. 
Taiwan (Formosa). 

The Japanese names of the food plants of larvae described 
in this series of articles were mostly derived from my Japanese 
collector, Uehara Magoichi, who is now dead. He collected 
many of the larvae for me, and although not a trained botanist 
he had a good working knowledge of Japanese flowering plants 
acquired during an experience of many years as a collector 
of Lepidoptera. I referred for the Latin names of these food 
plants to a book by Matsumura.^ In cases of doubt, I have 
occasionally queried the Japanese or Latin name of the food 
plant. 

^ Catalogus Insectorum Japonicum (sic.) (1905). 

* Thousand Insects of Japan (Nihon Senchu Dzukai) (1907-1911). 

^ Shokubutsu Mei-i. Enumeration of selected Scientific names of both 
Native and Foreign Plants with Romanized Japanese names and in many 
cases Chinese Characters (1906). 



250 The Philippine Jommal of Science 1914 

RHOPALOCERA 

PAPILIONID^ 

Genus PAPILIO Doubleday 

Papilio Doubleday, Gen. Diurn. Lep. (1846), 1, 5. 

Papilio xuthus Linnaeus. 

PI. I, figs. 1-2, young larvae; fig. 3, full-grown larva; fig. 4, food plant. 

Japanese name, ageha. 

Papilio xuthus LiNN., Syst. Nat. (1767), 1, 2, 751; Pryer, Rhop. 
Nihon. (1886), 2, PI. 1, fig. 2 b, c?; Tokyo Zool. Mag. [Tokyo Dobut- 
sugaku Zasshi (Jap.)] (May 15, 1891), 3, No. 31, PI. 2, fig. 1, 
imago, xuthulus; fig. 2, imago, xuthus; fig. 3, larva 4th stage; fig. 
4, larva 5th stage; fig. 5, pupa; Nawa, Insect World [Konchii Sekai 
(Jap.)] (1898), 2, 6, PI. I, transf.; Leech, Butterfl. China, Japan, 
Corea (1892-1894), 2, 514; Matsumura, Jap. Injurious Insects 
[Nihon Gaichuhen (Jap.)] (1899), 108, PI. 46, fig. 1, imago; fig. 2, 
larva; Miyajima, Jap. Butterf. [Nihon Chorui Dzusetsu (Jap.)] 
(1904), 72, PI. I, fig. 1, c?; Dyar, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 28, 
939, fig. 4, larva; Matsumura, Cat. Insect Jap. (1905), 1, No. 1, 1; 
Matsumura, Thousand Insects of Japan [Nihon Senchu Dzukai 
(Jap.)] (1907), 4, 62, PI. 63, fig. 1, 5; Seitz's Macrolep. of the 
World, Faun. Pal. (1906), 1, 11, PI. 6a; Jordan, Seitz's Macrolep. 
of the World, Faun. Indo-austral. (1909), 9, 48. 

Papilio xuthulus Brem., Bull. Acad. Petr. (1861), 3, 463 (spring form) ; 
Brem., Lep. Ost.-Sib. (1864), 4, PI. I, fig. 2; Pryer, Rhop. Nihon 
(1886), PI. I, fig. 2a; Seitz's Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Pal. 
(1906), 1, 11, PI. 6a. 

Papilio xanthus LiNN., Rothsch. Nov. Zool. (1895), 2, 278; Moore, 
Lep. Ind. (1903), 6, 45. (=P. xuthus Linn.) 

The full-grown larva figured (Plate I, fig. 3) was taken in 
September, 1900, at Kobe, Settsu Province, on karatachi {^gle 
sepiaria DC). No record was kept of the date upon which 
the imago emerged from the pupa resulting from this larva, 
but I have bred the species on many occasions from similar 
larvse taken chiefly on .^gle sepiaria on which it is very common ; 
therefore, I am well acquainted with it. The karatachi shrub 
is much used in the environs of Tokyo for ornamental hedges, 
and is very useful for that purpose because of its spines. I 
have also found the larva feeding on inu-zansho (Xanthoxylon 
schinnifolium S. and Z.), which is also mentioned by Pryer as 
a food plant. Leech,^ quoting Graeser, states that the larva 
feeds on Phellodendron amurense (Japanese name, kiwada) in 
Amurland, that it is greenish black, with irregular milk-white 

'^ Berl ent Zeitschr. (1888), 32, 62. 



IX, D, 3 Wileman: Notes on Japanese Lepidoptera 251 

spots and bands, and that when sitting on the upper side of a 
leaf it resembles a bird-dropping. It is very true, as may be 
observed from the figures given of the young larvse (Plate I, 
figs. 1 and 2), that they have this peculiar resemblance, but it 
only lasts up to the fourth molt, after which the larva assumes 
the green color which marks the last, or adult, stage. In the 
adult stage it closely resembles the larva of P. demetrius Cramer. 

This is an instance where the larva is first protected during 
the greater part of its existence by special protective resemblance 
and in its last stage by general protective resemblance, both 
apparently of a constant nature. 

Up to the fourth molt it is evidently protected against enemies 
by special resemblance as the appearance of a bird-dropping 
is copied in outline and color as a protection against enemies. In 
its last stage it is protected by general resemblance as its green 
color harmonizes with the total artistic effect of its environment ; 
namely, the foliage of the karatachi. (Table I, 1, procryptic 
colors, a andb). 

Matsumura also gives the orange tree, mikan {Citrus nobilis 
Lour.), as a food plant. 

The larva of Papilio helenus Linn., judging from the figure 
of the young larva by Kershaw,^ seems to enjoy a similar 
protective resemblance, both the young and full-grown larvae 
being somewhat like those of P. xuthus, Nawa ^ gives colored 
figures of the metamorphoses of P. xuthus and of an ichneumon 
fly parasitic on it, and represents the larva with two yellowish 
osmeteria, or nuchal horns, exserted from the junction of the 
head and the first thoracic segment. These give oflf a strong 
odor, and probably have an intimidating effect on enemies. 

In the Tokyo Zoological Magazine (Tokyo Dobutsugaku 
Zasshi), there is a good uncolored plate showing the metamor- 
phoses of P. xuthus, but no allusion is made to this plate in 
the succeeding Japanese text, and the author, therefore, cannot 
be named. Seitz states that 

the larva is very similar to that of P. hianor Cramer; bright green; a grey, 
white-marked, transverse band on the third, fifth, and twelfth somites, a 
similar oblique band over the seventh and eighth segments; above the pro- 
legs large, rounded, white spots. From June to November it is found on 
^gle sepiaria and various fruit trees. The chrysalis is green, rarely 
brown; the anterior abdominal segments laterally somewhat swollen and 
carinate, caputal processes strongly developed; an obtuse, somewhat thorn- 
like process on thorax. 

'Butterflies of Hongkong (1907), PI. 4a, fig. 7. 
'Insect World (1898), 2, 6, PI. I. 



252 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Matsumura records P. xuthus from Hokkaido (Yezo), Honshu, 
Shikoku, and Kyushu, the Loochoo Islands (Ryukyu), Formosa, 
Ogasawara (Bonin Islands), Korea, China, Manchuria, and 
Amurland. He ^ also gives a short life history, accompanied by 
figures of the imago and larva. He says that there are three 
broods in the year and that it hibernates in the pupal stage. 
The nuchal horns of the larva are tolerably long, and the imago 
emerges in May or June. He refers here, no doubt, to typical 
P. xuthus which emerges in early summer. In December, 1912, 
I discovered its existence at an altitude of 2,800 meters (8,300 
feet) in Luzon, at Pauai (Haight's Place), Benguet subprovince, 
where I collected 5 specimens. Semper does not record this 
species from the Philippines, so that it must be regarded as 
new to the fauna of these Islands. It is interesting to discover 
that it occurs so far south in the Indo-Malayan subregion at 
such an altitude. Jordan remarks that this mainly Palsearctic 
species extends southward to Upper Burma and also occurs in 
Formosa, the Bonin Islands, and Guam and that Fruhstorfer 
has based upon a single male from Formosa the subspecies 
koxinga. I have myself taken P. xuthus in the Formosan 
mountains, and have observed it in the Japanese Islands from 
March to August and occasionally in September and October. 
P. xitthulus, which is the spring brood, appears first, coming out 
in March, followed in early summer by P. xuthus. 

In Hokkaido (Yezo), in the extreme north of Japan, where 
the winter is long and severe, lasting until April, the spring 
form, P. xuthulus, does not emerge until June and the summer 
form, P. xuthus, follows in September, which is much later than 
in the southern latitudes of Japan with a warmer climate. 

Subgenus Cosmodesmus Haase 

Cosmodesmus Haase, Bibl. Zool. Heft. (1892), 8, 15; Seitz, Macrolep. 
of the World, Faun. Pal. (1906), 1, 14. 

Papilio (Cosmodesmus) sarpedon Linnaeus. 

PL I, fig. 5, young larva; fig. 6, full-grown larva; fig. 7, pupa; fig. 8, 
food plant. 

Japanese names, aosuji-ageha and kuro-taimaL 

Papilio sarpedon Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (1767), 1, 2,747; Moore, Cat. 
Lep. Mus. E. I. C. (1857), 1, 113, PL 3, fig. 8, larva; (Dalchina), 
Lep. Ind. (1903), 6, 12, PL 471, figs. 1, la-lc, larva and pupa; imago, 
d* ?; Pryer, Rhop. Nihon (1886), 5, PL 1, fig. 9; Tokyo Zool. Mag, 
[Tokyo Dobutsugaku Zasshi (Jap.)] (Aug. 15, 1891), 3, No. 34, 

'Matsumura, Jap. Injurious Insects [Nihon Gaichuhen (Jap.)] (1899), 
108, PL 46, fig. 1, imago; fig. 2, larva. 



IX, D. 3 Wileman: Notes on Japanese Lepidoptera 253 

PL 5, fig. 1, c?; fig. 2, ?; fig. 3, larva first stage; fig. 4, larva fifth 
stage; fig. 5, pupa; Leech, Butterfl. China, Japan, Corea (1892- 
1894), 2, 524; MACKINNON and NiCEViLLE, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. 
Soc. (1898), 11, PL W, figs. 26a, b, pupa; Scott, AustraL Lep. Mus. 
Austral. (1898), 2, PL 17; Miyajima, Jap. Butterfl. [Nihon Chorui 
Dzusetsu (Jap.)] (1904), 79, PL V, fig. 2, c?; Dyar, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 28, 937, fig. 1, larva; Matsumura, Cat. 
Insect. Jap. (1905), 3, No. 14; Matsumura, Thousand Insects of 
Japan [Nihon Senchu Dzukai (Jap.)] (1907), 4, 65, PL 64, fig. 1, 
?; KERSHAViT, Butterfl. Hongkong (1907), 113, PL 13, fig. 5; Seitz, 
Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Pal. (1906), 1, 15, PL 8c; Jordan, 
Seitz's Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Indo-austral. (1909), 9, 94. 

Dalchina teredon Felder, Verh. ZooL-bot. Ges. Wien (1864), 14, 305; 
Moore (Dalchina), Lep. Ceyl. (1881), 1, 143, PL 62, figs. 1, la-lb, 
(^ ?, larva and pupa; Moore (Dalchina) , Lep. Ind. (1903), 6, 14, 
PL 472, figs. 1, la-lc, larva and pupa, <^ ?. 
Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. (1890), 5, 364. 

Papilio sarpedon Davidson and Aitken, nee Linn. (= teredon), Journ. 
Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. (1890), 5, 364. 

The full-grown larva figured (Plate I, fig. 6) was taken in 
September, 1900, at Yoshino, Yamato Province, on tabu-no-ki 
(Machilus thunbergii S. and Z.), a species of the Lauracese. It 
pupated on September 11, 1900, and a female specimen emerged 
on May 1, 1901. A male specimen was bred from a similar 
larva on May 3, 1901. These two specimens are probably refer- 
able to P. sarpedonides Fruhst., but as they are not before me 
I am unable to say whether they should be assigned to the 
spring form, P. sarpedonides, or the summer form, P. nipponits. 
Moore describes the larva and pupa of P. sarpedon as follows.^*^ 

Larva, — "Smooth, thickened from the second to the 5th segment, and 
thence decreasing to the end; with two short subdorsal fleshy spines on the 
4th segment, between which ia a transverse pale yellow line, two shorter 
spines also on the second and third, and two on the anal segment; color, 
green, with a longitudinal posterior lateral and lower pale yellowish line." 

Pupa. — "Conical, truncated in front; thorax produced into a lengthened 
obtusely pointed frontal process." 

The spines on segments 2 and 3 are not well represented in 
my figure of the adult larva (Plate I, fig. 6). 

Kershaw states that both larva and pupa are very much like 
those of P. eurypilus Linn, and that, in Hongkong, the larva 
feeds on citrus plants and on Laurus camphora. 

Mackinnon and Niceville^^ figure the pupa, but not having 

"Lep. Ind. (1903), 6, 12, PL 471, figs. 1, la-lc, larva and pupa. 

^' Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. (1898), 11, PL W, figs. 26 a, b, pupa. 



254 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

access to the volume in which the illustration occurs I have been 
unable to examine their figures. 
Seitz remarks ^^ that — 

the larva is green, with two pointed tubercles anteriorly and at the anus, 
bearing also two small points on each side of the third and fifth segments, 
on Aurantiaceae. Dorsal thoracical projection of the pupa strongly- 
acuminate. 

Jordan states ^^ that — 

the young larva is black or dark green, with numerous spines, of which 
those on the meta thorax are long and bristly; when full grown green, 
beneath lighter, with a pair of short spines on each of the three thoracic 
segments and on the last segment; on the metathorax a yellow transverse 
band and from the metathorax to the anal segment a yellowish stripe above 
the legs; on Machilus odoratissima, Geijera salicifoUa, Litsaea, Alseodaphne, 
etc., and especially Camphora officinalis, where this tree has been imported. 
Pupa green, the thoracic horn slenderer, more pointed and straighter than 
in the allied species, the lateral ridges extending downwards from the horn 
straight, between this carina and the frontal one a very slight, somewhat 
curved vertical ridge. 

Pryer states that the larva feeds on the young leaves of the 
evergreen, Machilus thunbergii, and that its color resembles 
very closely that of the young green leaves of this tree. 

Butler ^* records P. teredon Feld., from Nikko, Central Japan ; 
this is the Ceylon form of the species, and according to Moore's 
figure of the imago only differs from typical P. sarpedon in 
the narrower band of the forewing and in having the anal 
angle of secondaries more produced. 

Moore describes the larva of P. teredon as follows: 

Larva smooth, green, with a paler lower lateral line, and a dorsal band 
ending in a lateral tubercular spot on fourth segment; a pair of short tuber- 
cles on front and anal segment. Pupa green, with lateral and dorsal longi- 
tudinal yellowish streaks. Feeds on Cinnamomeum [sic]. 

Davidson and Aitken describe the larva of teredon as follows : 

Larva, — "Very like that of agamemnon but prettier, being of a soft dark 
green, inclining to emerald and passing into a pale bluish on the last segment 
and the underparts." 

Pupa, — **Easily distinguished from that of agamemnon by one mark, viz., 
the horn is not straight but curves slightly backwards." 

In the Tokyo Zoological Magazine (Tokyo Dobutsugaku 
Zasshi), already cited, there is a good uncolored plate showing 
the metamorphoses of P. sarpedon, but no allusion is made to 

"Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Pal. (1906), 1, 15. 

''Seitz's Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Indo-austral. (1909), 9, 94. 

"Ann. & Mag. Nat Hist (1881), V, 7, 133. 



IX, D, 3 Wileman: Notes on Japanese Lepidoptera 255 

this plate in the succeeding Japanese text and the author, there- 
fore, cannot be named. He gives black and white figures of 
the larva in its first and fifth stages, of the pupa, and of the 
imago. 

Matsumura records P. sarpedon from Hokkaido (Yezo), 
Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Formosa. Miyajima records it 
also from the Loochoo Islands (Ryukyu), and states that it feeds 
upon inu-gusu, Inu-gusu as well as shiro-gusuy are merely other 
Japanese names for tabu-no-ki, previously referred to as the 
food plant on which I bred the larva ; that is, Machilus thunbergii. 
The imago flies from May to September. Matsumura also gives 
Machilus japonica S. and Z. {ao-gashi) as a food plant. 

Jordan states ^^ that ''sarpedon occurs from China and South 
Japan to the Solomon Islands in numerous geographical forms." 

The forms which are geographically connected with China, 
Japan, and the Philippines are as follows : 

Papilio nipponus Fruhst. (= morius Fruhst.), Seitz, 1, PI. 8c (described 
as sarpedon), from Japan and the Loochoo Islands (Ryukyu). 

Papilio sarpedonides Fruhst., f. vern., spring form from Japan. 

Papilio nipponus is the Japanese race separated into spring and summer 
forms which differ in the bands of the forewing being broad in sarpedo- 
nides and narrower in nipponus. 

Papilio connectens Fruhst., from Formosa and Loochoo Islands (Ryukyu). 

Papilio semifasciatus Honr., from southeastern, central, and western China. 

Papilio sarpedon Linn., typical ( = demophon Meerb. nee. Linn. ; demophoon 
Shaw; luctatius Fruhst.; hagus Fruhst.; colus Fruhst.); (Seitz, 9, pi. 
44d) ; distributed from Hainan, Tonkin, and North India to the Philip- 
pines and Lombok. In the broad-banded specimens the median and 
submedian veins are more or less white inside the band of the forewing. 
In the summer specimens of the northern districts, f . aest. melas Fruhst. 
(= demophoon Shaw), the band is narrower and the veins are black. 

Subgenus Pharmacophagus Haase 

Pharmacophagus Haase, Bibl. Zool. Heft (1892), 8, 15; Seitz, Macrolep. 
of the World, Faun. Pal. (1906), 1, 8. 

Papilio (Pharmacophagus) alcinous Klug. 

PI. II, fig. 12, full-grown larva; fig. 13, dorsal aspect of segment; figs. 
14-16, pupa. 

Japanese names, jako-ageha, yama-joro. 

Papilio alcinous Klug, Neue Schmett. (1836), 1, PI. 1, figs. 1-4; Pryer, 
Rhop. Nihon (1886), 4, PL 3, fig. 3, 2; Tokyo Zool. Mag. [Tokyo 
Dobutsugaku Zasshi (Jap.)] (Aug. 15, 1891), 3, No. 34, PI. 4, fig. 1, 
imago, <S\ fig. 2, imago, ?; fig. 3, larva 5th stage; fig. 4, pupa; Leech, 
Butterfl. China, Japan, Corea (1892-1894), 2, 539; Dyar, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus. (1905), 28, 938, fig. 2, larva; Matsumura, Cat. Insect. 

'' Seitz's Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Indo-austral. (1909), 9, 95. 



256 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

Jap. (1905), 1, 2, No. 8; Matsumura, Thousand Insects of Japan 
[Nihon Senchu-Dzukai (Jap.)] (1907), 4, 60, PI. 62, fig. 2, 5; Seitz, 
Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Pal. (1906), 1, 9, PI. 2 a, d* 5; 2 b, 
c? ?, f. aest.; Jordan, Seitz's Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Indo- 
austral. (June 20, 1910), 9, 33; Miyajima, Jap. Butterfl. [Nihon 
Cho-rui Dzusetsu (Jap.)] (1904), 76, PI. 3, fig. 2, ?; 71 (woodcut), 
ova, fig. 1; larva, fig. 2; pupa, fig. 3. 

The pupa figured (Plate II, figs. 14-16) was taken at Kobe, 
Settsu Province, Honshu, in July, 1901, and a male specimen 
of P. alcinous emerged from it, but no record was kept of the 
date. The larva figured (Plate II, fig. 12) was taken while it 
was crawling upon the ground, at the same locality, in August, 
1901, and pupated, but the imago failed to emerge. The pupa 
taken in July, 1901, was similar in all respects to the one result- 
ing from the larva of August, 1901, and I am satisfied that 
the two pupae are of the same species. I have also compared the 
figures of my pupa with that shown by Miyajima.^^ He gives 
a good woodcut in which the larva, pupa, and ova of P. alcinous 
Klug are figured, together with the food plant, and states that 
the larva feeds upon the following plants: Uma-no-suzukusa 
{Aristolockia debilis S. and Z.) ; ikema (Cynanchum caudatum 
Maxim.) ; kaga4mo, scientific name unknown; ao-tsuzura (Coc- 
cuius thunbergii DC), also known as tsuzura-fuji. The larva 
figured by him also agrees with my original figure (Plate II, fig. 
12), so that, although no imago ever developed from my larva, 
I have no hesitation in referring it to P. alcinous. Nawa ^^ also 
gives a black and white figure of the pupa which agrees with my 
figures as to form, but he does not give one of the larva. In the 
Tokyo Zoological Magazine [Tokyo Dobutsugaku Zasshi (Jap.)], 
there is a good uncolored plate showing the metamorphoses of 
P. alcinous, but no allusion is made to this plate in the succeeding 
Japanese text and, therefore, the author cannot be named. 

Pryer states that the larva feeds on Cocculus thunbergii DC, 
and resembles a partially ripe mulberry and that the pupa 
is most beautifully sculptured. The figures given (Plate II, 
figs. 14-16) fully bear out his description of the pupa which is 
yellowish in color and most delicately chiseled. Jordan describes 
the larva as follows : 

Larva olive-brown, with numerous dark, light-edged spots; on the 6th 
and 7th segments a very broad red-white oblique girth, which is dorsally 
interrupted or strongly constricted; the tips of the tubercles reddish, the 
upper lateral projections of the pro thorax pale red with dark tips. 

"Japanese Butterflies (1904), 71. 

"Insect World (Konchu Sekai) (1907), 11. 559. 



IX, D, 3 Wileman: Notes on Japanese Lepidoptera 257 

Dyar ^^ remarks that — 

the larva of Papilio alcinous Klug is allied to the American philenoVf and 
retains in the last stage the peculiar black and white coloration, resembling 
bird excrement, so characteristic of most all young Papilios. 

Seitz and Jordan ^^ give many forms of the P. alcinous group 
which is distributed from Japan to western China and Tonkin. 
Seitz remarks that 'T. alcinous Klug is a black, geographically 
variable, Papilio which inhabits the Pacific, district of the 
Palsearctic region" and that "it is almost exclusively Palaearctic, 
only a few forms entering the most northern districts of the 
Oriental Region." The forms given by them are quoted for 
convenience of reference, although only three of them inhabit 
Japan proper; the rest are mostly Chinese. 

Papilio alcinous Klug (Seitz, 1, 9, PI. 2a, 2b) (= spathatus Butl., hssma- 

tostictus Butl.), from Japan. 
Papilio nagasakii Fruhst. (Seitz, 1, PI. 2a, (? ?; PI. 2b, c? ?, f. aest), from 

southern Hokkaido (Yezo), Honshu, and Kyushu. 
Papilio confusus Rothsch. (Seitz, 1, PI. 2c, c? ?), from China, southward to 

Yunnan. 
Papilio plutonius Oberth. (Seitz, 1, PI. 2c, c? ?), from central China and 

Tibet. 
Papilio dsemonius Alpher. (= fatuus Rothsch.), from Ta-tsien-lu, western 

China and Tibet. 
Papilio impediens Rothsch. (Seitz, 1, PI. 3a), from Ta-tsien-lu, western 

China. 
Papilio mencius Feld. (Seitz, 1 , PI. 2b, c? 2) , from central and southeastern 

China. 
Papilio bradanus Fruhst. (= intermedia Oberth.) (Seitz, 9, 33), from the 

Sannan group (Ishigaki-Shima, Loochoo Islands). 
Papilio decora Oberth. ab. (Seitz, 9, 33), locality not given. 
Papilio loochooanus Rothsch. (Seitz, 9, PL 19c, cT; r. 1, PI. Ic, 9, underside), 

from the Loochoo Islands (Ryukyu). 
Papilio mansonensis Fruhst. (= mausonensis Fruhst.) (Seitz, 9, 33) ; from 

Formosa, eastern and central China (westward to Chang-yang), and 

Tonkin; the male is not distinguishable from the species from western 

China, P. confusus, but the female is as pale as in P. loochooanus. 

According to Matsumura, P. alcinous occurs in Honshu, Shi- 
koku, Kyushu, and the Loochoo Islands (Ryukyu) ; also, in Korea 
and China. It flies from March to September in two broods, 
spring and summer, both of which are figured by Seitz. 

The following description of a Papilio larva was entered in 
my notebook on May 2, 1908. The larva was taken by me at 
Kanshirei, in southern Formosa, but unfortunately never pupated, 

" Dyar, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 28, 938, fig. 2, larva. 
" Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Pal. (1906), 1, 9, and Faun. Indo-austral. 
(1909), 9, 33. 



258 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9h 

so that no imago emerged for identification. From its resem- 
blance to the larva of P. alcinous Klug, I thought it would 
probably turn out to be the larva of a species closely allied 
to P. alcinous which was flying at Kanshirei at an altitude of 
300 meters (1,000 feet). I captured several specimens of this 
species which I believe is referable to P. febanus Fruhst.^^ 

Description. — White lateral stripe on side of segment 7 not 
quite meeting on the dorsum and ending in fleshy, white tubercles 
on dorsum ; lateral, white, fleshy tubercles on segment 10 and two 
on dorsum of segment 10 ; lateral white tubercles also on segment 
6, from which segment the lateral white band on the side of 
segment 7 commences, so that there is an oblique white band 
on segments 6, 7, not quite meeting on the dorsum; all other 
tubercles claret colored, red tipped; chocolate-colored diamond 
pattern mediodorsal stripe on dorsum; three rows of tubercles: 
subdorsal, subspiracular, and suprapedal. 

A comparison of the foregoing description with my figure 
of the larva of Japanese P. alcinous (Plate II, fig. 12) shows a 
striking resemblance. 

According to Seitz, the Japanese forms of P. alcinous are not 
taken in Formosa, and I have never taken them myself at 
Kanshirei, although of course they may possibly occur there. 
The only form of P. alcinous which is at present known to occur 
in Formosa is P. mansonensis Fruhst., so that if my larva 
described above be not that of the Japanese P. alcinous it 
may belong either to P. febanus Fruhst. or P. alcinous var. 
mansonensis Fruhst. 

I may mention that Kanshirei is the Japanese pronunciation 
of the Chinese ideographs with which Koannania is written 
and that it was at Koannania that Matsumura took his type of 
P. koannania (= febanus Fruhst.). 

SATYRID^ 

Genus NEOPE Butler 

Neope Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1867), III, 19, 166; Seitz, 
Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Pal. (1908), 1, 89; Fruhst, Faun. 
Indo-austral. (1911), 9, 324. 

Neope goschkevitschii Menetries. 

PI. II, fig. 7, larva; figs. 8-9, dorsal aspect of segments; fig. 10, head; 
fig. 11, food plant. 
Japanese name, kimadara-hikage. 

=" Seitz, Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Indo-austral. (1909), 9, 33. 



IX, D, 3 Wileman: Notes on Japanese Lepidoptera 259 

Lasiommata goschkevitschii Men., Cat. Mus. Petr. (1855), 2, 121, PI. 
10, fig. 4; Leech, Butterfl. China, Japan, Corea (1892-1893), 1, 
52; Nagano, Nawa's Insect World [Konchu Sekai (Jap.)] (August 
15, 1910), 14, 418, PI. 17, figs. 1-6, transf.; Seitz, Macrolep. of the 
World, Faun. Pal. (June, 1908), 1, 90, PI. 33c, c? $; Fruhst., Seitz*s 
Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Indo-austral. (1911), 9, 324. 

Lasiommata gaschkevitschii Felder, Wien, ent. Mon. (1862), 6, 
28; Pryer, Rhop. Nihon (1889), 32, PL 9, fig. 11; Matsumura, Cat. 
Insect Jap. (1905), 1, 14, No. 109; Matsumura, Thousand Insects 
of Japan [Nihon Senchu Dzukai (Jap.)] (1907), 4, 101, PI. 72, 
fig. 8, 2; Miyajima, Jap. Butterfl. [Nihon Chorui Dzusetsu (Jap.)] 
(1904), 150, PI. 16, fig. 8. 

Neope niphonica Butl., Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1881), V, 7, 133. 

Neope japonica Butl. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1867), III, 19, 167. 

The larva figured (Plate II, fig. 7) was taken in July, 1901, 
at Yoshino, Yamato Province, Honshu, on bamboo grass, sasa- 
gusa ( ? Lophatherum elatum Zoll.) . The imago failed to emerge 
from the pupa resulting from this larva. Nagano gives lengthy 
descriptions of the metamorphoses of this species including a 
figure of the larva in his plate which agrees with my colored 
figure. I am unable to follow the written description of his 
larva with accuracy as it is in technical Japanese language, 
and have therefore depended only on his figure for identification. 
I think, however, that there can be no doubt that my larva is 
identical with that of N. goschkevitschii, figured by Nagano on 
a species of bamboo. 

The following description is taken from my original figure. 

Larva. — Length, 32 millimeters. Grayish brown with a yellow 
tinge ; faint longitudinal mediodorsal dark lines ; subdorsal dark 
spots and crosses; midlateral longitudinal dark line; series of 
dark spiracular blotches; yellowish longitudinal subspiracular 
stripe. 

Matsumura records this species from the Hokkaido (Yezo), 
Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku, where it is very common. I have 
captured it in all those islands from April to August. 

Fruhstorfer 2^ remarks that 'W. goschkevitschii reaches the 
farthest north and inhabits all the islands from Hokkaido (Yezo) 
to Formosa" and gives the following races : 

Neope japonica Butler, described from Hakodate, Hokkaido (Yezo). 
Neope watanahei Mats., from Formosa (Hoppo). 

Fruhstorfer does not mention N. niphonica Butl. which was 
described in 1881 from Nikko, Honshu. 

''Seitz^s Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Indo-austral. (1911), 9, 324. 

124685 5 



260 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Genus LETHE Hubner 

Lethe Hubner, Verz. bek. Schmett. (1827), 56; Seitz, Macrolep. of 
the World, Faun. Pal. (1908), 1, 82; Fruhst, Seitz's Macrolep. of 
the World, Faun. Indo-austral. (1911), 9, 321. 

Subgenus Kirrodesa Moore 

Kirrodesa Moore, Lep. Ind. (1892), 1, 237. 

Lethe (Kirrodesa) siceKs Hewitson. 

PI. II, fig. 1, larva; fig. 2, head; figs. 3-4, dorsal aspect of segments; 
fig. 5, pupa; fig. 6, food plant. 

Japanese name, hikage-cho. 

Debis sicelis Hewitson, Exot. Butterfl. (1862), 3, PL 1, fig. 3. 

Lethe sicelis Pryer, Rhop. Nihon (1889), 32, PI. 9, fig. 10; Leech, 
Butterfl. China, Japan, Corea (1892-1893), 1, 36; Matsumura, Cat. 
Insect, Jap. (1905), 1, 14, No. 113; Matsumura, Thousand Insects 
of Japan [Nihon Senchu Dzukai (Jap.)], 4, 98, PI. 72, fig. 1, $; 
Seitz, Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Pal. (1906), 1, 84, PL 31b; 
Nagano, Nawa's Insect World [Konchu Sekai (Jap.)] (1910), 14, 
590, PL 24, figs. 1-12, transf.; Miyajima, Jap. Butterfl. [Nihon 
Chorui Dzusetsu (Jap.)], (1904), 146, PL 16, fig. 3; Fruhst., Seitz's 
Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Indo-austral. (1911), 9, ^22. 

The larva figured (Plate II, fig. 1) was taken in July, 
1901, at Kobe, Settsu Province, on bamboo grass, sasa-gicsa, 
(? Lophatherum elatum ZolL). From this an imago emerged, 
but no record was kept of the date of emergence nor of the 
sex. A second larva was taken by me, also on sasa, on September 
9, 1900; this pupated on September 20, and emerged on Sep- 
tember 25, 1900. The pupa figured is the pupa of the second 
larva. I have also taken the larva of this species on kaya 
(? Torreya nucifera S. and Z.), a kind of reed grass, and on 
tsubana ( ? Imperata arundinacea Cyr.) , a species of grass. Two 
males and one female were bred by me at Kobe from the larvse, 
June 7 and 8, 1901. 

The following descriptions are taken from my original figures. 

Larva. — Length, 39 millimeters. Yellowish green; green me- 
diodorsal longitudinal stripe edged with yellow lines on each 
side; yellow midlateral and whitish suprapedal longitudinal 
stripes; horns of head pink tipped. 

Pupa. — Light green with two rows of four white spots on the 
dorsum. Suspended by tail from food plant. 

Pryer remarks that he took the larva of L. sicelis and believes 
that it feeds on bamboo grass. Matsumura records the species 
from Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu, but not from Hokkaido 
(Yezo), where it does not seem to occur. Miyajima gives its 
season of flight as being from July to August, but I have taken 
it in various localities in the islands enumerated by Matsumura 



IX, D, 3 Wileman: Notes on Japanese Lepidoptera 261 

from May to September. Pryer says that it goes only a short 
distance up the mountains, where it is replaced by L. diana Butler. 
However, I have taken specimens up to an altitude of from 
300 to 500 meters (1,000 to 1,500 feet) on the mountains of 
Omine-san and Odai-san in Yamato Province, Honshu. In Tosa 
Province, Shikoku Island, it occurs in May, and I have taken 
it at Nikko, Honshu, in the same nu)nth at an elevation of about 
500 meters (1,500 feet). 

Fruhstorf er ^2 describes a distinct race of L. sicelis from 
Kyushu, which he names vanelia. It is characterized by the 
absence of the gray- or blue-violet bordering to the eyespots 
on the underside of the hind wing which is always present in 
examples from Hondo (Honshu) and which Hewitson and 
Seitz ^^ distinctly figure. 

Subgenus Rangbia Moore 

Lethe Hubner, Verz. bek. Schmett. (1827), 56; Seitz, Macrolep. of 

the World, Faun. Pal. (1908), 1, 82. 
Ranghia MoORE, Lep. Ind. (1890-1892), 1, 232; Fruhstorfer, Seitz's 

Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Indo-austral. (1911), 9, 322. 

Lethe (Rangbia) diana Butler. 

PL III, fig. 1, larva; fig. 2, head; figs. 3-4, dorsal aspect of segments; 
figs. 5-6, pupa; fig. 7, food plant. 

Japanese name, kuro-hikage. 

Debis diana Butler, Journ. Linn. So«.. Zool. (1866), 9, 55; Pryer, 
Rhop. Nihon (1889), 32, PI. 9, fig. 12; Oberthur, ]£tud. d'Entom. 
(1881), 6, 16, PI. 7, fig. 2; Leech, Butterfl. China, Japan, Corea 
(1892-1893), 1, 28; Matsumura, Cat. Insect Jap. (1905), 1, 14, 
No. 112; Matsumura, Thousand Insects of Japan [Nihon Senchu 
Dzukai (Jap.)] (1907), 4, 108, PL 73, fig. 10, 2; Seitz, Macrolep. 
of the World, Faun. Pal. (1908), 1, 84, PI. 31a; Fruhstorfer, Seitz's 
Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Indo-austral. (1911), 9, 322; Miya- 
JIMA, Jap. Butterfl. [Nihon Chorui Dzusetsu (Jap.)] (1904), 147, 
PI. 16, fig. 4. 

Lethe whitelyi BuTLER, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1867), III, 20, 403, 
PI. 9, fig. 8. 

Lethe consanguis Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1881), V, 7, 133. 

The larva figured (Plate III, fig. 1) was taken on June 3, 
1902, at Hakodate, Oshima Province, Hokkaido (Yezo), on bam- 
boo grass, sasa-gusa (? Lophatherum elatum ZolL). It pupated 
on June 15, 1902, and a female imago emerged on July 3, 1902. 
A male and female emerged from similar larvse on June 27 and 
July 2, 1902. 

The f ollow^ing descriptions are taken from my original figures. 

'' Seitz's Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Indo-austral. (1911), 9, 322. 
'' Seitz^s Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Pal. (1906), 1, 84, PI. 31b. 



262 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Larva, — Length, 27 millimeters. Pinkish gray; dark medio- 
dorsal pattern; spiracles black; whitish suprapedal longitudinal 
line. 

Pupa. — Bronze-brown with lighter reflections and black dots ; 
two short white lines on the dorsum extending one-third way 
from tail; mediodorsal white line on dorsum extending half 
way from tail and continuing black ; suspended by the tail from 
the food plant. 

Matsumura records this species from Hokkaido (Yezo), Hon- 
shu, Shikoku, and Kyushu ; also, from Korea and China. I have 
taken it from May to August, and have noticed that in Honshu 
and Kyushu it appears to be a mountain butterfly, while in Hok- 
kaido it inhabits the plains. As far as I am aware, no figure or 
description of the larva has been published before. 

Fruhstorf er 2* lists the following forms of L. diana. 

Lethe diana Butl., described from Hakodate, Hokkaido (Yezo). 

Lethe consanguis Butl., aberration from Nikko, Hondo (Honshu). 

Lethe celeja Fruhst., subspecies, normal form (= figure given in Seitz, 1, 

PL 31a), from Hondo (Honshu). 
Lethe whitelyi Butl., from Nagasaki, Kyushu. 
Lethe fixseni Butl., subspecies from Korea. 

*^Diana is the only Lethe which bears a long hair tuft on the underside 
of the forewing, placed below the submedian.^* 

Subgenus Tansima Moore 

Lethe Hubner, Verz bek. Schmett. (1827), 56; Seitz, Macrolep. of 

the World, Faun. Pal. (1908), 1, 82. 
Tansima MoORE, Lep. Ind. (1890-1892), 1, 271. 

Lethe (Tansima) marginalis Motschulsky. 

PL III, fig. 17, larva; fig. 18, head; fig. 19, dorsal aspect of segment; 
fig. 20, food plant; figs. 21-22, pupa. 

Japanese name, kuro-hikage-modoki. 

Satyrus marginalis Motschulsky, fitud. d'Entom. (1860), 9, 29; 
Leech, Butterfl. China, Japan, Corea (1892-1893), 1, 25; Seitz, 
Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Pal. (June 23, 1908), 1, 86, PL 31d, 
d' 2; MiYAJiMA, Jap. Butterfl. [Nihon Ch5rui Dzusetsu (Jap.)] 
(1904), 147, PL 16, fig. 5. 

Lasiommata maacki Bremer, Bull. Acad. Petr. (1861), 3, 468; Brem., 
Lep. Ost.-Sib. (1864), 22, PL 3, fig. 3; Matsumura, Cat. Insect Jap. 
(1905), 1, 14, No. Ill; (Lethe), Matsumura, Thousand Insects of 
Japan [Nihon Senchu Dzukai (Jap.)] (1907), 4, 101, PL 72, fig. 7, $. 

The larva figured (Plate III, fig. 17) was taken in June, 1901, 
at Yoshino, Yamato Province, on sitsuki, a species of grass 
(? Miscanthus sinensis Anders.), and a female imago emerged 
from the pupa resulting from this larva on June 23, 1901. 

'* Seitz's Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Indo-austral. (1911), 9, 322. 



IX, D, 3 Wileman: Notes on Japanese Lepidoptera 263 

Three males also emerged on July 6 and 11, 1901, from other 
larvae taken about the same time. 

The following descriptions are taken from my original figures. 

Larva. — Length, 48 millimeters. Yellowish green; horns on 
head pink tinged; mediodorsal longitudinal dark green stripe; 
subdorsal midlateral supraspiracular longitudinal green stripes; 
whitish longitudinal suprapedal stripe. 

Pupa, — Yellowish green; three darker lines on dorsum; wing 
cases edged with yellow. Suspended from food plant by tail. 

Matsumura records the species from Hokkaido (Yezo) and 
Honshu and also from Formosa, Korea, China, and eastern 
Siberia (Ussuri and Amurland). I have taken the imago in 
Yamato Province, Honshu, and also in lyo Province, Shikoku. 
It appears to be a mountain species except in Hokkaido, where 
it inhabits the plains. It flies in July and August. 

Subgenus Harima Moore 

Lethe Hubner, Verz. bek. Schmett. (1827), 56. 

Harima MooRE, Lep. Ind. (1892), 1, 299 (type, callipteris Butl.). 
Sinchula Moore, Lep. Ind. (1892), 1, 275; Fruhstorper, Seitz's 
Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Indo-austral. (1911), 9, 313. 

Lethe (Harima) callipteris Butler. 

PI. Ill, figs. 23-24, dorsal aspect of segments ; fig. 25, head ; fig. 26, larva ; 
figs. 27-28, pupa; fig. 29, food plant. 

Japanese name, hime-kimadara-hikage, 

Neope callipteris Butler, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1877), IV, 19, 
92; Pryer, Rhop. Nihon (1889), 32, PI. 10, fig. 2; Leech, Butterfl. 
China, Japan, Corea (1892-1893), 1, 36, PI. 6, figs. 3 c^, 4 5; Miya- 
JIMA, Jap. Butterfl. [Nihon Chorui Dzusetsu (Jap.)] (1904), 148, PI. 
16, fig. 6; Matsumura, Cat. Insect. Jap. (1905), 1, 14, No. 110; 
Matsumura, Thousand Insects of Japan [Nihon Senchu Dzukai 
(Jap.)] (1907), 4, 103, PI. 72, fig. 10, $; Seitz, Macrolep. of the 
World, Faun. Pal. (June 23, 1908 J, 1, 86, PL 31e. 

The larva figured (Plate III, fig. 26), was taken in June, 1902, 
at Hakodate, Oshima Province, Hokkaido (Yezo), on bamboo 
grass, sasa-gusa (? Lophathenvm elatum ZolL). It pupated on 
July 4, 1912, and a female imago emerged from the pupa result- 
ing from it on July 19, 1902. A male emerged on August 10, 
1902, from a second larva taken. 

The following descriptions are taken from my original figures. 

Larva. — Length, 35 millimeters. Bluish green; mediodorsal 
longitudinal green stripe edged with yellow lines ; subdorsal and 
midlateral longitudinal yellow stripes; white suprapedal longi- 
tudinal stripe; horns of head tipped with pink. 

Pupa. — Bluish green; four rows of white spots on dorsum 
and thorax. Suspended by tail from food plant. 



264 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

This species appears to be confined to the Japanese Islands. 
Matsumura records it from Hokkaido (Yezo), Honshu, and 
Kyushu, and I have taken it in Kyushu. It flies from July to 
September. 

Pryer states that it is a mountain insect. This is quite true 
in Honshu and Kyushu Islands, as I discovered when collecting 
there, but at Hakodate in Hokkaido, which is a great deal 
farther north, it inhabits the plains as well as the mountains, 
like several other species, which in the more southern parts 
of Japan are only found in the mountains, but which in Hokkaido 
occur commonly in the plains; for example, Vanessa io Linn, 
and Lasiommata epimenides Men. I found L. callipteris 
especially abundant in July and August on the summit of the 
Raiden Toge (Raiden Pass), in Hokkaido, at an elevation of 
500 meters (1,500 feet) where the vegetation mainly consisted 
of bamboo grass, or sasa, the food plant of the larva. 

Seitz 2^ remarks : 

L. callipteris has the appearance of being a small form of labyriyithea 
Leech, from central and western China in July, but the male is without the 
dentate bandlike scent organ found in that species. Callipteris has, hither- 
to, only been known from Japan; the specimen from which our figure 
is taken and which belongs to Tring Museum, England, however bears the 
locality "Kashmir." If that be not an error in labeling, I am inclined to 
regard callipteris Butl. and labyrinthea Leech, in spite of the difference 
in the scent organ, as being localized forms of one widely distributed 
species. 

Genus MYCALESIS Hubner 

Mycalesis Hubner, Verz. bek. Schmett. (1827), 55; Seitz, Macrolep. 
of the World, Faun. Pal. (1908), 1, 80; Fruhstorfer, Seitz's 
Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Indo-austral. (1911), 9, 330. 

Subgenus Sadarga Moore 

Sadarga MoORE, Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. (1880), 157. 

Mycalesis (Sadarga) gotama Moore. 

PI. Ill, fig. 8, larva; fig. 9 head; figs. 10-11, dorsal aspect of segments; 
fig. 12, food plant; figs. 13-14; pupa; figs. 15-16, pupa previous to 
emergence. 

Japanese name, hime-janome. 

Mycalesis gotama Moore, Cat. Lep. E. I. G. (1857), 1, 232; Pryer, 
Rhop. Nihon (1889), 30, PI. 9, fig. 1; Leech, Butterfl. China, Japan, 
Corea (1892-1893), 1, 14; Nawa, Insect World [Konchu Sekai 
(Jap.)] (1900), 4, 373, PI. 10, figs, transf. larva, pupa, imago, food 
plant; Miyajima, Jap Butterfl. [Nihon Chorui Dzusetsu (Jap.)] 
(1904), 145, PI. 16, fig. 1; Matsumura, Cat. Insect Jap. (1905), 
1, 15, No. 118; Matsumura, Thousand Insects of Japan [Nihon 

"Macrolep. of the World, Fauna Pal. (1908), 1, 86. 



IX, D, 3 Wileman: Notes on Japanese Lepidoptera 265 

Senchu Dzukai (Jap.)] (1907), 4, 99, PL 72, figs. 6 c?, 2 $; Seitz, 
Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Pal. (1908), 1, 81, PL 29c, c? $; 
Fruhstorfer, Seitz's Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Indo-austral. 
(1911), 9, 348. 
Mycalesis borealis Feld. and Rogen., Reise Novara (1867), 500. 

The larva figured (Plate III, fig. 8) was taken in July, 1901, at 
Yoshino, Yamato Province, Honshu, on bamboo grass, sasa-gusa 
( ? Lophatherum elatum Zoll.) , and a female imago emerged from 
the pupa resulting from it on August 9, 1901. 

The following descriptions are taken from my original figures. 

Larva, — Length, 30 millimeters. Yellowish green ; dark green 
mediodorsal longitudinal line edged with yellow ; yellow subdorsal 
longitudinal line. 

Pupa. — Green with two lines of four white spots on the 
dorsum; suspended by the tail from food plant; it is green for 
some time after pupation, and, as in the case of the pupae of 
many other Lepidoptera, turns brown before emergence (Plate 
III, figs. 15 and 16) . Three males and two females also emerged 
at later dates from similar larvse. There is another form of 
the larva which, instead of being green, is a dirty grayish 
brown with the dorsal and subdorsal lines dark. On May 12, 
1901, I found a larva of this form at Yoshino from which an 
imago of gotama emerged on May 31, 1901. The color of this 
larva, however, may have been due to the fact that it was 
preparing to pupate as the larvse of many Lepidoptera change 
color before entering on the pupal stage. 

Nawa 2^ gives a black and white figure of the larva of this 
species, together with its transformations. Matsumura records 
its occurrence in Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Ryukyu (Loochoo 
Islands) . I have taken it in Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku, from 
May to September. Miyajima records it from Hokkaido (Yezo) , 
but I have never taken it there, and Matsumura does not record 
it from that island. Rice is given as its food plant by Matsumura. 

Fruhstorfer ^^ remarks : 

M, gotama, an East Asiatic collective species, which inhabits the Jap- 
anese Islands from Hondo (Honshu) onwards, has spread from central and 
western China to Annam and Upper Assam. 

He also gives the following subspecies, races, and forms which 
are referable to M. gotama. 

Mycalesis gotama Moore, subspecies from Shanghai, China. 
Mycalesis borealis Feld., subspecies from China and Japan (Nagasaki, 
Kyushu Island). 

''' Insect World (Konchu Sekai) (1900), 4, 373, PL 10. 

" Seitz's Macrolep. of the World, Faun. Indo-austral. (1911), 9, 348. 



266 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Mycalesis fulginia Fruhst., form of M. borealis, from Japan (Kyushu 
Island). 

Mycalesis seriphus Fruhst., Seitz, 1, PI. 29c, from Japan, Honshu Island. 

Mycalesis madjicosa Butler, Seitz, 9, 92 d. ?; island race; described by 
Butler from Madjico-shima in Cat. Satyr. Brit. Mus. (1868), 135, PI. 
3, fig. 10. Madjico-shima (recte ? Majiko-shima) is undoubtedly a 
Japanese island but I have been unable to trace its geographical posi- 
tion; it is probably one of the Loochoo Islands; specimens are in the 
Fruhstorfer collection from Oshima, one of the Loochoo Islands, and 
from Ishigaki-shima, which is situated in the southern or Miyako group 
of the Loochoo Islands (Ryukyu). 

Mycalesis nanda Fruhst., subspecies from Tainan and Horisha in Formosa. 

Mycalesis charaka Moore, subspecies from India, Tonkin, and Assam. 

Mycalesis oculata Moore, dry season form, from Assam and Bhamo, Burma. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

(Drawings by Hisashi Kaido) 

Plate I 

Figs. 1 to 4. Papilio xuthus Linnaeus. 

1 and 2y young larvae; ^, full-grown larva; 4, food plant. 
5 to 8. Papilio (Cosmodesmus) sarpedon Linnaeus. 

5, j'^oung larva; 6, full-grown larva; 7, pupa; 5, food plant. 

Plate II 

Figs. 1 to 6. Lethe (Kirrodesa) sicelis Hewitson. 

1, larva; 2, head; S and ^, dorsal aspect of segments; 5, 
pupa; 6, food plant. 

7 to 11. Neope goschkevitschii Menetries. 

7, larva; 8 and P, dorsal aspect of segments; 10, head; 11, 
food plant. 

12 to 16. Papilio (Pharmacophagits) alcinous King, 

12, full-grown larva; 13, dorsal aspect of segment; lU to 
16, pupa. 

Plate III 

Figs. 1 to 7. Lethe (Ranghia) diana Butler. 

1, larva; 2, head; 3 and J^, dorsal aspect of segments; 5 and 
6, pupa; 7, food plant. 

8 to 16. Mycalesis (Sadarga) gotama Moore. 

8, larva; 9, head; 10 and 11, dorsal aspect of segments; 12, 
food plant; 13 and i-4, pupa; 15 and 16, pupa previous 
to emergence. 

17 to 22. Lethe (Tansima) marginalis Motschulsky. 

17, larva; 18, head; 19, dorsal aspect of segment; 20, food 
plant; 21 and 22, pupa. 
23 to 29. Lethe (Harima) callipteris Butler. 

23 and 2^, dorsal aspect of segments; 25, head; 26, larva; 
27 and 28, pupa; 29, food plant. 

267 



WiLEMAN : Japanese Lepidoptera,] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., IX, D, No. 3. 




PLATE 1. PAPILIO XUTHUS AND PAPILIO SARPEDON. 



WiLEMAN : Japanese Lepidoptera.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., IX, D, No. 3. 




U 



% 



© 










PLATE II. LETHE SICELIS, NEOPE 60SCHKEVITSCHII, AND PAPILIO ALCINOUS. 



WiLEMAN : Japanese LEPioorTERA.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., IX, D, No. 3. 




PLATE III. LETHE DIANA, L. MARGINALIS, L. CALLIPTERIS, AND SADARGA GOTAMA. 



NEUE FULGORIDEN VON DEN PHILIPPINEN: I. THEIL 

Von L. Melichar 

{Brilnn, Moravia) 

Eine Tafel 

CIXIIN^ 

Benna sinuata sp. nov. (Fig. 1.) 

Diese Art ist durch die etwas abweichende Form der Flugel- 
decken gekennzeichnet. Die Fliigeldecken sind wie bei alien 
Benna- Arten nach hinten verbreitert. Der Apikalrand ist jedoch 
nicht schrag gerundet, sondern deutlich konkav, so dass die 
abgerundete Suturalecke starker hervortritt da auch der innere 
Apikalrand schwach gebuchtet ist. Die Apikalecke ist breit 
abgerundet. Im iibrigen treffen alle charakteristischen Merk- 
male dieser Gattung zu. Der Kopf, Thorax, die Unterseite und 
Beine blassgelb oder wachsgelb. Die Fliigeldecken schmutzig 
milchweiss zur Spitze und zum Schlussrand leicht gelblich. Die 
Adern sind gelblichweiss, zart, nur in der Mitte der Fliigeldecken 
und im Apikalteile braun, in den Endzellen am Apikalrande 
(mit Ausnahme der zweiten Apikalzelle) je ein brauner Langs- 
strich, zusammen 6 an der Zahl. Die stielartigen Fortsatze 
zu beiden Seiten des Korpers blassgelb, die erweiterte Spitze 
schwarz, mit aufliegendem weissen Sekret. Die Apikalrandader 
schwarz. 

Lange s 6.5 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (1 Exemplar Baker). 

DERBIN^^ 

Syntames tubulifer sp. nov. (Fig. 2.) 

Scheitel breiter als lang, von der Stirne nicht abgetrennt, die 
Rander gekielt, in der Mitte ein Kiel, welcher sich auf die Stirne 
f ortsetzt. Stirne langlich, nicht schmal, die Seiten schwach nach 
aussen gebogen und gekielt. Fuhler kurz, jedoch von oben 
sichtbar, das zweite FUhlerglied doppelt so lang wie breit, 
etwas keulenf ormig. Subantennalplatte f ehlt. Clypeus langlich 
dreieckig, in der Mitte schwach gekielt. Pronotum langer als 
der Scheitel, vorne schwach gerundet, hinten flach gebuchtet, 
mit 3 scharfen Kielen, die Seitenkiele stark nach aussen konkav, 
die Hinterecken des Pronotums erreichend. Schildchen breit, 
stark gewolbt, mit 3 parallelen Langskielen, die Seitenkiele dem 

269 



270 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

Mittelkiel genahert. Fliigeldecken mehr als doppelt so lang 
wie einzeln breit, der aussere Sektor nahe der Basis gegabelt 
(Subcosta und Radia nach Kirkaldy), der zweite Sektor in der 
Mitte der Flugeldecken, der innere ungefahr hinter der Mitte 
der Clavusnaht gegabelt. Im Clavus eine gegabelte Ader, der 
Costalrand ist hinter der Mitte eine kurze Strecke fein quer- 
gestrichelt. Hintersehienen mit einem sehr kleinen Dome hinter 
der Mitte. Ein ganz besonderes Merkmal fiir diese Art sind 
auf jeder Seite des Bauches befindliche zwei Rohren welche 
wahrscheinlich Trachealrohren sind. Die erste langere Rohre 
befindet sich an der Grenze zwischen der Hinterbrust und des 
basalen Ventralsegmentes, und hat zwei ofFnungen, eine grossere 
vorne, eine kleinere hinten, die zweite kurzere Rohre befindet 
sich in der hinteren Seitenecke des 1. Ventralsegmentes und 
hat nur eine offnung; die Basis der Rohrchen ist schwarz, die 
Spitze gelb. 

Der ganze Korper ist schwarz, glanzend, bloss die Bauchlappen 
des Pronotums, das 2. Fiihlerglied, mit Ausnahme der schwar- 
zen Basis, die Mittel- und Hinterbrust und die Beine schmutzig 
blassgelb. Im Apikalteile der Flugeldecken 13 Randmakeln 
(Spitzen der Endadern) am Aussenrande und eine Makel am 
Innenrande schmutzig weiss. Die Schenkel etwas braunlich, das 
Basalglied der Hintertarsen halb so lang wie die Hinterschiene, 
in der Mitte braunlich. 

Lange ^ $ 4 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (2 Exemplare Baker). 

Vekunta lineata sp. nov. 

Blassgelblich, die Augen, eine Mackel in der Mitte des Clypeus, 
eine Langsbinde nahe dem Costalrande, der Schlussrand, eine 
Mackel auf den Seiten der Vorderbrust und die Rander der 
Deckschuppen schwarz. Der Scheitel ist so breit wie an der 
Basis, nach vorne etwas verschmalert, die gehobenen Seiten- 
rander mit Kornchen dicht besetzt. Der Scheitel bildet mit 
der Stirne eine Ecke, die Stime lang, schmal, zum Clypeus 
etwas verbreitert, in der Mitte nicht gekielt. Fiihler kurz, das 
2. Fiihlerglied ziemlich gross, globulos. Subantennalplatte fehlt. 
Die Kiele des Pro- und Mesonotums sehr undeutlich. Fliigel- 
decken langlich schmal, die Adern gelblichweiss, am Costalrande 
feine Kornchen und zu beiden Seiten des ausseren Clavusader 
eine Reihe solcher jedoch starkerer Kornchen. Der Apikalteil 
leicht rauchbraun. Unterseite und Beine blassgelblich. 

Lange $ 5 mm., 9 6 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (2 Exemplare Baker) . 



IX, D, 3 Melichar: Neue Fulgoriden 271 

Megatropis interruptolineata sp. nov. 

Strohgelb, glanzend, Fliigeldecken mit 3 schwarzen Langs- 
strichen und zwar: ein Strich an der Basis des Clavus in der 
Nahtzelle, der zweite tiefer hinten in der Mitte der Suturalzelle 
des Coriums und der dritte in der Mitte des Coriums zwischen 
dem mittleren und inneren Sektor. Im Apikalteile 4 querlie- 
gende Zellen. Die Stirne von der Seite betrachtet gerundet, mit 
dem gerundeten and gehobenen Scheitelrande eine leichte Einker- 
bung bildend, so dass die Abrundung keine vollstandige ist. Die 
Augen halbmondformig, die Fiihler tief unten eingelenkt, das 
2. Fiihlerglied reicht bis zum vorderen Augenrande, ist cylin- 
drisch, an der Spitze eingekerbt, die Fuhlerborste distal einge- 
fiigt. Der obere Scheitelrand ist mit feinen Kornchen (sensible 
Organe) besetzt. 

Lange 8 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios {Baker). 

Megatropis obliquefasciata sp. nov. (Fig. 3.) 

Weiss, Stirne von der Seite betrachtet parabolisch vorgezogen, 
der Scheitelrand hinten gerundet, nach vome fast horizontal in 
die Wolbung der Stirne iibergehend, die Breite der Stirne vor 
den Augen betragt gut den dreifachen Langsdurchmesser des 
Auges. Vor dem Auge eine rotliche Querbinde. Augen 
schwarz. Fiihler lang, cylindrisch, bis iiber die Mitte der 
Wangen reichend, cylindrisch zur Spitze verschmalert, an der 
Spitze rotlich, eingekerbt, Fuhlerborste distal. Die Basis des 
zweiten Fuhlergliedes ist in einen gleich dicken Fortsatz nach 
hinten verlangert, welcher ungefahr J der Lange des 2. Fiihler- 
gliedes betragt. Fiihlerdecken hyalin, milchweiss, mit weissen 
Adem und einer braunen schragen Querbinde, welche von der 
Clavusspitze schrag nach hinten und aussen zum Costalrande 
zieht. Im Apikalteile 4 querliegende Zellen. Die Apikalzellen 
am Innenrande braunlich gesaumt. Flugel hyalin, mit weissen 
Adern. Korper und Beine blass gelblichweiss. 

Lange sammt Fliigeldecke 8-9 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker). 

Leptaleocera bakeri sp. nov. 

Lang gestreckt, scharlachrot, die Augen, die Deckschuppen, 
eine von der Basis bis zum Apikalrande reichende Langsbinde 
in der Mitte der Fliigeldecken und der schmale innere Rand des 
Apikalteiles hinter der Clavusspitze schwarz. Der Scheitel und 
die Stirne bilden von der Seite betrachtet einen zusammenhan- 
genden Bogen. Die Wangen kaum so breit wie der Querdurch- 



272 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

messer des Auges. Das Auge hat die fur die Gattung 
charakteristische Form, in dem das vordere Ende des Auges sich 
verschmalert und mit dem Stirnrande parallel und bogenf ormig 
bis zur unteren Wangenecke herabreicht. Die Fiihler sind bei 
diesem Exemplare leider abgebrochen. Unterseite und Beine 
scharlachrot, die Schienen mehr gelblich. Diese schone Cicade 
ist nach der Farbung und Zeichnung, der eigentiimlichen Form 
der Augen leicht zu erkennen. 

Lang ^ samt Flugeldecke 5 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (1 Exemplar Baker). 

Genus DENDROKARA novum 

Eine durch die Form der Fuhleranhangsel an die Gattung 
Devandanda Dist. erinnernde Gattung. Der Korper ist langlich, 
schmal. Der Scheitel mit der Stirne von der Seite betraehtet 
gerundet. Scheitel dreieckig, ziemlich breit, in der Mitte nicht 
gekielt. Augen klein, langlich oval. Clypeus ktirzer als die 
Stirne, gewolbt, in der Mitte nicht gekielt. Die Fiihler sind in 
der unteren Wangenecke eingelenkt, das Basalglied langlich, 
flach, an die Wangen angelegt, das 2. Fuhlerglied kurz, oval 
Oder langlich oval, mit dem ersten Gliede einen rechten Winkel 
bildend, nach aussen gerichtet, an der Basis mit kurzen oder 
langen, oft moosartig verzweigten Appendices. Pronotum 
schmal, in der Mitte deutlich gekielt. Schildchen stark gewolbt, 
mit 3 Kielen, die Seitenkiele nach aussen konkav, dem Mittelkiel 
genahert. Flugeldecken lang, schmal, hinten schrag abgerundet, 
der innere Apikalrand hinter der Clavusspitze etwas vorgewolbt. 
Das Geader ist aus der Abbildung ersichtlich. Flugel etwas 
ktirzer als die Fltigeldecke, aber immer mehr als Zweidrittel der 
ganzen Lange. Beine grazil, Hinterschienen ohne Dornen. 

Typ. gen.: Dendrokara monstrosa sp. nov. 

Dendrokara monstrosa sp. nov. (Fig. 4.) 

Die Stirne bildet mit dem Scheitel (von der Seite betraehtet) 
keinen einfachen Bogen, sondern der Scheitel ist hoher gewolbt 
und bildet mit dem Stirnbogen eine seichte Einkerbung. Der 
Scheitel und die Wangen mit Ausnahme einer kleinen zentralen 
Partie schwarz. Pronotum auf de^ Scheibe pechbraun, an den 
Seiten gelb. An der Basis des 2. Ftihlergliedes sind 3-4 lange, 
moosartig geformte schwarze Anhangsel verschiedener Lange. 
Das 2. Glied selbst ist langlich oval, schwarz, mit feinen weissen 
Warzchen besetzt, die Spitze mit einem roten Punkt, die kurze 
Fuhlerborste etwas distal gestellt. Schildchen schwarz, die 
Spitze breit gelb. Flugeldecken pechbraun, in der Mitte breit 



IX, D, 3 Melickar: Neue Fulgoriden 273 

gelb, und eine grosse gelbe Mackel am inneren Apikalrande 
hinter der Clavusspitze. Brust und Beine gelb, Hinterleib 
pechbraun. Diese Art ist sofort nach den eigenttimlichen 
Anhangseln der Fuhler zu erkennen. Die Stirnbildung erinnert 
an die Gattung Megalropis, aber die Augen sind nicht halbmond- 
f ormig, sondern rund, die Fuhler ganz abweichend. 

Lange ^ 7 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Baiios (1 Exemplar Baker). 

Dendrokara torva sp. nov. (Fig. 5.) 

Von derselben Form und Grosse, aber der Scheitel (von der 
Seite betrachtet) bildet mit der Stirne einen gleichmassigen 
Bogen. Das 2. Fiihlerglied ist globulos mit eingeschnurrter 
Basis, aus welcher zwei kurze schwammartig geformte Blatter 
entspringen, welche das Fiihlerglied schalenformig fast ein- 
schliessen. Der Wangenrand und die ganze Oberseite des Kor- 
pers braun, glanzend, die Unterseite samt Beine gelb, der Hin- 
terleibsriicken pechbraun. Die Form und das Geader der FlU- 
geldecken genau wie bei monstrosa. Diese Art ist durch die 
Fuhlerbildung geniigend gekennzeichnet. 

Lange $ 7 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Baiios (1 Exemplar Baker). 

DELPHACIN^ 
Tropidocephala pMlippina sp. nov. 

Weib. Scheitel so lang wie das Pronotum, nach vorne 
verschmalert und leicht nach unten gebogen, sowie Pronotum 
und Schildchen griinlichgelb oder schmutzig gelb, ohne Zeichnung. 
Stirne blass griinlichgelb, am unteren Ende des Mittelkieles ein 
brauner Fleck. Clypeus schwarzbraun, Fiihler gelb, am 2. 
Fiihlergliede ein schrager schwarzer Strich, die Wangen unter- 
halb der Fiihler schwarz, Fliigeldecken hyalin, mit blassgelb- 
lichen fein granulierten Adern, am Ende des mittleren Sektors 
ein schwarzer glanzender Hocker, der Clavus griinlichgelb, im 
Apikalteile zum inneren Rande eine gelblichbraune Mackel, an 
den Spitzen der Endnerven schwarze Punkte (2-3), und ein 
kleiner Punkt hinter der Mitte des Schlussrandes. Unterseite 
und Beine griinlichgelb. 

Mannchen. Die kleineren Mannchen ebenso gezeichnet, die 
dunkle Farbung breitet sich mehr aus und verdrangt die griin- 
lichgelbe Farbung bis auf einen kleinen Saum am Schlussrande, 
im Apikalteile einige helle Randflecken. In der Mitte der Fliigel- 
decken nur ein dunkler glanzender Hocker wie beim $ . 

Lange $ 2.5 mm., $ 3 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Baiios (Baker) . 



274 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

Genus BAMBUSARIA novum 

Kopf samt Augen etwas schmaler als dei? Thorax. Scheitel 
nur wenig die Augen uberragend, vorne gerundet, die Seiten 
nach vorne schwach konvergierend, gekielt, in der Mitte ein 
deutlicher starker Langskiel, welcher sich auf die Stirne fort- 
setzt. Stirne langlich, viereckig, die Seiten parallel, oben und 
unten (Clypeusnaht) gerade, die Seiten stark gekielt, der 
ebenso starke Mittelkiel auf den Clypeus verlangert, dessen 
Seiten sowie die Wangen ebenfalls gekielt sind. Augen halb- 
kugelig, dicht am unteren Rande die Fuhler eingelenkt ; dieselben 
sind lang, das Basalglied etwas wenig langer als das 2. Fuhler- 
glied, zusammengedriickt kanntig, das 2. Fiihlerglied an der 
Basis oben mit einer glatten Platte versehen, der iibrige Teil 
mit kleinen Warzchen und Harchen bedeckt. Pronotum breit, 
hinten flach gebuchtet, mit 3 Kielen, die Seitenkiele nach vorne 
konvergierend. Schildchen breit, gewolbt, mit 3 Langskielen, die 
Seitenkiele dem Mittelkiel etwas genahert, daher nicht in der 
Fortsetzung der Pronotumkiele liegend, nach hinten schwach 
divergierend. 

Mannchen. Das Pygophor ist langlich oval, der Aussenrand 
etwas gewulstet, in der Mitte des unteren Randes etwas erhaben. 
Die GrifFel gross, hornartig, aus breiter Basis zur Spitze ver- 
schmalert, nach aussen gebogen, mit der Spitze einander 
beriihrend. 

Lange $ 4 mm., $ 5 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling {Baker). 

Kommt auf Bambusrohr vor und ist demselben schadlich. 

Typ. Gen.: Bambusaria pi'Cta sp. nov. 

Bambusaria picta sp. nov. (Fig. 6.) 

Braunlichgelb. Die Stirne, Clypeus und Wangen schwarz, 
die Kiele weiss; Scheitel schwarz, die Kiele weiss, die schwarze 
Farbung des Scheitels verlangert sich auf das Pro- und Mesono- 
tum, nach hinten zu beiden Seiten des hellen Mittelkieles eine 
Langsbinde bildend. Das Basalglied der Fuhler ist schwarz 
liniert, die Kanten weiss. Die Platte auf der Oberseite des 2. 
Fuhlergliedes weiss mit einem schwarzen Punkt. Flugeldeck- 
en hyalin, mit einer breiten braunen Querbinde in der Mitte und 
einer halbmondformigen, 2-3 hyaline Randflecken einschlies- 
sende Marginalbinde, am inneren Apikalrande, an den Enden 
der beiden ausseren Endadern spitzdreieckige Mackeln, eine 
kleine Mackel an der Teilungsstelle des inneren Sektors und eine 
solche am Schlussrande vor der Clavusspitze. Die Sektoren 



IX, D, 3 Melichar: Neue Fulgoriden 275 

sind hinter der Querbinde verdickt, pechbraun, daselbst 
mit feinen Kornchen besetzt. Flugel hyalin, mit pechbraunen 
Adern, die Vorderbrust braun, an den Seiten der Mittelbrust 
eine braune runde Makel, die Bauchsegmente an der Basis braun, 
die Rander hellgelb, Samtliche Schenkel schwarz langsliniert. 
Fliigeldecken hyalin, hinten abgerundet, der aussere und innere 
Sektor hinter der Mitte gegabelt, die Gabelaste durch eine 
Queraderlinie untereinander verbunden, aus welcher 5 Endadem 
entspringen, die beiden ausseren nach aussen gebogen, die 3. 
gerade die 4. und 5. nach innen stark gekrummt. Im Clavus 
eine Gabelader. Beine einfach; Hinterschienen mit 2 kleinen 
Dornen, der erste dicht an der Basis, der zweite hinter der Mitte. 
Der bewegliche Apikalsporn stark. 

Genus MALAXA novum 

Kopf samt Augen schmaler als der Thorax. Scheitel lang- 
lich, nach vorne etwas wenig verschmalert, die Augen nur wenig 
iiberragend, mit fast undeutHchen Kielen. Stirne sehr lang und 
schmal, parallelseitig, an den Randem und in der Mitte, sowie 
die Wangen gekielt. Der Mittelkiel auf der Scheitelspitze ein 
sehr kleines seichtes Dreieck bildend. Augen halbkugelig. 
Fiihler sehr lang, die Basis der Fliigeldecken iiberragend, cylin- 
drisch, dunn, das 2. Fiihlerglied um i langer als der Basalglied, 
die Borste sehr kurz. Pronotum breit, vorne gerade abgestutzt, 
mit 3 Kielen und 2 Griibchen zwischen denselben. Schildchen 
breiter als lang, mit 3 Langskielen. Fliigeldecken hyalin, hinten 
stark zugespitzt, mit 3 Sektoren, welche aus einer langlichen 
Basalzelle entspringen. Die beiden ausseren Sektoren einfach, 
der innere Sektor gegabelt, 5 Endadern, die mittlere gegabelt, 
der aussere Gabelast in die Apikalspitze mundend. Im kurzen 
Clavus eine Gabelader. Beine sehr grazil, Hinterschienen mit 
einem sehr kleinen Dorn in der Mitte. Endsporn fast so lang 
wie das Basalglied der Hintertarsen, dtinn, aalformig. 

Typ. gen.: Malaxa acutipennis sp. nov. 

Malaxa acutipennis sp. nov. (Fig. 7.) 

Kopf, Thorax und Unterseite samt Beine wachsgelblich. 
Fliigeldecken hyalin mit zwei braunen Querbinden. Die erste 
Binde schmal, vor der Mitte, die zweite breitere auf der Quer- 
aderlinie, samtliche Endadern braun gesaumt. Auf dem Hinter- 
leibsrticken zwei breite Langsbinden. Die Schenkel vor der 
Spitze schwarz geringelt, die Spitzen der Schienen schwarzlich. 

Lange 9 ungefahr 3.5 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Baiios (1 Exemplar Baker). 

124685 6 



276 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

ISSIN.^^ 

Genus AUGILINA novum 

Korper lang gestreckt. Kopf samt Augen schmaler als der 
Thorax, in einen dreieckigen nach oben gekrummten kurzen 
Fortsatz verlangert. Die Seiten des Scheitels gescharft, nach 
vorne konvergierend, die Spitze dicht vor den Augen nach oben 
gebogen, die Scheitelflache glatt, nicht gekielt oder mit einem 
schwachen Mittelkiel versehen. Stirne langlich, nach unten 
verbreitert, die Rander gescharft gehoben, die Stirnflache an der 
Basis vertieft, unten mehr oder weniger gewolbt, nicht gekielt. 
Clypeus langlich dreieckig, gewolbt, nicht gekielt. "Rostrum bis 
zur Mittelbrust reichend, kurz, Augen gross, halbkugelig, stark 
vorgewolbt, die Fiihler kurz, Fuhlerborste lang. Ocellen vorhan- 
den. Pronotum glockenformig, an den Seiten gerundet, oben 
konvex, vorne schwach gerundet, hinten gerade auf der Scheibe 
2 nach hinten divergierende und abgekiirzte vorne zusam- 
menstossende kurze Kiele, welche eine dreieckige Grube be- 
grenzen. Schildchen stark gewolbt, breiter als lang, mit 3 
parallelen schwachen Langsbinden. Flugeldecken sehr lang und 
schmal, die Hinterleibsspitze uberragend, hinten abgerundet, am 
Aussenrande in der Mitte leicht gebuchtet. Drei lange Adern, 
von welchen die beiden ausseren sich nahe der Basis miteinander 
verbinden; die Sektoren bilden im hinteren Viertel der Fliigel- 
decken durch Gabelung zwei pentagonale ZeUen und eine innere 
viereckige Zelle, welche auf einer von der Clavusspitze nach 
aussen ziehenden geraden Querader aufsitzen. Aus der letzteren 
entspringen 5 Endadern, die 2. und 3. bilden eine Gabel und 
entspringen mit der 4. Ader aus einem Punkte. Der Apikalrand 
besitzt einen schmalen fein quergestrichelten Saum. Der Cla- 
vus sehr lang, die beiden Clavusadem nahe der Basis vereinigt, 
eine sehr kurze Gabel bildend, der Gabelschaft miindet vor der 
Clavusspitze in die Clavusnaht. Flugel wenig ktirzer als die 
Flugeldecken, mit wenigen Langsadem, Hinterleib walzenfor- 
mig, lang gestreckt, nach hinten verengt. Beine sehr lang, 
grazil, insbesondere die Vorderschenkel und Schienen auffallend 
lang und diinn, Hinterschienen mit 1 Dome hinter der Mitte. 
Basalglied der Hintertarsen lang. 

Typ. gen. : Augilina longipes sp. nov. 

Augilina longipes sp. nov. (Fig. 8.) 

Kopf in einen kurzen dreieckigen, dicht vor den Augen nach 
oben gekrummten Fortsatz verlangert. Der Scheitel und die 



IX, D, 3 Melichar: Neue Fulgoriden 277 

Stirne samt Clypeus schwarz, glanzend, die Seitenkiele des 
Scheitels und der Stirne weiss. Pronotum weiss, die zwischen 
den Kielen liegende kleine dreieckige Grube schwarz. Die Seiten 
des Kopfes mit Ausnahme der Schlafen schwarz, glanzend, 
Fuhler gelblich. Schildchen schwarz, glanzend, die Spitze blass- 
gelblich, mit einem schwarzen Langsstrich. Flugeldecken 
hyalin, schwach milchig getriibt, an der Basis rotlich, mit einer 
breiten dunkelbraunen Querbinde auf der Querader und Teilungs- 
stellen der Sektoren. Samtliche Adern sind tief schwarz. Die 
Vorderbrust und die Vorderhiiften schwarz, glanzend, die Mittel- 
und Hinterbrust blassgelb, auf der Seite eine grosse schwarze 
Mackel. Hinterleib blassgelb, eine breite Querbinde und die 
Spitze schwarz. Vorder- und Mittelschenkel braunlichgelb, an 
der Unterseite schwarz, die Schienen und Tarsen pechbraun, die 
Hinterbeine tief schwarz, die Hintertarsen weiss. 

Lange $ 7.5 mm. ; Breite 2 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios (1 Exemplar Baker). 

Genus SYMPLANA Kirby 

Symplana Kirby, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. (1891), 24, 136. Melichar, 
Hom.-Fauna Ceylon (1903), 19. Distant, Fauna Brit. Ind., Rhynch. 
(1906), 3, 254. 

Kopf in einen dreieckigen nach oben gebogenen Fortsatz 
verlangert. Der Fortsatz ist von der Seite betrachtet spitzig, 
von oben betrachtet abgestumpft, fast quer gestutzt. Der 
Scheitel nach vorne verschmalert, die Seitenrander gehoben 
gekielt, so dass der Scheitel vertieft erscheint. Stirne lang 
schmal, mit 3 starken Kielen, welche sich auf der Stimbasis 
miteinander verbinden. Clypeus langlich dreieckig, in der 
Mitte fein gekielt. Die Augen halbkugelig, Ocellen vorhanden, 
Fuhler kurz, Fuhlerborste lang. Rostrum kurz. Pronotum 
schmal, vorne schwach gerundet, hinten sehr schwach gebuchtet, 
fast gerade, ohne deutliche Kiele, hinter den Augen jederseits 
ein kleiner Hocker. Schildchen breiter als lang, mit zwei paral- 
lelen schwachen Seitenkielen, der Mittelkiel sehr undeutlich. 
Flugeldecken lang, schmal, hinten abgerundet, mit 3 einfachen 
Sektoren, die beiden ausseren an der Basis miteinander verbun- 
den, die Sektoren bilden durch Gabelung hinter der Mitte eine 
viereckige und zwei pentagonale Zellen, welche auf einer geraden 
Querader aufsitzen, aus welcher 5 Endadem entspringen, die 
2. und 3. bilden eine Gabel, der Gabelschaft mit der 4. Ader aus 
einem Punkte entspringend. Clavus sehr lang, die beiden Cla- 
vusadern nahe der Basis vereinigt, die Gabelaste langer als bei 



278 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

Augilina, Flugel wenig kurzer als die Fliigeldecken. Beine ein- 
fach, nicht auffallend lang, Hinterschienen mit einem Dome hin- 
ter der Mitte. 

Typ. gen. : Symplana viridinervis Kirby. 

Kirby hat diese Gattung auf Grund eines auf Ceylon gefun- 
denen Exemplares gegrundet und stellte diese Gattung zu den 
Dictyophorinen, mit welchen sie eine grosse aussere Ahnlichkeit 
hat. Da ich diese Cikada nicht kannte, folgte ich in meiner 
Arbeit Horn. Fauna Ceylon der Angabe Kirby's. Distant sprach 
mit voller Berechtigung den Zweif el aus, dass diese Gattung eine 
Dictyophorinengattung sei. Das mir von Baker von den Philip- 
pinen eingesendete Exemplar ist ohne Zweifel die Kirby'sche 
Symplana, welche mit der philippinischen Gattung Augilina 
sehr verwandt ist. Die Form und die Bildung der Fliigeldecken 
und das Geader ist bei beiden voUkommen gleich, nur sind bei 
Symplana 3 Stirnkiele vorhanden, bei Augilina keine Kiele, die 
Beine sind bei Augilina auffallend lang, bei Symplana gewohnlich 
lang. Zu den Dictyophorinen konnen beide Gattungen nicht 
gerechnet werden, weil dieselben keine Seitenrandkiele besitzen, 
der Hinterrand des Pronotums gerade ist und der Schaft der 
Clavusadern nicht in den Schlussrand miindet. Nach meiner 
Ansicht gehoren beide Gattungen zu den Issinen und zwar in die 
Nahe der Gattung Augila Stal mit welcher sie eine gewisse 
Verwandschaft zeigen. 

Symplana viridinervis Kirby. (Fig. 9.) 

Symplana viridinervis Kirby, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool. (1891), 24, 136, 
Tafel VI, fig. 11; Melichar, Hom.-Fauna Ceylon (1903), 19; 
Distant, Fauna Brit. Ind., Rhynch. (1906), 3, 254. 

Der ganze Korper blassgriin, mit einer orangegelben Langs- 
binde, welche von der Scheitelspitze iiber das Pro- und Mesono- 
tum und den Schlussrand bis zur Clavusspitze zieht. Die Spitze 
der Dornen der Hinterschienen dunkel. 

Lange 7-8 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker) ; Ceylon, Punda- 
loya (Kirby). 

Eupilis rubrovenosa sp. nov. 

Der E. nigrinervis Stal ahnlich, die Adern der Deckflugel sind 
lebhaft rotbraun. Scheitel quadratisch, mit zwei eingepressten 
schwarzen kommaformigen Langsstrichen. Stirne langlich, 
nach oben schwach verengt, mit 3 schwachen Kielen, die ausse- 
ren nach aussen gebogen, auf der Basis mit dem Mittelkiel ver- 
bunden. Die Stirnbasis ist mit hellen flachen Kornchen besetzt, 



IX, D, 3 Melichar: Neue Fulgoriden 279 

welche sich jederseits langs des Stirnseitenrandes bis ungefahr 
zur Mitte der Stirne herabziehen. Die Stirne braun, mit 4 
helleren Flecken. Flugeldecken und das Geader wie bei E. nigri- 
nervis, die Flugeldecken fast hyalin, nicht gefarbt, hochstens 
zum Schlussrande hellbraunlich, die rotbraunen Adern stark 
vortretend. Flugel hyalin, mit pechbraunen Adern, die Unter- 
seite und Beine braunlichgelb, die Schenkel und Schienen an den 
Kanten dunkel. 

Lange 11 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling {Baker) , 

Eupilis hyalinocosta sp. nov. 

Von alien bekannten Arten sofort dadurch zu unterscheiden, 
dass die innere Halfte der Flugeldecken rotbraun oder gelblich- 
braun, von helleren Adern durchsetzt ist, die aussere Halfte samt 
Adern hyalin und graulichweiss ist. Femer befindet sich stets 
auf den griinen Brustlappen des dunklen Pronotums ein grosser 
schwarzer Punkt. Auf der Basis der Stirne in den Stirndrei- 
ecken keine Kornchen, diese sind bloss am Seitenrande der Stirne 
bis zur Spitze sichtbar. Die Stirne ist nicht dunkel gezeichnet, 
die Unterseite und Beine schmutzig olivengrun oder graulichgelb. 
Auf dem quer viereckigem Scheitel nahe dem Hinterrande 2 
schwarze eingestochene Punkte, sowie 2 Griibchen auf der 
Scheibe wie bei alien Arten. 

Lange 10-12 mm. 

Luzon, Los Baiios, Mount Maquiling (Baker), 

Hemisphaerius affinis sp. nov. 

Korper oval, olivengrun. Die Stirne lederartig gerunzelt, 
griin. Der Clypeusspitze schwarz. Unterseite und Beine 
schmutzig graulichgelb, die Vorder- und Mittelschienen an der 
Spitze schwarz, die Hinterschenkel braunlich. Dem H. chloro- 
phanus Mel. durch die lederartig gerunzelte Stirne sehr nahe 
stehend, unterscheidet sich von dieser Art durch schwarze 
Clypeusspitze und die bloss an den Spitzen schwarzgeringelten 
Schienen der vorderen Beine. 

Lange 5 mm.; Breite 3.5 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker). 

Hemisphaerius triangularis sp. nov. 

Von der Form und Grosse der H. affinis. Stirne hellgriin, 
schmal rot gerandet, mit einem roten Dreieck in der Mitte. 
Clypeus schwarz, Scheitel rot. Pro- und Mesonotum hellgriin, 
die Rander des letzteren und ein kleines Basaldreieck rot. 
Flugeldecken fein lederartig gerunzelt, olivengrun, der Schluss- 



280 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

rand von der Basis bis zur Mitte rot gerandet, daneben ein hell- 
griiner Langsstreifen, welcher nach aussen durch einen roten 
Streifen begrenzt ist. Die Costalrandader schwarzlich. Unter- 
seite und Beine schmutzig graulichgelb, die Schenkel mit Aus- 
nahme der Basis und der Spitze, 2 Ringe an den Vorder- und 
Mittelschienen schwarz. Hinterschenkel braunlich. 

Lange 5 mm. ; Breite 3.5 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker). 

Hemisphaerius rufus sp. nov. 

Stirn lederartig gerunzelt wie bei H. affinis, wie die ganze Ober- 
seite blutrot, Clypeus mit Ausnahme der Basis schwarz. Die 
Beine schmutzig gelb, bloss die Spitzen der Vorder- und Mittel- 
schienen schwarz, die Hiiften und die Hinterschenkel, letztere 
mit Ausnahme der Spitze schwarz. Bauch mit 2-3 dunklen 
Querstreifen in der Mitte. Von affinis durch die blutrote Far- 
bung der Oberseite verschieden. 

Lange 5 mm.: Breite 4 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Baker). 

Genus LAPITHASA novum 

Kopf stark nach vorne vorgezogen. Der Scheitel parallel- 
seitig, der liber die Augen vorragende Teil doppelt so lang wie 
der Basalteil bis zum vorderen Augenrande, die Schlafenecken 
winkelig vorspringend, von der Seite betrachtet abgerundet. 
Scheitelrander etwas gescharft gekielt, in der Mitte ein voU- 
standiger Langskiel. Stirne sehr lang, vor dem Clypeus 
plotzlich verbreitert, indem die Seitenrander eine nach aussen 
abgerundete Ecke bilden, mit 3 Kielen auf der Stirnflache, welche 
sich auf der Stirnbasis miteinander verbinden. Clypeus ein 
Drittel der Stirnlange, an den Seiten nur in der Mitte gekielt. 
Rostrum, die Hinterhiiften erreichend, das letzte Glied kurz. 
Fiihler kurz, das 2. Fiihlerglied nur wenig langer als breit. 
Ocellen vorhanden. Pronotum vorne schwach gerundet, hinten 
fast gerade, oben mit 3 Kielen, ein Seitenrandkiel. Schildchen 
mit 3 Langskielen, die seitlichen schwach nach vorne konver- 
gierend. Flugeldecken doppelt so lang wie einzeln breit, die 
Seiten parallel, hinten breit abgerundet, die Apikalecke starker 
abgerundet als die Suturalecke. Der 1. Sektor nahe der Basis, 
die beiden inneren Sektoren hinter der Mitte gegabelt. Die 
Costalmembrane an der Basis schmal, nach hinten verbreitert, 
quergeadert. Im Apikalteile zahlreiche dichte Apikaladern, 
welche durch zahlreiche Queradern untereinander verbunden 
sind. Ein dem Apikalrande genaherte Subapikallinie. Die 



IX, D, 3 Melichar: Neue Fulgoriden 281 

beiden Clavusadern hinter der Mitte des Schlussrandes vereinigt. 
Die Vorder- und Mittelbeine zusammengedruckt, die Schenkel 
an der Unterkante, die Schienen an der Aussenkante massig 
erweitert. Hinterschienen zur Spitze verbreitert mit 2 starken 
Dornen vor der Spitze, das Basalglied der Hintertarsen langlich. 
Typ. gen : Lapithasa bakeri sp. nov. 

Lapithasa bakeri sp. nov. (Fig. 10.) 

Braun. FlUgeldecken pechbraun, auf der inneren Halfte 
mehr oder weniger gelblich, nur gebandert und gesprenkeit, am 
Costalrande hinter der Mitte eine grosse gelblichweisse hie und 
da braune quergesprenkelte Mackel, vor derselben am Costalran- 
de zahlreiche kleine hyaline Fleckchen, nach hinten mehrere 
hyaline Querstriche und dreieckige Randmackeln, insbesondere 
ist am Apikalrande aussen und innen je eine Quermackel, da- 
zwischen in der Mitte des Apikalrandes eine kleine dreieckige 
Mackel. Vor der Suturalecke ist auf dunklem Grunde ein 
kleiner schwarzer Punkt. Flugel rauchbraun, mit schwarzen 
Adern. Die Unterseite und Beine braun. Das letzte Glied der 
Schnabelscheide weiss. 

Lange 12 mm. 

Luzon, Los Baiios (Baker). 

uber die systematische Stellung dieser Gattung bin ich nicht 
im Klaren. Nach dem ausseren Habitus wurde man geneigt 
sein dieselbe zu den Lophopinen zu rechnen, aber dagegen spricht 
der Urn stand, dass das Basalglied der Tarsen lang, nicht verdickt 
ist. Zu den Dictyophorinen kann diese Gattung aus dem Grunde 
nicht gerechnet werden, weil der Schaft der Clavusnerven in 
die Clavusspitze miindet und der Hinterrand des Pronotums 
gerade ist, nicht winkelig ausgeschnitten. Gegen die Einreihung 
in die Subf. Issinse spricht der starke Seitenrandkiel auf dem 
Pronotum. Die Form der Stirne erinnert sehr an die von 
Acarua und Kasserota und wurde vielleicht am ehestens in die 
Nahe der letztgenannten Gattung zu stellen sein, von welcher 
sich diese Gattung durch den langen Scheitel und die zusam- 
mengedrlickten, etwas erweiterten Vorderbeine unterscheidet. 



TAFELERKLARUNG 

Tafel I 

Fig. 1. Benna sinuata sp. nov. 

2. Syntames tubulifer Mel. 

3. Megatropis obliquefasciata sp. nov. 

4. Dendrokara monstrosa sp. nov. 

5. Dendrokara torva gen. et sp. nov. 

6. Bambusaria picta gen. et sp. nov. 

7. Malaxa acutipennis gen. et sp. nov. 

8. Augilina longipes gen. et sp. nov. 

9. Symplana viridinervis Kirby. 
10. Lapithasa bakeri gen. et sp. nov. 

283 



Melichar: Neue Fulgoriden : I.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., IX, D, No. 3. 




TAFEL I. NEUE FULGORIDEN VON DEN PHILIPPINEN. 



ENUMERATION DES SERPHIDES (PROCTOTRUPIDES) DES 

ILES PHILIPPINES AVEC DESCRIPTION DE GENRES 

NOUVEAUX ET D'ESPfeCES NOUVELLES ^ 

Par J. J. KlEFFER 

{Bitsch, Germany) 

Les premiers auteurs qui se sont occupes des Serphides ou 
Proctotrupides sont: Westwood, Ashmead, Brown et Crawford. 
Le nombre des especes observees par eux est de 27. J'ai ajoute 
a ce chiffre 70 autres especes, qui ont ete recueillies a Los 
Baiios, Luzon, par le professeur Ch. Fuller Baker. Ces 97 
especes, auxquelles viennent s'aj outer 24 nouvelles especes, se 
repartissent de la fagon suivante: 

DRYINID^ 

1. Lestodryinus browni Ashmead (Dryinus), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 

29, 109. ?. 

2. Lestodryinus luzonicus Kieffer, Boll. Zool. Portici (1913), 7, 189. $. 

3. Lestodryinus perkinsi Kieffer, Bull. Soc. ent. France (1914), No. 1. ?. 

4. Prodryinus (?) stantoni Ashmead (Dryinus), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 

(1904), 28, 134. ?. 

BETHYLID^ 

5. Goniozus philippinensis Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1904), 28, 

134. ?. 

6. Goniozus depressus Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 318. 2- 

7. Dissomphalus tibialis Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1904), 28, 

134. ?. 

8. Misepyris exaratus Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 317. 2. 

9. Misepyris longiceps Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 318. $. 

10. Rhahdepyris luzonicus Kieffer, Boll. Zool. Portici (1913), 7, 189. c?. 

11. Epyris apertus Kieffer, Boll. Zool. Portici (1913), 7, 189. 

12. Epyris philippinensis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 258. d*, ?. 

13. Chlorepyris flavipennis Kieffer, Boll. Zool. Portici (1913), 7, 189. 

14. Neurepyris tagala Ashmead (Epyris) y Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 

29, 109. c?. 

15. Xenepyris compressicomis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 259. c?. 

16. Foenobethylus gracilis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 257. c?. 

17. Cleistepyris minimus Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 257. c^. 

18. Cleistepyris minor Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 256. c?. 

19. Cleistepyris philippinensis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 254. c?, ?• 

^ Since this paper was received, the author has sent descriptions of 1 more 
new genus and 4 more new species; namely, Epyris filiformis, genus Uro- 
scelioy Uroscelio luteipeSy Dilapitha nitida, and Macroteleia flaviceps. The 
descriptions of these species will be found under their respective genera, 
but the species are not included in the keys. — The Editors. 

285 



286 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

SCELIONID^ 

20. Prosparasion cceruleum Kieffer, Boll. Zool. Portici (1913), 7, 190. (?. 

21. Scelio philippinensis Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 28, 

963. ?. 

22. Scelio aratigena Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 320. c?, $. 

23. Scelio consobrinus Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 319. c?, $. 

24. Scelio variicornis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 319. c?, $. 

25. Platyscelio abnormis Crawford, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1910), 38, 

126. (?. 

26. Platyscelio punctatus Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 321. (?. 

27. Sparasion philippinense Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 320. d, $. 

28. Calliscelio philippinensis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 322. c?. 

29. Opisthacantha nigriclavata Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 29, 

399. ?. 

30. Macroteleia manilensis Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 28, 963, 

c?; Crawford, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1910), 38, 127. ?. 

31. Macroteleia craivfordi Kieffer nom. no v. [kiefferi Crawford, Proc. U. S. 

Nat. Mus. (1910), 38, 127. ?; non kiefferi Brues.] 

32. Macroteleia striativentris Crawford, Proc. U. S Nat. Mus. (1910), 38, 

126. c?, ?. 

33. Macroteleia philippinensis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 323, 367. c?, $. 

34. Hoploteleia pacifica Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 29, 112. ?. 

35. Hoploteleia car'inata Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 368. ?. 

36. Hoploteleia philippinensis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 369. d", ?. 

37. Hoploteleia unidens Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 370. c?, S- 

38. Camptoteleia carinata Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 387. $. 

39. Camptoteleia excavata Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 388. <S. 

40. Chrestoteleia bakeri Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 389. c?, $. 

41. Xenoteleia flavipennis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 390. ?. 

42. Hadronotus flavipes Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 29, 399. $. 

43. Hadronotus philippinensis Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1904), 28, 

153. ?. 

44. Anteris atriceps Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 428. ?. 

45. Habroteleia brotvni Crawford, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1910), 38, 

125. c?. 

46. Neurocaciis philippinensis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 429. c?. 

47. Aeolus luteipes Crawford, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1910), 38, 124. ?. 

48. Hoplogryon longispina Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 429. <?. 

49. Hoplogryon flaviclava Kieffer, Boll. Zool. Portici (1913), 7, 191. ?. 

50. Hoplogryon roberti Crawford (Prosacantha) , Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 

(1910), 38, 125. <S. 

51. Hoplogryon striaticeps Crawford (Prosacantha) , Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 

(1910), 38, 125. c?. 

52. Telenomus catacanthsB Ashmead, Canad. Ent. (1904), 36, 284. d", ?. 

PLATYGASTERID^ 

53. Anopedias luzonicus Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 28, 

964. ?. 

54. Ceratopsilus rufipes Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 461. 



IX, D, 3 Kieifer: Enumeration des Serphides 287 

CERAPHRONID^ 

55. Ceraphron manilas Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1904), 28, 135. ?. 

DIAPRIIDiE 

56. Galesiis manilss Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 29, 397. J, 5- 

57. Galesus luzonicus Ashmead, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1905), 29, 398. d*. 

58. Galesus clavaticornis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 430. 2. 

59. Galesus philippinensis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 431. c?. 

60. Galesus crawfordi Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 432. c?. 

61. Galesus curticeps Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 432. cJ. 

62. Hemigalesus niger Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 434. cJ, $. 

63. Hemigalesus rufus Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 434. c?, $. 

64. Hemigalesus brevicornis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 434. d*. 

65. Hemigalesus gracilis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 435. c?. 

66. Lipoglyptus primus Crawford, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1910), 38, 122. 

c?, S. 

67. Cologlyptus kiefferi Crawford, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. (1910), 38, 

124. ?. 

68. Scapopria atriceps Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 441. ?. 

69. Acidopria variicornis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 442. c?, ?. 

70. Acidopria tricomuta Crawford (Loxotropa), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 

(1910), 38, 122. c?, ?. 

71. Acidopria monachanta Kieffer, Boll. Zool. Portici (1913), 7, 192. c?. 

72. Acidopria tetratoma Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 442. ?. 

73. Phoenopria rufa Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 455. 2- 

74. Phcenopria nigriceps Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 455. c?* 

75. Phcenopria exilis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 456. c?. 

76. Loxotropa philippinensis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 456. c?. 

77. Trichopria caudata Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 456. 2. 

78. Trichopria analis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 457. 2- 

79. Trichopria semirufa Kieffer, Insecta (1913) 3, 457. c?. 

80. Trichopria insulas Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 458. d*. 

81. Ashmeadopria bakeri Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 458. c?. 

82. Ashmeadopria nigriventris Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 459. c?. 

83. Ashmeadopria bipunctata Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 459. d*. 

84. Aparamesius carinatus Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 436. c^, 2. 

85. Aparamesius filicomis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 437. c?. 

86. Aparamesius levistilus Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 437. c?. 

87. Aparamesius depressus Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 437. 2- 

88. Spilomicrus carinifrons Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 438. c?, 2. 

89. Spilomicrus variicornis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 439. 2. 

90. Spilomicrus opertus Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 440. d*. 

91. Spilomicrus dispansus Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 440. d*. 

92. Spilomicrus nitidicornis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 441. d*. 

93. Spilomicrus consobrinus Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 441. 2. 

94. Loboscelidia rufescens Westwood, Thesaur. entom. Oxon. (1874), 172. 

BELYTID^ 

95. Aclista punctulata Kieffer, Insect (1913), 3, 459. d, 2. 

96. Xenotoma philippinensis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 460. 2. 

97. Procinetus rectinervis Kieffer, Insecta (1913), 3, 461. d*. 



288 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

DESCRIPTION DES NOUVELLES ESPECES ET DES NOUVEAUX GENRES 

BETHYLID^ 
Genus GONIOZUS Foerster 

Parmi les 26 especes dont se compose ce genre, les trois 
suivantes reviennent aux Philippines : 

1. Segment median margine lateralement et posterieurement, ayant sur la 

moitie anterieure de sa partie mediane un espace preeminent, trian- 

gulaire et lisse G. triangulifer sp. nov. 

Segment non margine, sans espace releve et triangulaire 2. 

2. Tete plane, circulaire, entierement lisse G. depressus Kieffer. 

Tete allongee, parsemee de points G. philippinensis Ashm. 

Goniozus triangulifer sp. nov. {$ , $ .) 

Noir, brillant, mandibules, antennes, genoux, tibias et tarses, 
parfois les quatre femurs posterieurs d'un jaune clair. T6te 
presque circulaire, tres faiblement chagrinee, parsemee de points 
peu prof onds. Clypeus fortement carene. Yeux deux f ois aussi 
longs que leur distance du bord occipital. Ocelles posterieurs 
touchant le bord occipital, plus eloignes des yeux que Tun de 
I'autre. Articles antennaires 3-5 chez le male ou seulement 
le 3^ chez la femelle, un peu allonges, les suivants globuleux, 
sauf le 13^ qui est allonge. Thorax tres finement chagrine. 
Pronotum de moitie plus long que le mesonotum, sillons parapsi- 
daux nuls. Scutellum avec un mince sillon transversal. Segment 
median margine lateralement et posterieurement, mat et chagrine, 
ayant dans la moitie anterieure de sa partie mediane un espace 
releve, triangulaire, lisse et brillant, a pointe dirigee en arriere 
et reliee au bord posterieur par une arete longitudinale. Ailes 
hyalines, prostigma, stigma et radius bruns, les autres nervures 
jaunes, radius presque droit, recourbe a Textremite, basale brisee 
fortement en angle, sa partie inferieure plus longue que la 
superieure. Abdomen lisse et brillant, segment anal incurve 
chez le male, droit et a tariere proeminente chez la femelle. 

Taille: 2.5-3 mm. 

Localites: Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos et Mont Maquiling, et 
Manila. 

Genus EPYRIS Westwood 

Epyris filiformis sp. nov. ( $ .) 

Noir, lisse, brillant, glabre ; mandibules, 4 ou 5 premiers articles 
antennaires, palpes, tibias et tarses roux, reste des antennes 
graduellement assombri. Corps tres mince. Tete quadrangu- 
laire, au moins deux fois aussi longue que large, convexe, beau- 



IX. D. 3 Kieffer: Enumeration des Serphides 289 

coup plus large que le thorax, partie anterieure faiblement ponc- 
tuee, avec trace d'une ligne enf oncee longitudinale. Yeux glabres, 
allonges, grands, plus courts que Tocciput. Joues nulles. Front 
decoupe en arc au bord anterieur. Clypeus situe plus bas que 
le front, fortement carene. Mandibules mediocres, graduelle- 
ment elargies, avec 3 ou 4 petites dents noires. Ocelle anterieur 
situe plus en arriere que le bord posterieur des yeux. Palpes 
courts, les maxillaires avec 3 petits articles apres la flexion. 
Scape arque, aussi long que les 3 ou 4 articles suivants reunis 
et guere plus gros, article 3® tres transversal, les suivants un 
peu transversaux sauf le 13% tous serres. Thorax quatre a 
cinq f ois aussi long que haut. Pronotum deux f ois aussi long que 
large, trois f ois aussi long que le mesonotum, sillons parapsidaux 
visibles seulement au tiers posterieur, elargis en virgule. 
Fossettes du scutellum separees seulement par une arete. 
Segment median horizontal, quadrangulaire et tres long, deux 
fois et demie aussi long que large, densement strie en travers, 
margine lateralement par deux aretes separees par une gouttiere 
striee transversalement, bord posterieur non margine, graduelle- 
ment arrondi, mesopleures et metapleures densement ridees en 
long. Ailes subhyalines, atteignant le milieu de Tabdomen, sous- 
costale conf ondue avec la postale, sauf distalement, basale oblique 
et distante du stigma de ses deux tiers, transversale perpen- 
diculaire, stigma obconique, guere plus long que large, radiius 
a peine arque, deux fois aussi long que la basale, sans autres 
nervures. Femurs tres elargis, les anterieurs en ellipse, articles 
2-4 du tarse anterieur cordiformes et aussi larges que longs, 
crochets tarsaux ayant au moins une dent. Abdomen aussi 
long que le reste du corps ou plus long, mince, graduellement 
en pointu, termine par un stylet, comme d'ordinaire, tariere 
proeminente. 

Taille: 6 mm. sur une largeur n'atteignant pas 1 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 

SCELIONID^ 
Genus SCELIO Latreille 

Quatre especes du genre Scelio etaient connues pour les 
Philippines; j'en ajoute deux nouvelles, qui se distinguent des 
precedentes d'apres le tableau suivant. 

1. Sillons parapsidaux plus ou moins distincts 2. 

Sillons parapsidaux nuls 3. 

2. Tete et thorax avec des points serres et ombiliques, scape jaune brunatre, 

joues non striees S. philippinensis Ashm. 



290 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Vertex et mesonotum lisses, avec de rares points non ombiliques, scape 

noir, joues striees en partie S. bisectus sp. nov. 

8. Joues striees 4. 

Joues reticulees comme le reste de la tete 5. 

4. Front strie jusqu'au milieu des yeux, hanches et massue des femurs d^un 

brun noir S. aratigena Kieff. 

Stries n'atteignant pas la base des yeux, hanches et pattes jaunes en 

entier S. luzonicus sp. nov. 

6. Articles antennaires 3-5 rouges chez le male, scape de la femelle noir, 

hanches rousses S. variicornis Kieff. 

Antennes noires en entier chez le male, scape de la femelle roux, hanches 
noires S. consobrinus Kieff. 

Scelio bisectus sp. nov. ( ^ .) 

Noir; antennes brunes, scape noir, mandibules d'un brun 
noir, les 2 lobes aigus et longs, pattes d'un jaune sale, hanches 
noires, massue des quatre femurs posterieurs brune, tarse poste- 
rieur brunatre. Tete a ponctuation grosse et dense. Yeux 
reunis aux mandibules par un sillon. Bas du front strie de 
chaque cote, ces stries ne depassent pas le sillon et n'atteignent 
pas ou h. peine la base des yeux ; f ossette f rontale remplacee par un 
petit espace lisse et brillant au-dessus du tubercule antennaire. 
Vertex brillant, lisse, a points epars et peu gi«os. Ocelles 
posterieurs distants des yeux de moins de leur diametre. Article 
3« des antennes obconique, plus gros et un peu plus long que le 
2% a peine plus long que gros, 4« obconique et transversal, 5« 
tres gros, transversal, 6-10 egalement minces, serres, tres 
transversaux sauf le 10% qui est ovoidal. Thorax glabre. Pro- 
notum ponctue densement. Mesonotum lisse, brillant, avec 
quelques rares points peu gros ; sillons parapsidaux percurrents, 
profonds, divergents en avant, lobe median du mesonotum plus 
large en arriere que les lateraux. Scutellum ponctue grossiere- 
ment en de. Metanotum a aretes longitudinales formant des 
f ossettes, milieu en forme de tubercule peu apparent. Segment 
median a grosses rides longitudinales. Pleures ridees en long et 
ponctuees, sans espace lisse. Ailes faiblement enfumees, sous- 
costale jaune, marginale circulaire, d'un brun noir, stigmatique 
d*un brun clair, presque perpendiculaire. Metatarse posterieur 
un peu plus long que les articles 2 et 3 reunis. Abdomen en 
ellipse allonge, deprime, un peu d^passe par les ailes, arrondi 
en arriere, tous les tergites transversaux, stries en long avec le 
bord posterieur lisse, 6« et 7« seulement ponctues densement, les 
trois premiers graduellement plus longs. 

Taille: 4.5 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios. 



IX, D, 3 Kieffer: Enumeration des Serphides 291 

Scelio luzonicus sp. nov. ( $ .) 

Noir ; mandibules d'un brun noir, les 2 lobes aigus et peu longs, 
pattes jaunes, hanches plus sombres a la base. Tete a polls 
blancs, appliques, courts, plus denses sur les tempes, grossiere- 
ment reticulee, sauf a la base du front qui est striee en long 
de chaque cote, ces stries ne depassent pas le sillon qui reunit 
Toeil a la mandibule et n'atteignent pas ou a peine la base de 
Toeil. Fossette frontale comme chez le precedent. Antennes 
noires en entier, 3« article obconique, bien plus long que le 2^, 
deux fois aussi long que gros ou que le 3^. Thorax a polls plus 
rares que sur la tete, grossierement reticule, sans sillons parap- 
sidaux, les pleures plutot ridees-ponctuees. Ailes faiblement 
enfumees, subhy alines a la base, nervures tres pales. Abdomen 
comme chez le precedent sauf que le 6® ou dernier segment est 
chagrine, triangulaire, aussi long que large. 

Taille: 6 mm. 

Localite : Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 

Genus TJROSCELIO novum 

9 . Yeux glabres. Mesonotum avec 2 sillons parapsidaux. 
Postmarginale plus longue que la stigmatique. Thorax inerme. 
Abdomen avec une corne, 6« segment subitement aminci et for- 
mant une longue queue. Le type est : 

TJroscelio luteipes sp. nov. ( $ .) 

Noir; mandibules, antennes sauf les 5 derniers articles, han- 
ches et pattes d'un jaune sale, abdomen brun noir, marge laterale 
plus claire. Tete glabre, brillante, presque deux fois aussi large 
que longue vue d'en haut, beaucoup plus haute que longue vue 
de cote, un peu plus large que le thorax. Ocelles en triangle, 
les posterieurs distants des yeux de leur diametre, beaucoup plus 
distants du bord posterieur que de Tanterieur. Joues lisses, 
egalant la moitie des yeux, avec une ponctuation assez grosse et 
assez dense et un prof ond sillon. Tempes larges, graduellement 
elargies par en bas, lisses, avec une ponctuation plus eparse que 
celle des joues. Vertex strie ou ride densement en long. Front 
strie transversalement en arc, sans fossette, a peine deprime au 
milieu. Antennes avec une niassue de 6 articles, scape subcylin- 
drique, un peu plus long que les articles 2 et 3 reunis, article 2« 
obconique, deux fois aussi long que gros, 3« egal au 4«, subcylin- 
drique, presque double du 2«, 5^ un peu plus court que le 4® et a 
peine plus gros, encore trois fois aussi long que gros, 6« un peu 
plus gros que le 5s de moitie plus long que gros, 7« h peine plus 



292 The Philippine Journal of Sciefice i^u 

long que gros, formant le commencement de la massue, plus gros 
que le 6® mais moins gros que le 8% 7-11 presque trans versaux 
et serres, 12« un peu allonge. Thorax peu convexe, mesonotum 
et scutellum mats, chagrines, finement pubescents. Pronotum 
a peine visible d'en haut, mesonotum semicirculaire, sillons pa- 
rapsidaux percurrents, peu divergents en avant, bord posterieur 
du lobe median deux f ois aussi large que les lateraux. Scutellum 
transversal, separe du mesonotum par une rangee transversale 
de fossettes, bord posterieur margine par des fossettes plus pe- 
tites. Metanotum transversal, plus long que la moitie du 
scutellum, grossierement cannele en long, inerme. Segment 
median decoupe en trapeze jusqu'a sa base. Propleures avec un 
espace elliptique traverse par des aretes longitudinales ; meso- 
pleures tres excavees, lisses et brillantes. Ailes a peine teintees, 
pubescentes, ciliees, atteignant le milieu du 5^ tergite, sous-costale 
brune et situee contre le bord, les autres nervures pales, basale 
tres oblique, marginale plus courte que la stigmatique, qui est 
oblique, longue, noueuse au bout, postmarginale plus de deux 
fois aussi longue que la stigmatique. Pattes greles, tibia poste- 
rieur beaucoup plus long que le femur, metatarse posterieur tres 
long, deux fois aussi long que les 4 suivants reunis. Abdomen 
deux fois aussi long que le reste du corps, brillant; petiole 
presque deux fois aussi long que large, lineaire, grossierement 
cannele, avec une corne obtuse striee transversalement 
en arc et s'engageant entre les deux lobes du segment 
median, segments 2-5 formant un fuseau, le 2^ un peu plus long 
que le 1^^ graduellement elargi, grossierement cannele en avant, 
finement strie dans le reste, de moitie plus long que large, 3« 
a peine transversal, egalant les deux suivants reunis, finement 
ride en long et ponctue, 4« et 5« tres transversaux, le 4« un 
peu plus long que le 5% tous deux densement ponctues, 6^ tergite 
subitement aminci, beaucoup plus etroit que le 5«, formant une 
queue lineaire, deprimee, pubescente, presque aussi longue que 
les 3 tergites precedents reunis, cotes de Tabdomen faiblement 
pubescents. 

Taille: 4.5 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 

Genus HOPLOTELEIA Ashmead 

Hoploteleia carinata Kieff . 

On ne connaissait de cette espece que la femelle. Le male 
differe par les antennes qui sont d'un jaune rougeatre et assez 



IX, D, 3 Kieffer: Enumeration des Serphides 293 

grosses, 2« article tres petit, 3« presque deux fois aussi long que 
le 2% plus long que le 4% 4-11 un peu plus gros que le 3% a peine 
pus longs que gros, le 5^ avec une minime dent laterale, 12« 
allonge. Tete seulement de moitie plus large que longue. Ab- 
domen aussi long que le reste du corps, sculpte comme chez la 
f emelle, sauf que le 3« tergite est ponctue densement, les suivants 
plus finement ponctues, le 7« tres court, tronque en arriere, avec 
une minime dent a chaque angle posterieur. Metatarse poste- 
rieur grossi. Pubescence du corps faible, peu apparente, jau- 
natre. 

Taille : 4 mm. 

Localites: Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos, Mont Maquiling. 

Genus DILAPITHA novum 

Voisin de Neuroteleia Kieif., dont il differe surtout par la 
presence des sillons parapsidaux. Le type est D. albipes sp. 
nov. 

1. Thorax brun noir, brillant D. nitida sp. nov. 

Thorax roux mat, avec une bande longitudinale d'un brun noir. 

D. albipes sp. nov. 

Dilapitha albipes sp. nov. ( ^ .) 

Noir; thorax roux, lobe median du mesonotum sauf Textre- 
mite anterieure, scutellum, metanotum et milieu du segment 
median noirs, hanches posterieures et toutes les pattes blan- 
chatres, les hanches anterieures brunes, mandibules rousses, 
antennes d'un brun noir, scape blanc sale, sauf Textremite. 
Tete presque deux fois aussi large que longue, densement striee 
ou ridee en travers sur le dessus. Yeux glabres, margines au 
cote median. Joues petites, striees, avec un sillon. Antennes 
greles, filiformes, scape a peine plus gros que le flagellum, 2« 
article globuleux, 3-6 subegaux, cylindriques, trois fois aussi 
longs que gros, les suivants graduellement raccourcis, le 10« 
de moitie plus long que gros, flagellum pubescent. Thorax un 
peu plus long que haut. Pronotum non visible d'en haut. Me- 
sonotum transversal, mat, tres finement ponctue ou chagrine 
comme le scutellum, sillons parapsidaux percurrents, faiblement 
divergents en avant. Scutellum separe du mesonotum par une 
ligne crenelee, arrondi en arriere. Metanotum arme de deux 
petites dents separees par une incision arquee. Segment median 
graduellement declive. Ailes depassant Tabdomen, pubescentes, 
ciliees, faiblement teintees, nervures pales, sous-costale proche du 
bord, marginale tres courte, stigmatique longue, oblique, deux 



294 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

fois aussi longue que la marginale, radius oblique, trois fois 
aussi long que la stigmatique, formant avec la postmarginale 
une longue cellule radiale fermee, basale arquee, formant avec 
la mediane une cellule basale fermee, deux autres nervures longi- 
tudinales parcourent la moitie distale de Taile. Abdomen depri- 
me, a peine plus long que le reste du corps, arrondi en arriere, 
spatule, petiole a bords paralleles, a peine transversal, 2® seg- 
ment allonge, graduellement elargi, tous deux stries en long et 
avec des fossettes le long du bord anterieur, 3® tergite transver- 
sal, a peine plus courte que le 2^ mat et ponctue densement 
comme les trois suivants. 

Taille: 2.5 mm. 

Localite : Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos. 

Dilapitha nitida sp. nov. {$ .) 

Noir; thorax brun noir, mandibules devant du scape et pattes 
d'un jaune sale, hanches d'un brun jaune. Tete aussi large que 
le thorax, tres transversale, glabre, brillante, grossierement 
striee en travers. Tempes etroites, lisses et finement ponctuees. 
Joues egalant le tiers des yeux, striees en eventail, une arete va 
de Tocelle externe, le long du bord interne de Toeil, et traverse 
ensuite la joue jusqu'aux mandibules, entre les antennes se 
trouve une fine carene qui se prolonge encore en arriere. Front 
a peine deprime, avec des stries arquees et transversales mais 
sans fossette. Yeux glabres. Ocelles posterieurs situes contre 
les yeux. Scape subcylindrique, un peu plus long que les deux 
suivants reunis, 2® obconique, guere plus long que gros, 3-12 
cylindriques, pubescents, graduellement raccourcis, le 3® pres- 
que trois fois aussi long que gros, 11« pas deux fois aussi long 
que gros, plus court que le 12% le 5^ avec une petite dent avant 
le milieu. Thorax a peine plus long que haut, pronotum non 
visible d'en haut, mesonotum transversal, fortement convexe, 
brillant et tres finement ponctue comme le scutellum, lobe 
median un peu moins large en arriere que les lateraux, sillons 
parapsidaux convergents faiblement en arriere. Scutellum 
transversal, separe du mesonotum par une rangee de fossettes, 
des fossettes semblables sont alignees le long de son bord poste- 
rieur. Metanotum petit, cannele, les deux dents petites et rap- 
prochees. Segment median transversal. Propleures avec un 
espace elliptique borde en avant de fossettes alignees, mesopleures 
bordees en arriere de fossettes alignees. Ailes un peu brunies, 
depassant beaucoup Tabdomen, sous-costale distante du bord, 
basale oblique, distante de la marginale de sa longueur, marginale 



IX, D, 3 Kieffer: Enumeration des Serphides 295 

deux fois aussi longue que large, n'ayant que la moitie de la 
stigmatique qui est oblique et noueuse au bout, postmarginale 
deux a trois fois aussi longue que la stigmatique, radius oblique, 
atteignant le bord un peu en arriere de la postmarginale, recur- 
rente, courte, continuant la direction du radius, anale percur- 
rente. Abdomen deprime, a peine plus long que le reste du 
corps, spatule, petiole un peu transversal, cannele, a fossettes 
en avant, 2« tergite graduellement elargi, un peu plus long que 
le 3®, strie, avec des fossettes en avant, 3^ a peine plus court 
que les 3 suivants reunis, ponctue densement comme les suivants, 
tous les tergites transversaux. 

Taille : ^ , 2.5 mm. 

Localite : Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 

Genus APEGUS Foerster 

Apegus maquilingensis sp. nov. ( 9 .) 

Noir mat; antennes et pattes sauf les hanches d'un jaune 
vitellin. Tete un peu transversale, a ponctuation eparse et super- 
ficielle. Yeux glabres. Ocelles posterieurs distants des yeux de 
moins de leur diametre. Joues striees, separees de la face par un 
sillon. Fosse frontale profonde, lisse, brillante, marginee, trois 
fois aussi large que sa distance du bord oculaire. Article 2^ des 
antennes a peine plus long que gros, 3« deux fois aussi long que 
gros, obconique comme le 4«, et un peu plus long que lui, 2-4 
egalement minces, les suivants distinctement grossis, le 5® obco- 
nique, un peu plus long que gros, 6-12 subglobuleux ou un peu 
transversaux et bien separes. Thorax peu convexe, chagrine 
dorsalement. Sillons parapsidaux percurrents, divergents en 
avant. Scutellum separe du mesonotum par un sillon, son bord 
posterieur arrondi et precede de gros points alignes. Metano- 
tum inerme. Ailes legerement jaunatres, nervures pales, sous- 
costale eloignee du bord, marginale petite, presque ponctiforme, 
stigmatique longue, oblique, noueuse au bout, postmarginale deux 
fois aussi longue que la stigmatique. Abdomen un peu plus long 
que le reste du corps, deprime, presque d'egale largeur sauf aux 
deux extremites qui sont un peu moins larges, les trois premiers 
tergites graduellement plus longs, 1^^ et 2« stries, avec des 
fossettes le long du bord anterieur, transversaux, 3« presque 
aussi long que large, mat et densement ponctue comme les 
suivants qui sont transversaux. 

Taille: 3.5 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 



296 • ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Genus CAMPTOTELEIA Kieffer 

Les especes dont se compose ce genre se repartissent de la 
fa^on suivante: 

1. Front sans impression; metanotum a deux dents aignes et se touchant 

presque a la base C. carinata Kieff. 

Front avec une profonde impression; metanotum avec une dent unique 
excavee dorsalement 2. 

2. Dent du metanotum longue, egalant les deux tiers du scutellum. 

C. magna sp. nov. 
Dent du metanotum petite, large, un peu transversale 3. 

3. Mesonotum et scutellum grossierement rides en tr avers. 

C. flavipennis sp. nov. 
Mesonotum et scutellum brillants et lisses, a points epars et fins 4. 

4. Ailes brunes, abdomen aminci graduellement et fortement en arriere, 2e 

tergite reticule, 3-7 stries, sans ponctuation C. excavata Kieff. 

Ailes subhyalines, abdomen faiblement aminci en arriere, tergites 2-7 
grossierement ponctues entre les aretes C. cupularis sp. nov. 

Camptoteleia magna sp. nov. ( $ .) 

Noir; mandibules jaunes, antennes sauf la massue, hanches 
et pattes d'un jaune sale, tarse posterieur brun. Tete, vue 
d'en haut, subglobuleuse, a peine transversale, grossierement 
ridee en travers, intervalles des rides formant des gros points 
ocelles. Yeux grands, glabres ; ocelles en triangle, les posterieurs 
touchent les yeux. Vertex depuis Tocelle poster ieure jusqu'a 
Texeavation frontale formant un espace deux fois aussi long 
que large, a bords paralleles ; bord posterieur du vertex margine 
en arc comme le bord posterieur des yeux, puis declive oblique- 
ment en arriere, cette partie oblique a gros points ocelles. 
Tempes graduellement et fortement elargies par en bas, leur 
bord posterieur aigu et margine. Joues ayant le tiers de la 
longueur des yeux, avec un large sillon. Excavation frontale 
profonde, plus de quatre fois aussi large que sa distance du bord 
oculaire, lisse et brillant, sa partie superieure striee en arc 
transversalement, son extremite superieure arquee et marginee. 
Antennes avec une massue de sept articles, scape aussi long que 
les trois articles suivants reunis, 2^ article deux fois aussi long 
que gros, 3« de moitie plus long que le 2^, 4® plus court que le 
2«, 5® un peu plus court que le 3^ et a peine plus gros, 6-12 
subitement grossis et serres, le 6« moins gros que les suivants, 
qui sont un peu transversaux, sauf le dernier. Pronotum nul 
au milieu, le bord dorsal du prothorax etant forme par le col, 
situe plus bas que le mesonotum ; celui-ci un peu allonge, brillant, 
pubescent, a points epars et fins, arete mediane traversant 



IX, D, 3 Kieifer: Enumeration des Serphides 297 

encore le scutellum, sillons parapsidaux divergents en arriere. 
Scutellum grand, atteignant presque la demi-longueur du 
mesonotum, arrondi en arriere et ponctue comme le mesonotum, 
bord posterieur releve, tranchant et separe du disque par un 
enfoncement en forme de gouttiere, qui est traverse par de 
courtes aretes longitudinales. Metanotum tres court, parcouru 
par des aretes, armee d'une dent horizontale, longue, atteignant 
les deux tiers du scutellum, graduellement amincie et profonde- 
ment excavee dorsalement. Segment median court, parcouru par 
des aretes, divise au milieu, jusqu'a sa base, en deux lobes. 
Pleures ridees en long, mesopleures tres excavees, propleures 
avec un long espace elliptique margine. Ailes jaunes, atteignant 
le segment anal, sous-costale eloignee du bord, marginale ponc- 
tif orme, postmarginale nulle, stigmatique oblique, longue, noueuse 
au bout. Abdomen un peu plus long que le reste du corps, aussi 
large que le thorax, graduellement aminci en arriere, compose 
de 6 segments transversaux, sauf le 6« qui est triangulaire, et 
aussi long que large, les trois premiers graduellement plus longs, 
stries en long comme les autres. 

Taille : $ , 6 mm. 

Localite : Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 

Camptoteleia flavipeimis sp. nov. ( ^ .) 

Noir; scape, hanches et pattes jaunes. Tete sans arete 
transversale en arriere des ocelles, non declive obliquement en 
arriere mais decoupee en arc, grossierement ridee-ponctuee, 
vertex ridee en travers, joues a sillon, yeux non margines, 
fossette frontale comme chez le precedent mais non striee. 
Antennes filiformes; scape un peu plus long que les articles 
2 et 3 reunis, lisse et glabre comme le 2«, les suivants pubescents 
et mats, le 3^ un peu plus long que le 2^, 4-11 cylindriques, 
aussi longs que le 2« mais plus gros, a peine aussi longs que 
gros, le 5^ avec une minime dent au milieu du bord exteme, 
12^ plus long que le 11®. Thorax conforme comme chez le 
precedent, sauf la sculpture et la dent du metanotum; sa 
partie dorsale est ^grossierement ridee en travers, la dent du 
metanotum est petite, large, un peu transversale, excavee dorsale- 
ment et cupuliforme. Ailes jaunes, atteignant le segment 
anal, nervures brunes, conformees comme chez le precedent. 
Abdomen a peine plus long que le reste du corps, graduellement 
et fortement aminci en arriere a partir du milieu, les deux 
derniers segments n'ayant pas la demi-largeur du second, le 
premier strie, les suivants grossierement reticules, 3^ et 4^ aussi 



298 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

longs que larges, les autres transversaux, 6^ et 7^ deux fois aussi 
larges que longs, sans appendices. 

Taille : $ , 3.8 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Los Bafios. 

Camptoteleia cupularis sp. no v. ( ^ .) 

Noir ; scape, hanches et pattes d'un jaune pale, antennes brunes, 
tarse posterieur assombri. Tete grossierement ponctuee, les 
points non ocelles, vertex ride en travers. Article 3« des antennes 
deux fois aussi long que le 2^ distinctement plus long que le 
4% 4-12 cylindriques, un peu allonges, subegaux sauf le 12« 
qui est plus long que le 9«. Mesonotum et scutellum brillants, 
a points epars et fins, dent du metanotum cupuliforme comme 
chez le precedent. Ailes subhyalines, nervures jaunes. Abdomen 
de moitie plus long que le reste du corps, tergites stries en 
long, 2-7 non lisses et brillants entre les aretes mais grossiere- 
ment ponctues et mats, le 3« le plus long, faiblement allonge, 
2® et 8« aussi long que larges, les autres transversaux, le 7« 
tronque, avec une dent a peine perceptible a chaque angle 
posterieur. 

Taille : ^ , 5.5 mm. Pour le reste, semblable au precedent. 

Localite : Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 

Genus MACROTELEIA Westwood 

Les representants de ce genre dans les lies Philippines se 
distinguent comme il suit: 

1. Scutellum muni, en arriere, de deux bouquets de longs polls blancs, ligne 

dorsale du 6^ tergite fortement arquee M. manilensis Ashm. 

Scutellum sans bouquets de polls, ligne dorsale du 6^ tergite droite 2. 

2. Thorax densement pubescent dorsalement et mat; impression frontale 

tres faible, mate et ponctuee sauf le centre, 7^ tergite depassant de 

moitie le 7© sternite M. superans sp. nov. 

Thorax presque glabre, impression frontale profonde, lisse et brillante.. 3. 

3. Postmarginale guere plus longue que la marginale, 2e et 3^ tergites de la 

$ d'egale longueur.... M. crawfordi Kieff. (M. kiefferi Crawf. non Brues). 
Postmarginale au moins deux fois aussi longue que la marginale 4. 

4. Impression frontale moins large que sa distance des yeux, tete et meso- 

hotum densement ponctues, 6^ tergite de la ? comprime et plus long 

que le 5e M. striativentris Crawf. 

Impression frontale au moins deux fois aussi large que sa distance des 
yeux, 6e tergite de la ? deprime comme les autres, plus court que le 5^, 
tous deux transversaux 5. 

5. Tete lisse, a ponctuation superficielle, eparse et peu distincte. 

M. philippinensis Kieff. 
Tete k points gros et serres M. cavifrons sp. nov. 



IX, D, 3 Kieffer: Enumeration des Serphides 299 

Macroteleia superans sp. nov. ( S .) 

Noir, mat; scape, hanches et pattes d'un jaune clair, reste des 
antennes d'un jaune brunatre. Tete de moitie plus large que 
longue, pubescente, ponctuee densement et assez finement, tempes 
ridees en long ou reticulees. Fossette frontale remplacee par 
une faible depression non marginee, moins large que sa distance 
des yeux, mate et ponctuee, sauf un petit espace lisse au centre. 
Joues a sillon, mesurant le quart des yeux, ceux-ci glabres. 
Ocelles posterieurs distants de Toeil de leur diametre. Scape 
un peu arque, a peine plus court que les articles 2 et 3 r^unis, 
2« un peu plus mince que les suivants, obconique, deux f ois aussi 
long que gros, 3« trois fois aussi long que gros, 4-11 cylindriques, 
allonges mais moins que le 2^, le 5^ avec une dent laterale, 12« 
plus long que le 11«. Thorax dorsalement plus fortement pubes- 
cent de gris que la tete, de sorte que sa ponctuation, qui est plus 
fine que celle de la tete, est a peine perceptible. Pronotum aussi 
eleve que le mesonotum, profondement decoupe au milieu et 
seulement ponctiforme a cet endroit. Mesonotum allonge, sillons 
parapsidaux percurrents, tres divergents en avant. Ailes un peu 
jaunatres, nervures jaunes, marginale aussi longue ou a peine 
plus longue que la stigmatique, postmarginale presque triple de 
la stigmatique, celle-ci oblique, longue, noueuse au bout. Segment 
median glabre, ride en long, tronque posterieurement, sans inci- 
sion et sans dents. Pleures subglabres, rugueuses, mesopleures 
cannelees superieurement, enfoncees, lisses et brillantes dans la 
moitie inferieure. Metatarse plus de deux fois aussi long que 
le 2« article, egalant les 3 suivants reunis. Abdomen presque 
deux fois aussi long que le reste du corps, fusiforme, les 7 
tergites allonges, le 1«^ d'un tiers plus long que large, 2« un 
peu plus court que le 3% qui est deux fois aussi long que large, 4« 
a peine plus court que le 2% plus long que le 1«^ 5® plus long 
que le 6% un peu plus court que le 4% 6^ egal au 1^% 7® mince, 
en pointe triangulaire, un peu plus long que large; vu de cote 
le 7® tergite depasse de sa demi-longueur le 7® sternite; les 4 
premiers tergites sont stries en long, 5® faiblement ride en 
long, 6® et 7^ mats et chagrines, vus de cote, leur ligne dorsale 
est droite. 

Taille: $, 6.5 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 

Macroteleia eavifrons sp. nov. ( $ .) 

Noir, brillant; scape, hanches et pattes d'un jaune sale, tarse 
posterieur noir. Tete presque deux fois aussi large que longue. 



300 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

avec des points gros et denses, sauf dans la fossette du front, 
qui est profonde, lisse, et atteignant presque les yeux. Joues 
tres petites, avec un sillon. Ocelles en triangle, les posterieurs 
sont distants des yeux de moins de leur diametre. Thorax con- 
forme comme chez le precedent, sauf la sculpture; mesonotum 
presque lisse, avec une ponctuation tres fine et peu distincte, 
bord anterieur a gros points alignes, sillons parapsidaux 
divergents en avant. Scutellum transversal, presque lisse. 
Metanotum grossierement sculpte, egalant le tiers du scutellum. 
Segment median petit, decoupe, les angles en forme de petite 
dent. Propleures avec Tespace elliptique ordinaire. Ailes 
hyalines, marginale egalant la stigmatique, atteignant le tiers 
de la postmarginale, stigmatique oblique, longue, avec un noeud 
au bout. Metatarse posterieur egalant au moins les 4 articles 
suivants reunis. Abdomen a peine deux fois aussi long que le 
reste du corps, f usiforme, les 5 premiers tergites grossierement 
stries en long, 6® et 7® chagrines et mats, tous deprimes, le 1^"^ 
un peu allonge, plus court que le 2^, 2-4 subegaux, au moins 
aussi longs que larges, 5® et 6® a peine transversaux, 7® tres 
petit. 

Taille : $ , 6 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos. 

Macroteleia flaviceps sp. nov. {$ *) 

Noir ; tete jaune et mate, alentours des ocelles assombris, scape, 
hanches, pattes et thorax sauf le dessus d'un jaune mat, 
milieu des tergites 2-4 et des sternites 2-4 d'un jaune roussatre, 
flagellum brun. Tete decoupee en arc posterieurement, grosse, 
un peu transversale, lisse ou a peine chagrinee. Tempes tres 
larges, aussi larges que les yeux. Joues egalant les deux tiers 
des yeux, traversees par un sillon. Ocelles posterieurs touchant 
presque les yeux. Scape aussi long que les trois articles suivants 
reunis, articles 2 et 3 obconiques, au moins de moitie plus longs 
que gros, 4-11 egaux, cylindriques, a peine plus longs que 
gros, le 5^ un peu grossi, le 4® un peu plus court que le 6®, 
12« faiblement allonge. Mesonotum plan, allonge, mat, pubes- 
cent, avec une ponctuation mediocre et dense, sillons parapsidaux 
percurrents, f ortement convergents en arriere. Scutellum trans- 
versal, sculpte comme le mesonotum, tronque en arriere, borde 
posterieurement par des fossettes. Metanotum a peine visible. 
Segment median horizontal, transversal, tronque en arriere. 
Ailes subhyalines, atteignant le milieu du 4^ tergite, sous-costale 



IX, D, 3 Kieffer: Enumeration des Serphides 301 

eloignee du bord, marginale plus longue que la stigmatique, 
celle-ci oblique, mediocrement longue, noueuse au bout, post- 
marginale presque triple de la stigmatique, basale nuUe. Meta- 
tarse posterieur un peu plus court que les 4 articles suivants 
reunis. Abdomen deux fois et demie aussi long que le reste 
du corps, plus etroit que le thorax, presque lineaire, sauf que 
les 3 derniers segments sont un peu plus etroits, tous allonges, 
1-3 graduellement plus longs, le 3* deux fois aussi long que 
large, tous trois stries, leurs bords lateraux avec une arete 
marginale plus forte, 4^ egal au 2«, 5-7 graduellement raccourcis, 
rides en long ou finement chagrines et pubescents. 

Taille: 4.5 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 

DIAPRIID.ZE 

Genus PARAMESITJS Westwood 

Paramesius luzonicus sp. nov. ( S >) 

Noir, lisse et brillant ; flagellum roux brun, mat et pubescent, 
mandibules, hanches et pattes d'un roux sombre, palpes blan- 
chatres. Tete un peu transversale vue d'en haut, plus haute 
que longue vue de cote, sans ponctuation. Yeux glabres. Joues 
sans sillon. Palpes maxillaires ayant apres la flexion 3 articles 
dont le 1^^ est tres petit, le 2« comprime et triangulaire, tous 
deux reunis aussi longs que celui qui precede la flexion, le dernier 
un peu plus long que Tavant-dernier. Antennes aussi longues 
que le corps, scape cylindrique, egalant le 3« article, le 2^ glabre, 
brillant, globuleux, mince comme les suivants, 3^ quatre fois aussi 
long que le 2^, 3-13 graduellement amincis et raccourcis, le 12® plus 
de deux fois aussi long que gros, egal au 13^ Sillons parapsidaux 
percurrents, divergents en avant, lobe median du mesonotum un 
peu plus large en arriere que les lobes lateraux, ceux-ci f aiblement 
deprimes, avec une fossette allongee pres du bord externe. 
Scutellum avec deux fossettes separees par une arete. Segment 
median avec une dent pointue mais petite. Ailes faiblement 
brunies, depassant un peu Tabdomen, brievement ciliees, sous- 
costale atteignant le milieu, marginale guere plus longue que 
large, stigmatique oblique, egale a la marginale, recurrente 
indiquee par une trace, basale indiquee par un trait a peine 
perceptible, arque et distant de la marginale de moins de sa 
longueur. Thorax brievement ovoidal, guere plus long que haut. 
Tiers distal du tibia posterieur subitement grossi. Petiole 



302 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

egalant la demi-longueur de rabdomen, trois fois aussi long 
que gros, cannele; abdomen en ellipse allongee, deprime, gra- 
duellement aminci en avant jusqu'au petiole, 2^ tergite occupant 
les t, 2« sternite occupant les f de Tabdomen. 

Taille: 3.6 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 

Genus SPILOMICRUS Westwood 

Ce genre comprenait 5 especes dans les lies Philippines ; nous 
y ajoutons une sixieme. 

1. Sillons parapsidaux percurrents 2. 

Sillons parapsidaux nuls ou marques seulement en arriere, tete sans 

ponctuation 3. 

2. Tempes et joues ponctuees S. carinifrons Kieff. 

Tete sans ponctuation S. philippinensis sp. nov. 

3. Scutellum ayant, outre les 2 fossettes basales, une fossette laterale 

allongee et une rangee de points au bord posterieur 4. 

Scutellum sans fossettes laterales ni posterieures ; sillons parapsidaux 
formant seulement un point allonge S. variicornis Kieff. 

4. Yeux relies aux mandibules par un sillon, sillons parapsidaux marques 

au tiers posterieur S. opertus Kieif. 

Yeux non relies aux mandibules par un sillon, les sillons parapsidaux 
forment seulement un point allonge au bord posterieur 5. 

5. Flagellum roux brun, tergites ne couvrant pas les sternites. 

S. dispansus Kieff. 
Flagellum noir brillant et plus gros, tergites couvrant les sternites. 

S. nitidicornis Kieff. 

Spilomicrus philippinensis sp. nov. ( ^ .) 

Noir; flagellum brun noir, hanches et pattes d'un jaune bru- 
natre. Tete non ponctuee, lisse comme le reste du corps. Yeux 
velus. Antennes filiformes, 2^ article globuleux, 3^ plus court 
que le scape, presque trois fois aussi long que gros, 4« non 
echancre, 12« encore deux fois aussi long que gros, plus court 
que le 13«; pubescence fine. Sillons parapsidaux percurrents, 
fortement divergents en avant. Scutellum avec 2 fossettes ba- 
sales separees par une arete, fossettes laterales petites et minces. 
Segment median avec une petite dent pointue. Ailes ciliees, 
sous-costale parallele a la costale, depassant un peu le tiers basal 
de Taile, marginale pas plus longue que large, stigmatique 
oblique, un peu plus longue que la marginale, basale faiblement 
marquee, arquee. Petiole presque deux fois aussi long que gros, 
strie; abdomen deprime, en ellipse, releve a sa base, d6passe de 
beaucoup par les ailes. 

Taille: 2 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos. 



IX, D, 3 Kieifer: Enumey^ation des Serphides 303 

Genus DIGALESUS novum 

Semblable a Galesus, dont il differe par le scape non bispinu- 
leux, par les antennes de 13 articles et les ailes pourvues d'une 
sous-costale, d'une marginale et d'une stigmatique. Le type est : 
Digalesus flavipes sp. nov. ( $ .) 

Noir, lisse et brillant, flagellum brun sombre et pubescent, 
pattes jaunes, hanches assombries, moitie posterieure des tempes, 
devant du prothorax et metapleures, avec un f eutrage blanchatre. 
Tete allongee, presque droite dessus et dessous, declive presque 
verticalement en avant, plus longue dorsalement que haute, ven- 
tralement encore plus longue et prolongee en un bee forme par les 
mandibules et atteignant le prosternum; vertex avec 2 aretes 
longitudinales qui atteignent les ocelles, ceux-ci groupes en 
triangle, se touchant et situes au bord anterieur de la tete; une 
carene mediane descend de Tocelle anterieur j usque entre les an- 
tennes en s'elevant graduellement, Tarete qui contourne le bord 
des yeux se prolonge en carene parallele a la carene mediane et 
s'arrete brusquement en forme de dent, comme la mediane ; lamelle 
f rontale prolongee encore au-dela de la tete, bilobee et portant les 
antennes. Scape long, un peu arque, subcylindrique, sans spi- 
nules a son extremite, a peine plus long que le 3® article, 2« 
article de moitie plus long que gros, 3® presque triple du 2®, au 
moins de moitie plus long que le 4% 5« un peu plus court que le 
4% un peu plus long que le 6®, 6-12 egaux, cylindriques, de moitie 
plus longs que gros, 13® plus long que le 12^ Pronotum profon- 
dement decoupe en arriere ; mesonotum un peu transversal, sillons 
parapsidaux larges, faiblement convergents en arriere, ou ils 
sont distants de deux fois leur largeur. Scutellum allonge, 
fossettes anterieures allongees, separees par une arete, un peu 
plus courtes que les fossettes laterales, fossettes du bord poste- 
rieur ponctiformes. Segment median a 3 aretes paralleles, 
angles posterieurs prolonges en dent. Ailes jaunatres, costale 
nulle, sous-costale brune, atteignant presque le milieu de Taile, 
marginale carree, stigmatique oblique, pas plus longue que la 
marginale, un trait brunatre indique une trace de recurrente 
oblique, bords non cilies. Tibias graduellement et faiblement 
renfles. Petiole deux fois aussi long que gros, subcylindrique, 
avec 3 fortes aretes dorsales ; abdomen ellipsoidal, deprime, grand 
tergite occupant un peu plus des deux tiers anterieurs, a sillon 
traversant le tiers anterieur, les quatre suivants graduellement 
raccourcis. 

Taille: 3.5 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Los Baiios. 



304 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Genus HEMIGALESUS Kieffer 

Les especes qui forment ce genre sont particulieres aux Phil- 
ippines; elles se distinguent de la fagon suivante: 

1. Les deux spinules externes de la tete sont pointues et plus longues que 

larges 2. 

Les deux spinules externes sont en forme de lamelle un peu transversale 
et arrondie 5. 

2. Mesonotum fortement convexe dans sa partie mediane, deprime ou enfonce 

lateralement 3. 

Mesonotum egalement convexe partout, sans depressions laterales 4. 

3. Noir; face, pleures en partie, hanches et pattes rousses, tete un peu trans- 

versale vue d'en haut H. niger Kieff. 

Roux; abdomen noir sauf le petiole, tete un peu allongee vue d'en haut. 

H. rufus Kieff. 

4. Yeux deux fois aussi larges que leur distance du bord occipital. 

H. brevicornis Kieff. 
Yeux a peine plus larges que leur distance du bord occipital. 

H. gracilis Kieff. 

5. Bouche perpendiculaire au grand axe de la tete et atteignant la demi- 

hauteur de la tete, 2® article antennaire du male obconique, au moins 

aussi long que le 4® H. longrirostrum sp. nov. 

Bouche ayant au maximum le quart ou le tiers de la hauteur de la tete, 
2e article antennaire du male subglobuleux, n*atteignant que la demi- 
longueur du 4« 6. 

6. Bouche continuant la direction du grand axe de la tete, scape avec une 

dent au milieu du cote externe, tete et thorax roux (c^). 

H. dentatus sp. nov. 

Bouche perpendiculaire au grand axe de la tete, scape inerme, tete et 

thorax noirs (d"), ou tete noire, thorax roux (2)- H. auriculatus sp. nov. 

Hemigalesus auriculatus sp. nov. ($ , ? .) 

Tete noire, thorax et abdomen d'un brun noir chez le male, roux 
marron chez la femelle, petiole de la femelle et pattes d'un roux 
jaune, antennes d'un brun sombre chez le male, d'un roux jaune 
chez la femelle. Tete subglobuleuse, spinule mediane petite, les 2 
laterales en forme de lamelle un peu transversale, subarrondie. 
Palpes jaunes, pluriarticules. Scape droit, bispinuleux a Textr^- 
mite, sans dent au milieu du cote externe, 2« article tres court 
et subglobuleux chez le male, moins gros et de moitie plus petit 
que le 4«, le 3« plus long que le 4«, 4-13 cylindriques, presque de 
moitie plus longs que gros, 14« de moitie plus long que le 13® et 
aussi gros que lui, flagellum pubescent et mat, 3® article de la 
femelle obconique, 3-9 egalement minces, 4-9 d'abord globuleux, 
puis un peu transversaux, 10-12 subitement tres grossis, 10* 
et 11« aussi longs que gros, cylindriques, 12® ovoidal. Bouche en 
forme de bee, presque perpendiculaire au grand axe de la tete, 



IX, D, 3 Kieffer: Enumeration des Serphides 305 

egalant le tiers ou le quart de la hauteur de la tete. Ocelles 
situes en avant, a la limite de la surface horizontale du vertex et 
du front qui est presque vertical. Tete vue de cote aussi longue 
que haute. Thorax d'un tiers plus long que haut. Partie poste- 
rieure des tempes et partie anterieure du prothorax avec un feu- 
trage blanc. Mesonotum transversal, convexe au milieu, deprime 
lateralement, de moitie plus long que le scutellum. Celui-ci trian- 
gulaire, aussi large que long, avec une f ossette en avant. Segment 
median avec une arete. Ailes subhyalines, depassant beaucoup 
Tabdomen, ciliees longuement, sous-costale tres rapprochee du 
bord, depassant un peu le tiers proximal de Taile, marginale ob- 
cuneiforme, basale d'un jaune pale, double de sa distance de la 
marginale, perpendiculaire mais n'atteignant pas la sous-costale. 
Tibia posterieur subitement renfle au tiers distal. Petiole non 
strie, aussi long que gros ; abdomen deprime, chez le male graduel- 
lement elargi jusqu'a Textremite du 2« tergite, qui occupe les f 
anterieurs de Tabdomen ; chez la f emelle Tabdomen est elliptique 
et le grand tergite atteint presque Textremite. 

Taille : 2.5 mm. 

Localite : Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 

Hemigalesus dentatus sp. nov. ( $ .) 

Tete, thorax et petiole d'un roux marron, abdomen brun noir, 
deux premiers articles antennaires d'un roux brun, pattes d'un 
jaune roux. Tete vue de cote un peu plus longue que haute, plus 
longue ventralement que dorsalement, bee continuant la direction 
du grand axe de la tete. Scape avec une petite dent au milieu du 
cote externe. Thorax de moitie plus long que haut. Pour tout 
le reste, semblable au precedent. 

Taille: 2.5 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 

Hemigalesus longirostrum sp. nov. ( ^ .) 

Noir; antennes d'un roux brun comme la bouche, hanches et 
pattes d'un roux clair. Bee perpendiculaire au grand axe de la 
tete, long, atteignant la demi-hauteur de la tete. Scape graduel- 
lement grossi depuis sa base, sans dent au cote externe, son 
extremite est deux f ois aussi grosse que le 2® article, bispinuleuse ; 
2« article obconique, au moins aussi long que le 4% 3® distincte- 
ment plus long que le 4^, 4-13 cylindriques, a peine plus longs 
que gros, 14« plus mince que le 13« et pas plus long que lui. 
Tarse posterieur comprime, ce qui est aussi le cas pour les deux 
especes precedentes. Petiole un peu transversa], lisse et brillant; 



306 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

terg'ites 3-6 egaux et tres courts, abdomen de la longueur du 
thorax. 

Taille : 2.5 mm. Pour tout le reste, semblable a H. auriculatus. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 

Genus GALESUS Curtis 

Les especes de ce genre qui ont ete observees aux Philippines 
se distinguent de la f agon suivante : 

1. Ailes entieres, non incisees ni pliees 2. 

Ailes incisees a Textremite ou en arriere de Textremite 4. 

2. Pattes posterieures rousses, sauf les hanches 3. 

Pattes posterieures en grande partie noires G. manilse Ashm. 

3. Petiole densement pubescent de blanc, articles du flagellum du male deux 

fois aussi longs que gros G. luzonicus Ashm. 

Petiole glabre dorsalement, articles du flagellum du male a peine plus 
longs que gros G. philippinensis Kieff. 

4. Sillons parapsidaux se touchant en arriere G. clavaticornis Kieff. 

Sillons parapsidaux distants en arriere 5. 

5. Sillons parapsidaux distants en arriere d*un peu plus de leur largeur, 

petiole du male deux fois aussi long que gros G. crawfordi Kieff. 

Sillons parapsidaux distants en arriere de deux fois leur largeur, petiole 
de moitie plus long que gros 6. 

6. Surface dorsale de la tete plus courte que la hauteur de la tete, sillon 

atteignant presque le milieu de Tabdomen G. curticeps Kieff. 

Surface dorsale de la tete plus longue que la hauteur, sillon du 2® tergite 
prolonge par une ligne atteignant le dernier tiers.... G. lineatus sp. nov. 

Galesus (Schizogalesus) lineatus sp. nov. ( $ .) 

Noir, brillant, pattes sauf les hanches d'un roux clair. Tete 
allongee, sa surface dorsale plus longue que sa hauteur, plus 
courte que sa surface ventrale, lisse et brillante. Dents laterales 
du devant de la tete assez grandes. Yeux margines en haut par 
une arete. Face tres convexe, separee de Toeil par un profond 
sillon, de chaque cote. Scape deux fois aussi long que gros, 
ride en long, bispinuleux a Textremite, 2® article a peine plus long 
que le 3®, tous deux cylindriques, un peu plus longs que gros, 
4« et 5^ aussi longs que gros, 2-5 egalement gros, 6® a peine plus 
gros que le 5«, mais un peu moins que le 7«, presque transversal, 
7-11 transversaux, 12® ovoi'dal, pas de massue distincte ou mas- 
sue de 6 ou 7 articles ; flagellum pubescent. Collier du prothorax 
et feutrage des tempes d'un gris sombre. Sillons parapsidaux 
profonds, divergents en avant, distants de deux fois leur largeur 
au bord posterieur. Fossettes du scutellum separees par une 
arete, un peu allongees, mais moins longues que les fossettes 
laterales, les 2 fossettes posterieures ponctif ormes. Ailes un peu 
brunies, pliees, echancrees en arriere de la pointe alaire. Tibia 



IX, D, 3 Kieffer: Enumeration des Serphides 307 

posterieur graduellement et faiblement grossi dans sa moiti^ 
distale, metatarse posterieur pas deux fois aussi long que le 2« 
article. Petiole de moitie plus long que gros, cannele grossiere- 
ment, 2^ tergite occupant presque tout le dessus de Tabdomen, 
sillon traversant le tiers anterieur du grand tergite, prolonge 
ensuite par une fine ligne jusqu'a Textremite du 2« tiers; a sa 
base se voit de chaque cote une petite f ossette ; le 2^ tergite couvre 
encore de chaque cote un quart de la largeur des sternites 2-5 
et une partie du 6^, dorsalement il couvre les tergites 3-5. 

Taille : 3.5 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos. 

Genus STYLOPRIA novum 

Differe de Phsenopria surtout par les yeux poilus et le scape, 
dont la moitie proximale est filiforme et la moitie distale subite- 
ment grossie tres fortement. Le type est: 

Stylopria rufa sp. nov. ( $ .) 

Roux clair; antennes a massue d'un brun noir, abdomen noir, 
tiers posterieur brun roux sombre. Tete globuleuse, lisse et 
brillante comme tout le corps, large comme le thorax. Yeux 
glabres, circulaires. Bouche non proeminente. Palpes tres 
courts, non proeminents. Bord posterieur des tempes avec une 
pubescence soyeuse. Scape a moitie distale subitement grossie, 
trois fois aussi grosse que la moitie basale qui est filiforme, 2® 
article obconique, deux fois aussi gros que le 3^ 3-9 egalement 
minces, obconiques, sauf le 9« qui est subglobuleux, 10-12 for- 
mant une massue subite et grosse, 10^ subglobuleux, 11® transver- 
sal et plus gros que le 10®, 12® brievement ovoi'dal. Thorax un 
peu plus long que haut. Prothorax avec un collier de feutrage 
blanc, interrompu en haut. Mesonotum transversal, convexe, 
sans sillons parapsidaux. Scutellum convexe, sans fossette a 
sa base. Segment median avec une faible carene. Ailes de- 
passant beaucoup Tabdomen, longuement ciliees, hyalines, sous- 
costale formant le bord, depassant un peu le tiers basal, margi- 
nale obcuneiforme, de son extremite elargie part une trace de 
la basale dirigee obliquement vers la base alaire et fortement 
courbee en angle au milieu, une trace semblable ou ligne jaunatre 
indique une mediane eloignee du bord, arquee, graduellement 
rapprochee du bord a son extremite qui aboutit a la base de la 
marginale. Aile inferieure lineaire, sauf que son bord anterieur 
est releve triangulairement a Tendroit des crochets frenaux, 
cils inferieurs deux fois aussi longs que la largeur de Taile. 
Tibia posterieur subitement grossi au tiers distal. Petiole aussi 

124685 8 



308 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

long que gros, pubescent de gris ; abdomen a peine deprime, f usi- 
forme, aussi long que le reste du corps, 2« tergite occupant les 
deux tiers anterieurs, 5® tergite egalant le 3« et le 4« reunis, 
extremite de Tabdomen en pointe. 

Taille: 1.2 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos. 

Genus ASHMEADOPRIA Kieffer 

Quatre especes de ce genre reviennent aux Philippines; elles 
se distinguent comme il suit: 

1. Yeux poilus A. (?) trichota sp. nov. 

Yeux glabres 2. 

2. Scutellum carene ^ 3. 

Scutellum convexe, non carene 4. 

3. Petiole pas plus long que gros, verticilles antennaires atteignant Textre- 

mite de Particle suivant (c?) A. bakeri Kieff. 

Petiole de moitie plus long que gros (?) A. subcarinata sp. nov. 

Petiole deux fois aussi long que gros, verticilles antennaires atteignant la 

massue du 2® article suivant (c?) A. luzonica sp. nov. 

4. Scutellum a fossette unique, tete et thorax noirs A. nigriventris Kieff. 

Scutellum a 2 fossettes ponctiformes et tres distantes, tete et thorax 

noirs A. bipunctata Kieff. 

Ashmeadopria luzonica sp. nov. ( ^ .) 

Noir, brillant; antennes, hanches et pattes rousses, moitie 
basale du scape et massue des articles 4-13 un peu obscurcies. 
Yeux glabres. Antennes de moitie plus longues que le corps, 3« 
article cylindrique, aussi long que le 4% a 2 verticilles de poils, 
4-13 avec une massue deux fois aussi longue que grosse, petiole 
au moins aussi long que la massue, mais graduellement rac- 
courci et massue graduellement allongee, au 14® article le petiole 
est tres court, verticilles longs, atteignant la massue du 2« article 
suivant. Prothorax a collier de feutrage blanc. Mesonotum 
convexe partout. Scutellum carene, avec une fossette unique. 
Segment median avec une lamelle triangulaire. Ailes hyalines, 
longuement ciliees, depassant de beaucoup Tabdomen, marginale 
comme d'ordinaire, n'atteignant pas Textremite du tiers basal, 
de son extremite distale part une trace de la basale jaune brisee 
en angle au milieu. Petiole deux fois aussi long que gros, lisse, 
brillant, sauf sur les cotes qui ont des poils soyeux blancs, longs, 
denses et dresses; abdomen en ellipse allongee, deprime, grand 
tergite atteignant presque Textremite. 

Taille: 2 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 



IX, D. 3 Kieffer: Enumeration des Serphides 309 

Ashmeadopria bipunctata Kieff . 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 

Get insecte n'etait connu que de Los Baiios; la femelle reste 
encore a decouvrir. 

Ashmeadopria subcarinata sp. nov. ( $ .) 

Noir; antennes rousses, sauf la massue, hanches et pattes 
jaunes. Tete globuleuse. Scape cylindrique, 2« article 6gal au 
3®, obconique, 4-7 egalement minces, pas plus longs que gros, 
retrecis basalement, 8-12 formant une massue graduelle, aussi 
longs que gros, sauf le 12® qui est ovoidal et plus long, pubescence 
tres fine et tres courte. Tempes, devant du prothorax et m^ta- 
pleures avec un feutrage blanc. Scutellum a peine caren6, 
fossette unique. Ailes depassant beaucoup Tabdomen, ciliees 
longuement, nervation ordinaire de ce genre. Tiers distal du 
tibia posterieur subitement grossi. Petiole de moitie plus long 
que gros, sa moitie posterieure porte dorsalement un feutrage 
blanc, dense et long; abdomen un peu plus long que le thorax, 
deprime, en ellipse, 2® tergite occupant plus des deux tiers 
anterieurs, extremite un peu en pointe. 

Taille: 1.8 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 

Ashmeadopria (?) trichota sp. nov. ( $ .) 

Se distingue de tous ses congendres par les yeux a poils longs 
et epars. Roux; antennes et pattes d'un roux plus pale, deux 
derniers articles antennaires noirs, abdomen brun au milieu. 
Tete globuleuse. Tempes, devant du prothorax et metapleures, 
avec un feutrage blanc et dense. Scape subcylindrique, arque, 
aussi long que les 3 articles suivants reunis, 2® article de moitie 
plus long que le 3® et plus gros que lui, tous deux obconiques, 
4« obconique, un peu plus court que le 3«, un peu plus long 
que gros, 5-9 a peine plus longs que gros, 3-9 egalement minces, 
a poils egalant leur grosseur, 10« bien plus gros que le 9« mais 
bien moins gros que le 11% ovoidal, 11« et 12« tres gros, finement 
pubescents, le 12« ovoidal court, le 11® a peine transversal. Meso- 
notum convexe, transversal, sans sillons. Scutellum carene, avec 
une fossette en avant. Ailes hyalines, depassant I'abdomen, 
longuement ciliees, nervation ordinaire. Tibia posterieur subite- 
ment renfle au tiers distal. Petiole subglabre dorsalement, de 
moitie plus long que gros; abdomen deprime, aussi long que le 
thorax, en ellipse allongee, 2« tergite occupant les deux tiers 
anterieurs, tiers posterieur graduellement aminci. 

Taille: 2 mm. 

Localite : Luzon, Laguna, Los Baiios. 



310 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

Genus TRICHOPKIA Ashmead 

Les especes de ce genre qui ont ete observees aux Philippines 
se distinguent comme il suit : 

1. Thorax roux 2. 

Thorax noir comme la tete et Tabdomen 3. 

2. Tete et quart posterieur de Tabdomen roux T. analis Kieff. 

Tete et abdomen noirs, sauf le petiole T. semirufa Kieff. 

3. Scutellum avec deux fossettes T. maquilingensis sp. nov. 

Scutellum avec une fossette unique T. caudata Kieff. 

Trichopria maquilingensis sp. nov. ( ^ .) 

Noir, brillant ; 2 premiers articles antennaires roux, hanches et 
pattes jaunes. Tete globuleuse. Scape cylindrique, un peu plus 
court que les articles 2 et 3 reunis, 2® obconique, egal au 5% 
3« cylindrique, un peu plus long que le 4^ presque deux fois 
aussi long que le 5®, 4^ arque fortement, grossi a Textremite, 
plus long que le 5% 5-13 un peu plus longs que gros, sub- 
cylindriques, a poils epars, egalant en longueur les f de la 
grosseur des articles, 14« article un peu plus long que le 13«. 
Scutellum convexe, avec 2 fossettes distantes de leur largeur. 
Ailes hyalines, depassant beaucoup Tabdomen, ciliees longuement, 
pubescentes sauf aux alentours de la sous-costale, marginale 
comme d'ordinaire, de son extremite sort une ligne jaune et 
perpendiculaire. Tibia posterieur subitement grossi au tiers 
distale. Petiole pubescent, de moitie plus long que gros ; abdomen 
deprime, elliptique. 

Taille: 1.5 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Mont Maquiling. 

Genus SCAPOPRIA Kieff er 
Scapopria atriceps Kiejff. 

Get insecte, dont le male est encore a decouvrir, n'etait connu 
que pour Los Bafios. M. Baker vient aussi de le decouvrir au 
Mont Maquiling, tres pres a Los Bafios. 

BELYTID^ 

Genus XENOTOMA Foerster 

Une espece etait connue pour Los Bafios; nous y ajoutons 
une seconde. 

1. Pattes blanchatres, abdomen droi.t X. philippinensis Kieff. 

Pattes d'un roux brun, abdomen recourbe au bout X. sorer sp. nov. 

Xenotoma soror sp. nov. ( $ .) 

Noir; mandibules rousses et se croisant, antennes d'un brun 
noir, scape noir, pattes d'un roux brun. Antennes filiformes, 



IX, D, 3 Kieffer: Enumeration des Serphides 311 

scape plus long que le 3« article, 2« article globuleux, 3« quatre 
fois aussi long que gros, 3-14 graduellement raccourcis, le 14« 
un peu plus long que gros, plus court que le 15«. Cellule 
radiale fermee, tres mince, deux fois et demie aussi longue que 
large, beaucoup plus courte que la postmarginale, stigmatique 
oblique et tres courte, recurrente plus longue que la marginale, 
continuant la direction du radius, puis dirigee par en bas, margi- 
nale un peu plus courte que la cellule radiale. Petiole presque 
deux fois aussi long que gros, strie; abdomen aussi mince a la 
base que le petiole, piriforme, grand tergite occupant les |, le 
dernier i forme une pointe conique recourbee par en haut. 

Taille: 2 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Los Baiios. 

Genus CINETUS Jurine 

Cinetus maquilingensis sp. nov. { S .) 

Noir; mandibules rousses, antennes d'un brun noir, pattes 
anterieures d'un jaune clair, sauf les trochanters et les hanches, 
les quatre pattes posterieures brunes sauf les hanches. Anten- 
nes filiformes, 2« article subglobuleux, 3® plus long que le 1®^ et 
le 2« reunis, fortement decoupe au tiers distal, renfle a Textre- 
mite, un peu plus long que le 4^ les suivants graduellement 
raccourcis, les derniers encore trois fois aussi longs que gros. 
Ailes hyalines, marginale plus longue que la cellule radiale qui 
est etroite, fermee et a peine plus longue que la moitie de la 
postmarginale, stigmatique tres courte, recurrente presque double 
de la cellule radiale, dirigee par en bas des son origine, parallele 
a la basale. Petiole fortement strie, deux fois et deniie a trois 
fois aussi long que gros, egalant au moins la moitie de Tabdomen 
qui est deprime, brievement fusiforme, strie a sa base, ou il 
passe insensiblement au petiole, sans separation bien distincte. 

Taille: 2.5 mm. 

Localite: Luzon, Laguna, Mont MaquiHng. 



NOTES ON A NESTING PLACE OF CROCODILUS PALUSTRIS 

LESSON 

By W. SCHULTZE 

{From the Entomological Section, Biological Laboratory, Bureau of Science, 

Manila, P. I.) 

One plate 

During the biological expedition of the Bureau of Science 
and the University of the Philippines to Taytay, Palawan, April 
7 to June 7, 1913, opportunity was taken to explore two lakes 
near Taytay, the larger one being called by the natives from the 
village of Bantolan *'Manguao," the smaller one "Nagsirocan." 
According to the statements of old natives, neither had been 
visited before by white men. Lake Manguao is located approx- 
imately 8 kilometers south of the town of Taytay. Mr. E. D. 
Merrill and several natives relocated an old direct trail from 
Taytay to Lake Manguao during the latter part of April, 1913. 
A second trip to the lake was made on May 11, by a party con- 
sisting of A. L. Day, R. A. Rowley, Mrs. Schultze, myself, and 
several assistants and guides, and we camped there until May 
16. Our camp was located on the southwestern shore. On 
May 14, while going close to the shore on a raft, Mr. Day^ 
discovered a peculiar heap or mound of grass on the beach in 
one of the little bays of the lake. Upon coming back to camp, 
our guides, natives of the town of Bantolan, were asked as to 
the nature of the peculiar mound. They stated that it might be 
the nest of a crocodile. Whereupon the next morning Mr. 
Rowley, his assistant, Mrs. Schultze, and I went on a bamboo 
raft to investigate the place. The mound was made of a very 
coarse, wiry, thick-stemed grass {Ischaemum sp.) which had 
been torn out by the roots, scratched together, and piled up. 
A space about 8 meters long and 5 meters wide, on the sandy 
beach, had been cleared absolutely of the grass. The mound 

^ He states : 

Lake Manguao is indicated on various charts, but because of the fact that 
very little surveying has been done in northern Palawan the lake has hereto- 
fore been incorrectly located. On May 14, I went on a bamboo raft south- 
east from our camp. On the southeast side of the second point I observed a 
mound of grass, the nature of which was not clear. 

313 



314 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

was located about 2 meters from the water. It was somewhat 
irregular in shape, about 2.5 meters in diameter at the base and 
1.5 meters in height. All around the mound, foot marks of a 
crocodile and furrows made by the animal's claws could be seen, 
so it was evident that the reptile had completed the nest very 
recently, that is, within the preceding few days, as several heavy 
rains would have washed away the marks in the sand. In pull- 
ing the mound apart, it was noticed that the material was very 
firmly packed. The grass was mixed with sand and was moist. 
In about the center of the mound and about 40 centimeters above 
the ground, 30 eggs were found arranged in several layers. The 
eggs were taken with part of the nest material to our camp. 
One egg was opened, and it appeared to be absolutely fresh. 
On the next day, the eggs were transported in a tin can by 
carriers over a bad mountain trail to our main camp at Taytay. 
I there packed the eggs in a box filled with fresh grass, leaves, 
and some of the original nest-material. On June 7 the eggs were 
taken to Manila, where I kept them with the object of determin- 
ing the period of incubation and time of hatching. Measure- 
ments of 20 eggs gave the following results. 

Measurements, in millimeters, of 20 eggs of Crocodilus palustris Lesson. 



78 X50 


77 X49.5 


77 X49.5 


83.5X46 


75.5X49.5 


76 X49.5 


76 X49 


78 X50 


76 X49.5 


76 X49.5 


73.5X49 


79 X49 


76 X49.5 


76 X49 


80 X49 


79 X48 


75.5X49.5 


75.5X49.5 


83.5X50 


82 X48.5 



Average 77,65x49.15. 

The egg is decidedly oblong ellipsoidal and has a very 
hard porous shell with a high porcelain luster. Though the 
color is a translucent white, the egg has very strongly marked 
opaque white band around the middle (girth). The band is 
about 4 centimeters wide and in strong contrast with the two 
ends of the egg. 

The eggs were kept in the box with the original material and 
covered with a 5-centimeter layer of old horse manure. As the 
incubation proceeded, the white band on the egg became less dis- 
tinct. On July 1, one egg was opened; the embryo was about 
6.5 centimeters long. On August 19, another egg was opened, 
and the embryo was found to be 19 centimeters long. On Sep- 
tember 4, as no egg had hatched, I opened all of those which 
showed signs of incubation and found that all of the embryos 
had died except in one egg which was about ready to hatch. 
Their death was probably due to the fact that the material in 



IX, D, 3 Schultze: Nesting Place of Crocodilus palustris 315 

which they were packed had shrunken to such an extent that 
most of the eggs were not covered by more than 2 centimeters 
of the packing and that they therefore became too dry. At 
any rate, the time of incubation of the eggs of Crocodilus palus- 
tris is from seventeen to eighteen weeks in the Philippines. 

During our stay at Taytay, we frequently noticed crocodiles 
close to the shore in the sea. The species was probably Croco- 
dilus porosus Schneid., the widely distributed seashore species. 
On an expedition to Malampaya Sound, west of Palawan, on 
August 20, 1913, I saw a specimen of this species at very close 
range, and the natives informed me that these reptiles are very 
abundant at the farther end of the sound. This statement was 
verified by members of our party, who saw as many as twenty 
at one time. Their abundance there is probably due to the large 
number of fish found in the sound. A specimen of C porosus 
Schneid., from Zamboanga, Mindanao, which I have had under 
observation for three years, measured 30 centimeters when re- 
ceived, and at the present time measures 85 centimeters, which 
indicates that crocodiles grow faster than is ordinarily supposed, 
at least during the early years of their life. 



ILLUSTRATION 

Plate I 

Fig. 1. A nest of Crocodilus paluatris Lesson. (Photograph by R. A. 
Rowley.) 
2. An egg of Crocodilus paluatris Lesson. Actual size. (Photograph 
by Charles Martin.) 

Vol. IXy Sec, Dy No, 1 of this Journal was issued May 28, 191U; No. 2 
was issued August 2^, IQIJ^. 

317 



Schultze: Nesting Place of Crocodilus palustris.] [Phil. Journ. Sci., IX, D, No. 3. 




Fig. 1. A nest of Crocodilus palustris Lesson. 




Fig. 2. An egg of Crocodilus palustris Lesson. Actual size. 
PLATE I. 



THE PHILIPPINE 

Journal of Science 

D. General Biology, Ethnology, 
AND Anthropology 



Vol. IX AUGUST, 1914 No. 4 



PALAEMONS of the PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

By R. P. COWLES 

(From the Department of Zoology, College of Liberal Arts, 

University of the Philippines) 

Three plates and 1 text figure 

The palaemons are widely distributed over the world, but 
are usually confined to the fresh-water lakes and rivers of trop- 
ical and subtropical countries. A few species, however, inhabit 
the temperate regions and some live in the sea and in brackish 
water. In the Philippine Islands this genus is well represented, 
and especially is this the case in the lakes and rivers near Manila 
where several species are very abundant. The palaemons, com- 
monly but incorrectly spoken of as ''shrimps'' or "lobsters,'' 
appear occasionally in our markets, and are considered an 
excellent food, being even more highly esteemed than the so- 
called ''salt water shrimps" belonging to the genus Penaeus. 
They form an important article of food for the Filipinos who 
live inland; consequently, most of them are purchased before 
they reach the markets of such coast cities as Manila. 

A glance at a map of the Philippines shows how rich the 
Islands are in rivers and streams which flow to the sea. It 
is safe to say that all of them contain palaemons and that these 
are used by the Filipinos for food. I have collected these crus- 
taceans from streams near Port Galera on Mindoro Island, from 
streams at Taytay on Palawan Island, from a small river at 
Sisiman on Luzon Island, and from Mariquina, San Juan, and 
Pasig Rivers near Manila. In addition to specimens from the 

129877 319 



320 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science iqh 

above-mentioned localities, we have in our collection specimens 
from Gandara, Samar Island; from Lake Lanao, Mindanao 
Island; from Jaro, Leyte Island; and from Pampanga River, 
Luzon Island. 

While the palaemon fishery in the Philippines is not so large 
as some other fisheries, it is an industry which is carried on all 
over the Islands and is one which deserves to be improved if 
possible. The French people are famous for the way in which 
they have cultivated the fresh-water crayfish in France, and 
even here near Manila it is said that an attempt has been made 
to grow palaemons in some of the fishponds. A series of ex- 
periments conducted on a scientific and practical basis would be 
of great value to this industry. 

METHODS USED IN FISHING 

At least seven methods of fishing for palaemons are employed 
in the Philippine Islands. (1) The larger forms are often caught 
in a large fish trap known as the baclad. This consists of a 
split bamboo fence arranged in the form of a V. The palaemons 
follow the two wings of the V until they reach a narrow opening 
at the angle, through which they pass into an inclosure. The 
narrow opening is guarded by pieces of bamboo which point in- 
ward and prevent the crustaceans from escaping. (2) The 
smaller forms are frequently caught by men and boys who dive 
and feel about in holes and crevices for them. (3) Another trap 
which is used is the bobo, a rectangular box made of bamboo. 
The bobo is filled with hay or grass through an opening in one 
side, and is then lowered to the bottom. It is allowed to remain 
in the water for two or three weeks until the hay or grass has 
decayed, after which the palaemons enter to feed on the material 
and the trap is hauled up. (4) The familiar cast net is also used 
in shallow water where the palaemons can be seen. It has been 
given the name dala by the Filipinos. (5) Another familiar way 
of catching these crustaceans is by hauling an ordinary seine. 
This seine, which is provided with a pocket, is called pukot. 

(6) A method frequently employed is the following: Two men 
are seated in a banca, the one in the bow handles a dip net and 
the other in the stern does the paddling. The frame to which 
the net is attached is triangular, and is firmly attached at one 
angle to a long handle. This net is held close to the bottom 
where it catches the palaemons as the banca moves forward. 

(7) The talabog consists of a large bundle of roots bound to- 
gether at both ends. This is lowered into the water and the 
palaemons instinctively cling to it or hide among the roots. 



IX, D, 4 Cotvles: Palaemons of the Philippi7ie Islands 321 

When the talabog is brought to the surface, they still remain 
attached. On Mindoro there is a modification of this method. 
Instead of the roots, a large bundle of leaves baited inside with 
cooked rice is used. 

VALUE OF THE FISHERY 

The commercial value of the palaemon fishery is difficult to 
estimate. Many Filipinos living along the banks of the rivers 
and lakes catch only enough for their own use. Fishermen who 
make a business of catching palaemons usually retail their catch 
in the locality where they live ; and in the neighborhood of towns 
or cities, as an example, Manila, the catches are not taken to 
the markets unless they are large. 

The price varies a little with the abundance of the catch. Very 
small individuals, those from 1 to 2 centimeters long, are sold by 
measure, while those from 10 to 15 centimeters long bring about 
2 or 3 centavos^ each. Palaemons larger than these are sold 
for 20, 30, or 40 centavos, while the largest with a body length 
of from 30 to 35 centimeters bring from 40 to 50 centavos each. 
I have been told that larger specimens than any in our collec- 
tion are caught occasionally and that these may bring as much 
as 80 centavos. 

The palaemon fishery is at its height during the hot and rainy 
seasons, and it is then that the bulk of the year's catch is made. 
Unfortunately, it is at this time that the breeding occurs in 
most of the species. One of the most successful fishermen living 
on the banks of San Juan River at the town of San Juan del 
Monte states that he and another fisherman, together with three 
helpers, catch from 20,000 to 25,000 palaemons in a season and 
that these net from about 540 to 550 pesos. There are a few 
other fishermen farther up the river whose business is not so 
large, but it is safe to say that the total value of the palaemon 
fishery in this one river easily reaches 2,000 pesos in one season. 

In Pasig River and, especially, where it and its branches have 
their origin from Laguna de Bay, the palaemon fishery is of 
much more importance than that in San Juan River. A trip 
from the barrio of Tagig along one of the smaller branches 
of Pasig River to Laguna de Bay will convince one of this. 
One bank of this stream is lined by fishermen's houses, each with 
its small baclad for catching the kind of palaemon that is sold 
by measure, and where the stream widens out as it issues from 
Laguna de Bay one may see several hundred of the large baclads 

^ One centavo equals 0.5 cent United States currency; 100 centavos equal 
1 peso or 50 cents United States currency. 



322 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



planted in the shallow water. It is in these large baclads that 
during the months of April, May, June, July, and August, 
especially, a local form of Palaemon carcinus Fabricius of 
India is caught in great numbers. The fishery in this region 
must amount to from 20,000 to 25,000 pesos per year. 

EXTERNAL CHARACTERS OF A PALAEMON 

As it is the purpose of this paper to describe the various 
species of Philippine palaemons so that people in the Philippine 
Islands who are not zoologists may be able to identify specimens, 
I shall devote a little space to a simple description of the external 
anatomy of a palaemon (fig. 1). 



Flagella of first antenna 



Cephalothorax 



Abdomen 



Antennal scale 
Rostpm \ Peduncle' 



^y^ First, tooth 




Flagellum of second ajUemta 



Carpus 



Ischium 



Fig. 1. Diagram of a palaemon. 



The body of the palaemon may be divided into a forward or 
anterior part known as the cephalothorax and a hind or poste- 
rior jointed part known as the abdomen. The cephalothorax is 
composed of a head and a thorax which are so closely joined 
together that there is no neck, and it is covered above — dorsally — 
and on the side — laterally — ^by a tough shield-shaped carapace. 
From the front of the carapace a pointed beak or rostrum ex- 
tends forward, and is armed with teeth along its dorsal and 
its lower — ^ventral — border. The "first tooth*' in the following 
description means the most posterior tooth arising from the 
carapace and the number of teeth on the dorsal and ventral 
borders of the rostrum is indicated in the form of a fraction 

which I have called the rostral or dental formula /i^^JL.^il? ^ ^ 
There are 2 spines on each side of the carapace near the 



IX, D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 323 

anterior border. The upper one is called the antennal spine; 
the lower one, the hepatic spine. On each side of the rostrum 
where it has its origin from the carapace is an eye mounted on 
a stalk. The stalk occupies a little niche in the carapace known 
as the orbit. Extending forward from the base of the eye 
stalk along each side of the lower border of the rostrum is a 
peculiar structure known as the peduncle of the first antenna. 
Each one bears a pair of whiplike flagella. The outer flagellum 
of the pair has a short branch arising near its origin from 
the peduncle. Below the peduncle of the first antenna on each 
side of the rostrum lies a large scalelike structure known as 
the antennal scale. From the underside of each scale where it 
has its origin from the cephalothorax arises the long whiplike 
flagellum of the second antenna. On the lower side of the cepha- 
lothorax are attached 5 pairs of leglike structures, which are 
known as the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth pairs of legs. 
The chelipeds (second pair of legs) are much larger than the 
others, and terminate in pincers. The first legs, which are 
much shorter and slenderer than the chelipeds, have their origin 
from the cephalothorax in front of the origin of the chelipeds, 
. and are usually folded once under the body. They also terminate 
in small pincers. The third, fourth, and fifth legs are slenderer 
and shorter than the chelipeds, but stouter than the first legs. 
They do not end in pincers. Each leg consists of jointed pieces or 
segments. The segments of the cheliped are as follows: The 
pincers are made up of 2 fingers, which are armed with teeth. 
One of these is movable, and is known as the mobile finger ; the 
other is known as the immobile finger, and is continuous with a 
thick piece known as the palm. The immobile finger and the 
palm are often spoken of as the propodus. The propodus, in- 
cluding the mobile finger, is called the chela. The segment next 
to the chela is the wrist or carpus, which is joined to another 
segment known as the merus. Finally, the last piece or ischium 
follows the merus and is attached to the cephalothorax by 2 
very short pieces, the names of which it is not necessary for 
us to consider. The first leg is made up of the same number 
of segments as the cheliped, and these have the same names. 

The back or posterior portion of the body, which is often 
bent under, is known as the abdomen, and is composed of 7 
pieces, the first 6 of which are known as somites. The seventh 
or terminal piece, which is pointed, is called the telson. Each 
somite has a tough covering, the dorsal surface and part of 
the lateral surface of which are known as the tergum. The 
lower part of the lateral surface is called the pleuron. Each 



324 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

of the first 5 somites has a pair of branched structures at- 
tached to its lower surface, which are known as swimmerets, 
and the sixth somite has a somewhat similar but larger pair 
called the uropods. The uropods and the telson together make 
up the tail fin. 

While zoologists might have no difficulty in identifying palae- 
mons among a number of other crustaceans more or less related, 
one who is not specializing in this line might have considerable 
trouble. For this reason, I shall compare several forms found 
in the waters about Manila which might be mistaken for them. 
One of the commonest crustaceans, which may be seen almost 
any day in our markets, is the "salt water shrimp'' belonging 
to the genus Penaeus. This can be distinguished from the pala- 
emon by the more or less evident keellike ridge on the dorsal 
surface of the posterior part of the abdomen, by the absence of 
large legs, and by the presence of pincers on the first, second, and 
third legs. 

The pistol crab, belonging to the genus Alpheus, is occa- 
sionally seen in the markets, and differs from the palaemons 
in the following particulars : The rostrum is very small or absent, 
the first legs are strong and provided with pincers, the second 
legs are weak and have small pincers, and the third, fourth, and 
fifth legs are weak and without pincers. 

Another form which is used for food by Filipinos, although 
not highly thought of, belongs to the genus Atya, and is found 
in mountain streams. It may be distinguished easily from the 
palaemons by the peculiar pincers of the first and second legs. 
These pincers are provided with brushes of hairs which are used 
to catch mud and minute organisms. The third, fourth, and 
fifth legs have no pincers. 

Finally, I shall mention the large brillantly colored '*sea 
crawfish" or "spiny lobster" (langosta del mar) belonging to 
the genus Palinurus. It lives along rocky shores washed by 
the open sea, and is occasionally seen in our markets. All 
five legs are without pincers, and the antennae are very long 
and spiny. 

PHILIPPINE SPECIES OF THE GENUS PALAEMON 

Palaemon carcinus Fabricius. Plate I, figs. 1 and la-;. 

The largest palaemon in our collection, and undoubtedly the 
largest one in the Philippine Islands, I have diagnosed as 
Palaemon carcinus Fabricius. This conclusion was arrived at 
after a careful study of a large series, although a comparison 



IX, D. 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 325 

of this series with individuals of the Indian species shows 
certain distinct and constant differences. The local form differs 
slightly from typical P. carcinus in the shape of the rostrum, 
the rostral formula, the arrangement of the teeth on the rostrum 
at all ages, and the position of the tip of the rostrum with 
reference to the tip of the antennal scale at different ages ; there 
is, however, a close similarity in the shape, armature, and 
proportions of the segments of the chelipeds. The characters 
of the chelipeds, just mentioned are of great diagnostic value 
in determining species of the genus Palaemon, and for this 
reason I have not described it as a new variety. It should be 
mentioned, however, that our local form of Palaemon carcinus 
probably closely resembles a form originally known as Palaemon 
rosenbergii de Man,^ but which is now considered by de Man,' 
Ortmann,^ and others as a variety of P. carcinus. The original 
description of P. rosenbergii was based upon a single full-grown 
female, and as no male has been seen I shall not place our 
local form under de Man's variety. However, his description 
agrees closely with a female specimen of about the same size 
which is in our collection. The shape, size, and toothing of 
the rostrum, as well as the measurements of the chelipeds, 
are almost identical. 

The detailed description of the Philippine form of P. carcinus 
which follows is considered advisable, because our form differs 
from the type, because our collection affords a large number 
of different ages and sexes, and because it is the most important 
species from a commercial point of view in the Philippine 
Islands. 

Rostrum and antennal scale. — An examination of 21 female 
specimens, varying in body length ' from 115 to 250 millimeters, 
shows with one exception that the rostrum extends beyond the 
antennal scale. This exception (230 millimeters long) has a 
rostrum which appears to be normal, but the tip just reaches 
the distal end of the scale. In the largest specimen (250 milli- 
meters), however, the tip extends slightly beyond, while in a 
young female (115 millimeters) the rostrum extends one-fourth 
of its length beyond the end of the. antennal scale. Thirty-six 

^ Notes Leyden Mus. (1879), 1, 167. 

' Zoologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in Niederlandish Ost-Indien (1892), 
2, 417. 

*Zool Jahrb., Systematik (1891), 5, 701. 

^ By body length, or length, is meant the distance from the tip of the 
rostrum to the tip of the telson. 



326 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



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IX, D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 



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IX, D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 329 

male individuals (short chelipeds)/ varying in body length from 
100 to 240 millimeters, show that the rostrum overreaches the 
antennal scale. In specimens from 100 to 110 millimeters long 
the rostrum extends almost one-third of its length beyond the 
antennal scale, and this distance gradually decreases until in 
individuals 240 millimeters long it overreaches the antennal 
scale only slightly. Finally, in 4 large males (chelipeds enor- 
mously developed) measuring from 250 to 320 millimeters, the 
rostrum fails to reach the tip of the scale. In fact, in another 
male only 240 millimeters long but with the chelipeds enormously 
developed the condition is similar. While this gradual decrease 
in the length of the rostrum might be explained by the as- 
sumption that during the life of these palaemons the tip is 
repeatedly broken off and then partially regenerated, it is hard 
to believe that such is the case, considering the uniform character 
of the decrease shown by the series at hand. 

The descriptions or figures of Palaemon carcinus by Fabricius,^ 
Herbst,^ M. Milne-Edwards,^ Ortmann,'^ de Man,^^ and Hender- 
son and Matthai ^^ all indicate that the rostrum extends beyond 
the antennal scale, while Henderson's ^^ description and 
Rumphius's ^* figure show that these authors have examined some 
specimens in which the rostrum extends to the tip of the antennal 
scale only or fails to reach it. Von Martens ^' mentions the 
fact that the rostrum of Palaemon carcinus from Luzon is 
strikingly short. Henderson finds great variation in the length 
of the rostrum of P. carcinus from India, some specimens show- 
ing the rostrum scarcely longer than the scale. This fact and 
others leave him in considerable doubt as to the limitations of 

" In our collection, except in one case, male specimens of P. carcinus, 
from the shortest to those 240 millimeters long, have the short weakly 
developed chelipeds like those of the female, but in males 250 millimeters 
long, or longer, the chelipeds are enormously developed. 

^ Fabricii Entomologia Systematica Supplementum (1798), 5, 402. 

'^ Versuch einer Naturgeschichte der Krabben and Krebse (1796), 2, Tab. 
XXVIII, Fig. 1. 

''Histoire Naturelle des Crustaces (1837), 2, 395. 

^''Zool Jahrb. Systematik (1891), 5, 701. 

^^ Zoologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in Niederlandisch Ost-Indien (1892), 
2, 414. 

^"^ Records Indian Mus, (1910), 5, PI. XV, fig. la. Henderson and Mat- 
thai, in the general part of their paper on palaemons, state that the rostrum 
in the young is relatively longer than in the adults and that it is usually 
relatively longer in females than in males. 

'* Trans, Linn. Soc. London, Zool. (1893), 5, 411. 

'' D'Ambonische Rariteitkamer (1741), PI. I, fig. B. 

''Arch, f. Naturgesch. (1868), 5, 35. 



330 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science isu 

the species, and he is forced to regard such species as belonging 
to a variety in which the apical growth of the rostrum has 
been arrested. It does not seem to me probable that the 
gradual decrease in length between the tip of the anten- 
nal scale and the tip of the rostrum, which is so strikingly 
illustrated in our series, is unique for the form we have 
here in the Philippines. On the contrary, I believe that an 
examination of a large series of P. carcinus from India 
will show a similar condition, and I am inclined to agree with 
that part of Henderson's statement in which he says that the 
apical growth of the rostrum may be arrested. From a study 
of specimens of Palaemon carcinus and Palaemon philippinensis 
sp. no v., I believe that the growth of the rostrum becomes 
partially arrested when the so-called mature characters are 
acquired and that this change is especially marked in the males. 

Curvature and dental formida of rostrum, — Females of all 
ages show the distal one-third of the rostrum curved upward, 
but this is more evident in the young than the old. The arching 
over the eye, which is pronounced in Palaemon carcinus from 
India, is not conspicuous in the Philippine form, and remains 
about the same throughout the life of the female. The upward 
curve of the distal part of the rostrum in the males does not 
seem to differ from that in the females, except in the large 
males (those with the enormously developed chelipeds), where 
the tip scarcely bends upward at all. The degree of arching 
over the eye is slightly greater in the old than in the young 
males. 

The dental formula is very variable. An examination of 
the specimens in the collection shows the formula for the males 

(100 to 320 millimeters) to be ^l' }^\}^\]'^ . In one exceptional 

o, y, lu, 11 

case 12 teeth are found on the lower border, 2 of which, how- 
ever, are situated well up under the arch over the eye. The 

12 
smallest male (100 millimeters) has the formula -5-, while the 

o 

largest male (320 millimeters) has — . In the females (115 

11 12 13 

to 250 millimeters) the formula is ' \ . Those of the smallest 

o, y, 10 

12 

(115 millimeters) and largest (about 250 millimeters) are ^ 

12 
and -^, respectively. It appears that the number of teeth in 

the males is somewhat greater than in the females, but there 



IX, D, 4 Coivles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 331 

is no evidence that the number of the teeth increases with the 
ag-e. In the large majority of both males and females the 

formula is ^ ^^^^ . The dorsal border of the rostrum in young 
y to 10 

males and females may be divided into a proximal two-thirds 
armed with 9 or 10 teeth and a distal one-third usually un- 
armed, except near the tip where there may be 2 or 3 teeth. 
(A similar condition has been described by von Martens ^^ for 
Palaemon carcinus from Luzon.) The bases of the first and 
second teeth and part of the base of the third tooth lie back 
of the orbit. These teeth are more widely separated from one 
another than the following 6 or 7 teeth, and also the ninth 
and tenth teeth are separated somewhat more from the teeth 
directly back of them. The unarmed portion of the distal one- 
third has a length of 9 or 10 millimeters in specimens measuring 
115 millimeters in body length, and beyond this lie the 2 or 
3 rather widely separated teeth of the tip region. The usual 
9 or 10 teeth of the ventral border are more widely separated 
toward the tip than at the proximal end. In middle-aged males 
and females the arrangement of the teeth is similar, but the 
unarmed space is, relatively, slightly shorter. The bases of 
the first, second, and third teeth of the upper border in the 
largest males lie back of the orbit, and the unarmed space is 
proportionately shorter than in the middle-aged males and 
females. 

The following facts concerning the rostrum of Palaemon 
carcinus found in the Philippines seem clear from the study 
of our collection: 

1. The rostrum increases in length as the body length becomes greater. 

2. In young males and females the rostrum extends much beyond the an- 

tennal scale. 

3. As the males and females grow older, the rostrum extends less beyond 

the antennal scale; this is, especially, the case in males. 

4. In old males (250 to 320 millimeters), those with the enormously devel- 

oped chelipeds, the rostrum fails to reach the antennal scale by a 
considerable distance. 

5. The number of the teeth does not vary with the length of the rostrum, 

with the length of the body, nor with the age of the individual. 

Relative position of first antenna and rostrum. — ^As in other 
palaemons, the peduncle of the first antenna fails to reach the 
antennal scale. While it increases in length as the animal grows 
older, it retains about the same relative proportions; that is, 
the peduncle extends forward over about three-fifths of the 

^'Ibid, (1868), 5, 35. 



332 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

antennal scale of the second antenna. A glance at Table I shows 
that the tip of the peduncle varies in position with reference to 
the teeth on the lower border of the rostrum. In the smallest 
males and females it extends to the third or fourth tooth, while 
in the largest males with the small legs and in the largest 
females it extends to the fifth, sixth, or seventh tooth. In the 
large males with the enormously developed chelipeds the tip 
of the peduncle reaches almost to the end of the rostrum. 

First pair t>f legs. — The length of the first pair of legs with 
reference to the length of the antennal scale does not seem to 
vary much. In young males and females usually the propodus 
of the first leg extends beyond the tip of the antennal scale, 
while in the largest males the propodus and as much as one- 
fourth or one-half of the carpus may be seen beyond the tip of 
the scale. 

Chelipeds. — The chelipeds are much shorter in young males 
and females than the length of the body from the tip of the 
rostrum to the tip of the telson. Even in the adult and largest 
females these fail to equal the body length. Also, males under 
240 millimeters in length with weakly developed legs have the 
chelipeds shorter than the body, but males over 250 millimeters 
in length have the chelipeds longer than the body. The chel- 
ipeds of the largest male in our collection (body length, 320 
millimeters) measure 486 millimeters (ischium, merus, carpus, 
and propodus), and they extend with one-half of the merus 
beyond the tip of the antennal scale. As a rule, in young males 
and females the palm and fingers are nearly of the same length, 
but as the animals grow older the palm increases in length more 
rapidly than the fingers, so that the proportion may be as much as 
1 : 1.43. In Table I it will be seen that the smallest male in 
the collection shows a proportion of 1 : 1.33. Only one cheliped 
is present in this case, and I believe the proportion is unusual. 
A similar proportional increase in the length of the palm is 
seen in the female, but it is not so striking. In all of our speci- 
mens, male and female, the carpus is shorter than the propodus. 
The difference is not so great in the young specimens, and 
I think it probable that younger specimens than we have might 
show the carpus to be longer than the propodus, a condition 
which de Man has observed in the young of the Indian form. 

The fingers of young specimens (100 millimeters) show no 
toothing, but at 115 to 120 millimeters the teeth begin to make 
their appearance. The mobile finger is armed along its cutting 
edge with 2 acute teeth. The distal tooth is situated at a point 
one-third of the distance or a little more from the articulation 



IX, D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 333 

to the tip of the finger, and it is flattened laterally.^^ It measures 
2.5 by 2 millimeters at the base in our largest specimens, and is 
2.5 millimeters high. The proximal tooth is found about midway 
between the distal tooth and the articulation of the finger. It is 
flattened laterally, and in the largest males is smaller than, but of 
the same shape as, the distal tooth. In old males with the enor- 
mously developed chelipeds there are 4 teeth present on the 
immobile finger. The distal one, which is conical in shape (3 
millimeters at the base and 3 millimeters in height) , is the largest, 
and is situated 4 or 5 millimeters anterior to the proximal tooth 
of the mobile finger. Also, in younger males and females this 
tooth is found in front of the proximal tooth of the mobile finger 
but much closer to it. The next tooth, which is much smaller and 
less acute than any so far described, touches the proximal tooth 
of the mobile finger on its posterior side when the fingers are 
closed. Directly back of this tooth and almost continuous with it 
is the third tooth, which is still smaller. The fourth tooth is 
continuous with the third, and might be considered as a smaller 
cusp of the third tooth. In young males and females and even 
sometimes in the very old males the fourth tooth is not distin- 
guishable, but is represented by a short raised piece of the 
cutting edge. In the oldest male in our collection (320 milli- 
meters) there is an indication of a fifth or sixth tooth, which 
might become more distinct in larger specimens. While the 
toothing in general is much like that of Palaemon carcinus F. of 
India as described and figured by Henderson and Matthai,'^ 
the teeth in our form seem to be somewhat more robust. A felt- 
like coat of hair is present on the mobile finger of both males 
and females, except when they are very young. Specimens in 
our collection from 100 to 115 millimeters long show no signs 
of this hair. As a rule, only the proximal one-half of the finger 
is coated in the young measuring from 115 to 140 millimeters, 
but as the animals grow older the coat extends gradually until 
it covers all but the distal one-fourth. Herbst's ^^ figure of Pa- 

" In most living palaemons the chelipeds are held so that the immobile 
finger lies more nearly in a dorsal position and the mobile finger more 
nearly in a ventral position, but sometimes in preserved specimens the 
cheliped becomes twisted so that the fingers lie in a horizontal plane. In 
this paper the immobile finger will be considered as dorsal in position with 
reference to the mobile finger, and in the case of P. carcinus the long rows 
of large spines will mark the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the merus and 
carpus. The ischium remains in about the same position after preservation. 

""Rec, Indian Mus. (1910), 5, 281, PI. XV, fig. la. 

" Versuch einer Naturgeschichte der Krabben und Krebse (1796), 2, Tab. 
XXVIII, fig. 1. 



334 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

laemon carcinus shows a condition similar to that found in 
our form, except that the coating of hair extends a little farther 
toward the tip. In the figure shown by Henderson and Matthai, 
however, the pubescence extends to the tip of the finger. The 
tips of both fingers curve inward in specimens of all ages, and 
overlap when the fingers are closed. In young specimens with 
a body length of about 150 millimeters or less, the fingers when 
closed lie close together throughout their extent, but larger in- 
dividuals have the fingers gaping. In old males the immobile 
finger, which is curved less sharply at the tip than the mobile 
finger, extends beyond the latter. The immobile finger of the 
largest male presents 13 or 14 indistinct longitudinal rows of 
small spines. Several of these rows, especially the one along 
the cutting edge, are made up of larger spines than those of the 
other rows. Near the tip of the finger the cutting edge disap- 
pears and the number of rows of spines is reduced. Spines 
are absent along the cutting edge and the region covered by the 
felt of the mobile finger, but a few spines are to be seen along 
the incurved tip. The cutting edge disappears near the tip. In 
young males and females the fingers are spineless. 

The palm of the largest male in our collection measures 122 
millimeters in length. It is flattened laterally at the distal 
one-half, measuring 13 by 16 millimeters, but at the proximal 
one-half it becomes almost cylindrical in cross section, measuring 
about 15 millimeters in diameter. It presents about 18 lon- 
gitudinal rows of spines, which in general are larger than those 
on the fingers, and the rows on the inner surface are made up 
of spines which are larger than those of the rows on the outer 
surface. An average-sized spine of the larger kind measures 
2 millimeters in length. The palm is marked on each lateral 
surface by a longitudinal groove, and each of these grooves is 
continued, except with a break at the joint, into a **linear space" 
on the outer and inner surfaces, respectively, of the carpus which 
is similar to that described by Hoffman, von Martens, and 
Coutiere. The shape of the palm in all younger males and 
females is the same as that of the old males. Males and females 
of middle age show the characteristic rows of spines, but these 
are not so conspicuous, and in young males and females they 
are only visible with a lens. The grooves can be seen in speci- 
mens of all ages and both sexes represented in our collection. 

The carpus in our largest male equals the palm in length, but 
probably in larger specimens it is shorter. In the oldest fe- 
males the palm is shorter than the carpus, and the same is 
true of young individuals of both sexes. Table I shows that the 



IX, D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 335 

palm grows faster than the carpus as the individuals increase 
in size, a fact which has been pointed out by several authors. 
The carpus of the largest male in the collection measures 122 
millimeters in length, and is cylindrical in cross section through- 
out practically the whole extent. Near its distal end the diameter 
is 17 millimeters, while at a point near the proximal end it 
measures 13 millimeters. Eleven indistinct longitudinal rows of 
small spines are present on the outer surface, and these are 
separated from 3 indistinct rows of medium-sized spines on 
the inner surface by a dorsal and a ventral longitudinal row of 
blunt and conspicuous spines. One of the largest of these 
spines is 4 millimeters in length. The 2 linear spaces men- 
tioned above are very distinct, and lie on the dorsolateral and 
ventrolateral regions of the outer surface. All younger males 
and females show the carpus to be of the same shape as that 
of the large male. In the youngest individuals (100 to 115 milli- 
meters) minute spinules may be seen with a lens, and slightly 
older specimens show the beginnings of the 2 rows of largest 
spines. The ''linear spaces" can hardly be made out until the 
spines show clearly to the naked eye. 

The merus, which retains about the same relative proportion 
in length to the carpus throughout life, is cylindrical anteriorly 
in the largest male, and has a length of 100 millimeters. It 
increases gradually in size, passing from the proximal end for- 
ward, and near the distal end suddenly decreases in diameter 
thus giving the impression of a swelling. About 13 milli- 
meters from its proximal end it measures 13 millimeters, and 
at the thickest part of the distal end it measures 18 millimeters 
in diameter. The merus at its articulation with the ischium is 
much flattened dorsoventrally, so as to correspond to the distal 
end of the ischium. The dorsal and ventral longitudinal rows of 
large spines, which are very conspicuous on the carpus, are even 
more so on the merus, one of the largest spines measuring 5 
millimeters in height. There are 6 indistinct longitudinal rows 
of small spines on the outer surface and 5 indistinct rows of 
medium-sized spines on the inner surface. The more dorsal 
"linear space" of the carpus is continued on the merus, while 
the more ventral one is absent or at least not clearly marked. 
The description of the character of the surface of the carpus in 
younger males and females applies to that of the merus in speci- 
mens of the same age. 

The ischium (57 millimeters in length) in the largest male 
is greatly flattened dorsoventrally, and increases in size toward the 
distal end. On the dorsal and ventral surfaces there are 2 lon- 

129877 2 



336 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

gitudinal grooves, one of which is deep. These divide the 
surface into 3 regions — 2 lateral and 1 median. Distally the 
median region of the dorsal surface is highly convex and armed 
with several stout spines, while the rest of this surface is spine- 
less. The median region of the ventral surface is smooth. The 
externolateral region of the ventral surface presents a lon- 
gitudinal row of fairly stout spines and 2 rows of smaller spines ; 
the intemolateral region of the same surface is armed with 2 
longitudinal rows of fairly stout spines ; the externolateral region 
of the dorsal surface presents 2 rows of medium-sized spines; 
and the intemolateral region presents 1 row of fairly stout 
spines. In younger males and females the more shallow groove 
mentioned above is absent, so that the same regions cannot be 
distinguished. The armature and shape remain about the same, 
except that the spines diminish in size until in the smallest 
specimens no spines are visible. The ischium grows slower 
(Table I) than the merus and carpus, a fact which has been 
noted in the publications of other authors on palaemons in 
general. 

Third, fourth, and fifth legs. — The third pair of legs in speci- 
men 2 is absent. The tip of the fourth leg and the dactylus 
of the fifth leg extend beyond the tip of the antennal scale. 
The diameter of the propodus of the fifth leg in the middle is 
0.75 millimeter, and the length is 15 millimeters. In specimen 
9 the tips of the dactyli of the third, fourth, and fifth legs extend 
slightly beyond the tip of the antennal scale, and the measure- 
ments for the propodus of the fifth leg are 1.25 by 25 millimeters. 
The fifth leg only of specimen 16 is present, and 7 millimeters 
of its propodus extend beyond the scale. It measures 4 milli- 
meters in diameter at its middle, and is 61 millimeters long. 

Telson, — The telson of the local form agrees with the de- 
scriptions and figures which have been published for Palaemon 
carcinvs. The innermost pair of lateroterminal spines on each 
side of the tip is the largest and best developed. The tip of the 
telson is acute, and does not extend as far as the posterior border 
of the uropods. 

Character of surface, — ^As in many other palaemons, the char- 
acter of the surface of the carapace and abdomen differs with 
the age. The carapace and abdomen of males and females from 
100 to 190 millimeters in length are strikingly smooth to the 
touch and under magnification show no spines. The third, 
fourth, and fifth pairs of legs are beset with rows of minute 
yellowish spinules, especially along their distal two-thirds, but 
the first pair of legs are devoid of spines of any sort. Males and 



IX, D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 337 

females, 190 to 240 millimeters long, show a similar condition 
to that found in the smaller individuals, except that the merus 
and ischium of the first pair of legs are armed with spinules 
and the spinules of the third, fourth, and fifth legs are larger. 
The surface of the carapace in large males (240 or 250 to 320 
millimeters, with long chelipeds) is rough to the touch and beset 
with spinules, except along the extreme posterior border. The 
spinules of the dorsal and anterolateral regions are larger than 
those of other parts. These spinules, which are usually acute, 
point forward, and average about 0.5 millimeter in length. Most 
of the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the abdominal segments 
and the dorsal surface of the inner ramus of each uropod have 
a growth of fine spinules, causing them to feel rough to the 
touch. The first, third, fourth, and fifth legs are armed like 
younger specimens, but the spines are larger. 

Eggs, — The eggs of the local form of Palaemon carcinus 
measure from 0.5 by 0,5 to 0.5 by 0.66 millimeter. 

Color of living specimens. — The local form of Palaemon carci- 
nus varies in color with the age, but the color is fairly constant 
for any one age. The following color notes are taken from 
living specimens. The carapace of females (115 to 190 milli- 
meters) is greenish gray, but is marked with brown, gray, or 
cream-colored streaks running longitudinally. The terga and 
pleura of the abdomen have a general color similar to that of 
the carapace, and are marked with rather irregular but more 
or less parallel streaks of brown, gray, or cream, which make 
a somewhat definite pattern. In the region of the hinge of each 
of the abdominal somites is an orange-colored patch; these 
patches are especially evident on the fourth, fifth, and sixth 
somites. The ventral and lateral edges of the first 3 abdominal 
somites show a cream-colored band, while the ventral edges of 
the fourth and fifth somites have a similar but narrower band. 
A cream-colored band is also present along the edges of the rami 
and the outer edge of the basipodite of the swimmerets. The 
chelipeds are blue or lavender in color, but where the segments 
join there is an orange-colored patch. The first and second 
antennae are blue, in part at least, and the internal flagellum 
of the first antenna is a conspicuous blue. The rostrum is 
strikingly marked by the vermilion color of its lateral longitu- 
dinal ridge. The colors practically all disappear, sooner or later, 
when the specimens are preserved, leaving the animals yellow 
in color. Living males (100 to 190 millimeters) have a color 
which is similar to that of the young females, except that the 
cream-colored band is absent on the pleura of the abdomen. 



338 ^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

A faint cream-colored band is present on the external rami of 
the swimmerets. As the males and females (190 to 240 or 250 
millimeters) grow larger and the chelipeds become longer, the 
general color becomes a darker blue and the brown, gray, or 
cream-colored lines on the carapace and abdominal somites and 
the cream-colored bands on the pleura become much less dis- 
tinct. The color of other parts still persists, but becomes some- 
what darker. In old males (240 or 250 to 320 millimeters) with 
the enormously long chelipeds the color is much less brilliant 
than in the younger specimens. The dorsal region of the cara- 
pace and abdomen is brownish green, and the lateral regions are 
light green or brown. The brown, gray, or cream-colored mark- 
ings and bands so characteristic of smaller individuals disappear 
almost entirely, while the orange-colored spots on the abdomen 
and at the articulations of the segments of the chelipeds, the 
vermilion color of the ridge on the rostrum, and the conspicuous 
blue of the first and second antennae usually persist to some ex- 
tent, but become noticeably darker. The chelipeds appear at 
first sight a dirty black, but on closer examination they are seen 
to be a very dark, dirty blue, except in the proximal region where 
they are greenish blue. The third, fourth, and fifth legs are 
bluish green in color. The ventral border of the pleura of the 
sixth abdominal segment shows a distinct orange-colored band. 

A comparison of the color of the local Palaemon carcintts with 
descriptions and color drawings of Palaemon carcinns from 
India shows, that while there is a general similarity there are 
some striking differences. The blue color of the cephalothorax 
and abdomen is absent, and in its place there are cream-colored 
bands and other markings. The latter may be present in young 
specimens of the Indian form. The first and second antennae, 
so far as I have been able to make out from colored drawings 
and descriptions, are not blue like those of our local form, and 
it is of interest to note that in no other palaemon in the Philip- 
pines with which I am familiar are the antennae colored in the 
same way as those of the local form of P. carcinus. Finally, the 
striking changes in color as we pass from the younger specimens 
to the older ones, if occurring in Palaemon carcinus of India, do 
not seem to have been recorded. 

Old and young males, — While specialists on the genus Palae- 
mon are familiar with the fact that the old males in some species 
look very different from the young males and while it seems 
probable that the same is true for all species of Palaemon, it is 
difficult to convince one who is not a zoologist or even a zoologist 



IX, D, 4 Cotvles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 339 

who is not familiar with palaemons that the old males are of 
the same species as the young males and females. The fol- 
lowing are my reasons for considering the large brownish pa- 
laemon, which is seen in our museums and sometimes in our 
markets and which has the extremely long and thick chelipeds, 
as the same species (P. carcimis) as the beautifully colored young 
males and females with short weak chelipeds: 

1. Both the first and second antennae show the deep peacock blue color, 

which is found in no other species in our collection. 

2. If we assume that the large brown form with the enormous chelipeds 

is a different species from the smaller brightly colored males and 
females, then we have to account for the facts that all of the large 
brown forms are males, that no females have been found corre- 
sponding to them in size and shape, and that the fishermen have never 
caught any females like them. 

3. The number of teeth on the dorsal and ventral borders of the rostrum 

is approximately the same in both. 

4. While the rostrum is distinctly shorter proportionately in the large brown 

form, a gradual reduction in the relative length of the rostrum can be 
traced if we place both kinds together in a series arranged according 
to increasing body length. 
6. In living specimens a series shows how the brilliant color of the young 
gradually grades into the dull brown of the old form. 

6. Both kinds have the coat of felted hair on the mobile finger. 

7. The chelipeds are blue in both forms, but very dark blue in the large 

form. 

''Males feminises,'' — It is not possible to determine whether or 
not our collection of P. carcimis contains what Coutiere -'* speaks 
of as ''males feminises,'' although all the males, except the oldest 
ones, show the female characteristics; that is, the chelipeds 
are weak and short. Plate I, figs, le and 1/, shows how little 
the chelipeds of the full-grown female and the chelipeds of 
the young male differ from one another. As a matter of fact, our 
collection does not contain any young male which has taken on 
the characteristics of the old males, with the possible exception 
of the specimen (240 millimeters) noted in Table I. These 
males are more numerous in our collection of Palaemon philip- 
pinensis sp. nov., which is described on page 340. 

The enormous increase in the size of the chelipeds and the 
change in shape of the fingers in the old males of P. carcinus, 
P. lar, P. jamaicensiSy and other species are phenomena which 
cannot fail to stimulate the mind of the zoologist. Ortmann 2' 
thinks that we have every reason for believing that the beautiful 

'''Ann. ScL Nat., Zool. (1900), 11, 269. 

'' Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs (1901), 5, 1242. 



340 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

chelipeds of the male Palaemon carcinus are sexual adorn- 
ments. In our local form of Palaemon carcinits the chelipeds 
of young males, young females, and mature females are blue 
or lavender, while the chelipeds of the old males are very dark, 
inconspicuous blue. I can readily believe that the blue color 
is an adornment, but I can hardly believe that it is attractive 
to the females, even if we assume that they have color sense, 
as these palaemons live in water which is far from clear. A 
study of the habits of the palaemons may throw some light 
on the meaning of these large chdipeds. 

Localities, — ^We have in our collection 41 males and 21 females 
which were collected from Pasig River, San Juan River (a 
tributary of Pasig River), and Laguna de Bay, the source of 
Pasig River. All of these bodies of water are in the neighbor- 
hood of Manila, Luzon. Since the above was written, several 
large specimens have been added to the collection by A. L. Day, 
who collected them in Naujan Lake near Calapan, Mindoro. 

Palaemon philippinensis sp. nov. Plate II, figs. 2 and 2a-m. 

This species presents much variation in the shape and general 
appearance of the rostrum. The proportion of the carpus to the 
merus of the chelipeds is not constant, the carpus increasing 
in length faster than the merus as the animal grows longer. 
Another characteristic of this sp^ies (possibly of all species of 
Palaemon) is the occurrence of dimorphic males; that is, some 
of the males of medium size have chelipeds of about the 
same length and shape ("males feminises" of Coutiere)22 as 
those of the females of the same size, and other males of small 
or medium size, but usually covered with brownish sediment, 
have the characteristics of the largest and undoubtedly mature 
males; namely, enormously long chelipeds with well-armed and 
gaping fingers (young mature males). In our collection the 
"males feminises" far outnumber the other males (Table II). 

^^Ann, Sci, Nat, Zool, (1900), 11, 269. In the present paper the follow- 
ing terms are used to distinguish between different forms of males : "Young 
males," "males feminises," "young mature males," and "old mature males." 
The distinction between the different forms is not always clearly defined, 
but the terms are used for convenience in description and for the purpose 
of indicating my attitude in reference to Coutiere's statement that di- 
morphic males exist among palaemons. It should be understood, however, 
that I have no proof that the "males feminises" are nonbreeding in- 
dividuals or that the "young mature males" are breeding individuals. The 
former term is used for medium-sized male specimens that have chelipeds 
like those of the females and the latter term is employed for such small 
or medium-sized males as have chelipeds like those of the largest males. 



IX, D, 4 Coivles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 341 

Palaemon philippinensis seems to be most nearly related to 
P. nipponensis de Haan,^^ differing from this species in size, in 
the absence of the rather thick coating of hairs on the fingers, 
and in the presence of distinct tubercles along the sides of the 
cutting edge. The tubercles (absent in young males, in most 
"males feminises,'' and in all females but the largest specimen) 
remind one of P. elegans de Man ^^ and P. rudis Heller,^^ but 
in Palaemon philippinensis the tubercles are found on both sides 
of the cutting edge of the mobile finger and only on one side, 
the inner, of the cutting edge of the immobile finger. 

Two other striking characteristics of this species are the 
variability in the shape of the rostrum, reminding one of 
P. weberi de Man, and the variability in proportion between 
the lengths of the carpus and merus, which also seems to be 
characteristic of P. ritsemae de Man ^^ and P. rudis Heller. 
These variations, together with the occurrence in the collection 
of both forms of the male, would have aroused a doubt in my 
mind as to the specimens being of one species if I had not seen 
them all shortly after they were taken from the water, when 
the living color was still retained and when they showed a 
characteristic T-shaped pigment mark and certain obliquely 
placed pigment marks on each side of the carapace, which are 
found in no other species in our collection. (See discussion on 
the color of P. philippinensis.) 

The following is a description of the largest male specimen in 
the collection (one from San Juan River near Manila), after 
which follows a comparative description of specimens differing 
in age and sex : 

This male (Table II, specimen 31) (Plate II, figs. 2, 2a, 26, 
and 2c) measures 144 millimeters in length. The rostrum fails 
to reach the tip of the antennal scale. The dorsal border is 
conspicuously convex over the eye, the ventral border curves 
upward moderately, but the tip is not directed upward. The 
ridge along the side of the rostrum divides the surface of the 
latter into an upper wide and a lower narrow area. Along the 
dorsal border are 12 teeth, the first, second, and third of which 
are situated on the carapace. These are separated by wider 
intervals than those immediately following. The ninth and 
eleventh teeth are also farther apart than those immediately 

** Fauna Japonica. Siebold (1833), 1, 171. 

" Zoologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in Niederlandisch Ost-Indien (1892), 
2, 440. 

* Reise der Osterreichischen Frigatte Novara (1868), 2, 115. 
''Zool Jahrb., Systematik (1897), 9, 774. 



342 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



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346 ^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

posterior to them. On the lower border are 3 teeth, the distal 
one of which lies some distance back of the tip. The peduncle 
of the first antenna reaches almost to the tip of the rostrum. 
One-third of the carpus of the fully extended first pair of legs 
extends beyond the antennal scale. 

The left cheliped, which is a little longer than the right (not 
true of all specimens), measures 266.5 millimeters, being a little 
less than twice as long as the body. The immobile finger extends 
farther forward than the mobile finger, and is not curved in- 
ward so sharply. The fingers are a little more than one-half 
as long as the palm (1 : 1.81), and in this specimen they gape; 
that is, when their tips meet, there is an open space between 
the fingers. Of the 2 teeth situated near the proximal end of 
the mobile finger, the more distal one, which is subacute and 
flattened laterally, is 2 millimeters high and 2 millimeters wide 
at the base. The more proximal one is smaller, less acute, and 
is flattened laterally. It measures 1.5 millimeters in height and 
1 millimeter at the base. The cutting edge of the mobile finger 
is seen with difficulty, being simply a very slightly raised ridge. 
On each side of it is a row of 12 plainly visible tubercles, which 
do not extend to the tip. There is no thick coating of hair as 
in Palaemon nipponensis. On the immobile finger, which is also 
without the thick coating of hair, is a large subacute tooth, which 
is situated a little posterior to the distal tooth of the mobile 
finger. It is conical in shape, measuring 2.5 millimeters in 
height and 2 millimeters in width at the base. Back of this 
tooth may be seen a series of 4 closely set teeth. The most 
anterior of the 4, which is the largest, is on a level with the more 
proximal tooth of the mobile finger. The second, third, and 
fourth decrease gradually in size, and the last 2 are incompletely 
separated. A series of 8 or 9 tubercles, similar to those on the 
mobile finger, is situated along the inner side of the very in- 
conspicuous cutting edge. The palm, which is almost cylindrical 
in cross section, is flattened slightly laterally. It is of about the 
same size throughout its extent, and is shorter than the carpus. 
The cylindrical carpus, which reaches its greatest diameter (9 
millimeters) some little distance back of the distal end, is much 
shorter than the chela, while the slightly curved merus, which 
is almost cylindrical near its distal end and decidedly flattened 
near its proximal end, is much shorter than the carpus, showing 
a ratio of 1:1.5. The much flattened ischium has its dorsal 
and ventral surfaces divided into 2 regions by a longitudinal 
groove. The lengths, in millimeters, of the parts of the cheliped 



IX, D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 347 

just described are as follows: Propodus, 105.5; fingers, 38.5; 
palm, 70 ; carpus, 84 ; merus, 45.5 ; ischium, 28.5. 

The telson of this specimen ends in a subacute spine. The 
extemolateral spines are slightly less than 1 millimeter in length, 
while the internolateral spines, which extend with a little less 
than one-half their length beyond the tip of the telson, measure 
about 1.5 millimeters in length. (See description of telson in 
smaller specimens.) 

Patches of very obtuse spines are present on the anterior sur- 
face of the carapace. Similar spines are seen on the ventral 
and lateral parts of the pleura, on the dorsal surface of the 
sixth somite and the telson, and on exposed parts of the dorsal 
and ventral surfaces of the uropods. These spines are especially 
numerous on the last three structures named. 

The ischium of the first pair of legs and the 5 distal segments 
of the third, fourth, and fifth pairs of legs are clothed with acute 
spinules. Eight or 9 indistinct longitudinal rows of blunt, small 
spines (much smaller than the tubercles) are seen on the mobile 
finger of the chelipeds, and the immobile finger bears 7 or 8 
rows of similar spines. The palm is armed with 26 or 27 more 
distinct longitudinal rows, made up of larger and more acute 
spines than those of the palm, the spines of the ventral and 
dorsal surface being the largest. On the carpus are 17 or 18 
longitudinal rows of spines, similar to those of the palm. A 
dorsal ''linear space'' is evident, and a ventral ''linear space" is 
very conspicuous. It will be seen that these spaces are not 
situated on the lateral surface as in the local P. carcinus. The 
merus presents about the same number of longitudinal rows made 
up of spines similar to those of the carpus, and the dorsal and 
ventral "linear spaces'' can still be seen, although the former is 
not very clear. There are 14 or 15 rows of acute spines on the 
ischium, the largest ones being situated on the dorsal, ventral, 
and internolateral surfaces. 

Rostrum and antennal scale. — The 8 female specimens in our 
collection, when arranged according to increasing body length, 
show a gradual reduction in the length of rostrum relative to 
the length of the antennal scale. In a specimen 47 millimeters 
long the rostrum extends slightly beyond the tip of the antennal 
scale; in others, 69, 71.5, and 86 millimeters long, they are equal; 
in specimens 93, 97, 99.5, and 118 millimeters long the rostrum 
fails to reach the tip of the antennal scale by 2.5, 1, 3, and 3 
millimeters, respectively. The rostrum extends 1 millimeter 
beyond the tip of the antennal scale in the smallest male specimen 



348 2^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

(33.5 millimeters) ; in specimens from 90 to 96.5 millimeters long 
the tip of the rostrum barely reaches the tip of the antennal scale ; 
in those from 96.5 to about 124 millimeters long the rostrum 
usually fails to reach the tip of the antennal scale by from 1 
to 3 millimeters; and in specimens from 124 to 144 millimeters 
long this distance usually increases to from 4 to 6 millimeters. 
The specimen (111.5 millimeters) indicated in Table II is a male 
which has assumed adult male characters (young mature male), 
although its body is still only of medium length. It is covered 
with a dirty brown sediment, and its chelipeds are enormously 
developed relative to the body length. The rostrum fails to 
reach the antennal scale by 7.5 millimeters. The chelipeds, al- 
though much shorter than those of the specimen 144 millimeters 
long (Table II), are almost perfect miniatures, showing prac- 
tically the same proportions. While the decrease in the relative 
length of the rostrum with reference to the antennal scale is 
not so regular with increasing size as in the local form of 
Palaemon carcinus, it is, nevertheless, plainly apparent. 

Curvature and dental formula of rostrum. — Specimens of dif- 
ferent ages show such a remarkable difference in the shape of 
the rostrum, that if I had not seen all of my specimens when 
alive I should hesitate to consider them as belonging to the 
same species. In this respect P. philippinensis reminds one of 
the variable form of the rostrum in P. weberi de Man ^^ and 
P. dispar von Martens."^ Certain characteristic markings men- 
tioned under the section devoted to the color of the living in- 
dividuals and not found in any other species in our collection 
were present in all. The youngest males (33.5 and 39.5 milli- 
meters) and the youngest females (47 to 71.5 millimeters) have 
the dorsal border of the rostrum almost straight, only a very 
slight convexity over the eye being apparent. As the "males 
feminises" (those similar in general appearance to females) and 
females increase in body length, the convexity becomes gradually 
more pronounced. In the largest males it is very striking, but 
in the largest females it is not so much so. The young and 
middle-aged males which take on the adult characters usually 
show a greater curvature of the dorsal border of the rostrum 
over the eye than do the "males feminises" of the same size. 
Correlated with this increase in the convexity, as these males and 

^ Zoologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in Niederlandisch Ost-Indien (1892), 
2, 421. 

^ Arch. /. Naturgesch. (1868), 5, 41. 



IX, D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 349 

females become more nearly mature there is an increase in the 

distance between the longitudinal ridge on the side of the rostrum 

and the dorsal border. At the same time there is a decrease 

in the relative length of the rostrum, so that the rostrum of 

younger individuals is a rather narrow blade while that of the 

older individuals is a broader blade. 

The dental formula for the males (33.5 to 144 millimeters) is 

11 12 13 

jc-^^c — ^ — ^, while that for the few females in our collection is, 

^, 6, 4, 5 

11 12 13 
with one exception, — '-o-j — • As in the local form of Palaemon 

carcinus, there is no evidence that the number of teeth on the 

rostrum increases with age. It should be mentioned that the 

exception referred to above is a female 93 millimeters long, in 

18 
which the rostral formula is -^ (Table II). This specimen has 

recently carried eggs, and has a rostrum similar in shape to 
the largest males. The living color markings agreed exactly 
with those of other females of this species. The chelipeds, in 
shape, armature, and proportion, are much like the chelipeds 
of specimen 37 (97 millimeters) indicated in Table II. I have 
hesitated before diagnosing this individual as P. philippinensis, 
but as I can find no character which would rule out the specimen, 
except the large number of teeth on the dorsal border, I am 
forced to include it. In young and middle-aged males the teeth 
9 and 10, or 10 and 11, or 11 and 12, or 12 and 13 on the dorsal 
border of the rostrum are more widely separated from one 
another than those farther back. The comparatively wide space 
between any two or any three of the teeth just mentioned is very 
evident in the young, but it decreases gradually as the animal 
grows larger, until in the largest males these teeth are almost 
evenly spaced. Similar prominent spaces are seen on the young, 
middle-aged, and older females. The first, second, and third 
teeth are usually found on the carapace in both males and females, 
although occasionally the third is astride of the edge of the orbit. 
The distance between the first and second and usually also between 
the second and third is greater than that between the teeth 
immediately succeeding. The lower border of the rostrum in 
both sexes and at all ages curves upward in its distal two-thirds, 
but this upward curving is not so pronounced in old age. The 
most distal tooth of the lower border is almost invariably at a 
considerable distance from the tip of the rostrum. 



350 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

The specimens of Palaemon philippinensis in our collection 
bring out the following facts concerning the rostrum in this 
species : 

1. The rostrum increases in length as the body grows longer. 

2. Its relative length compared with the length of the antennal scale 

becomes less with increasing age, and only in the young does it 
extend beyond the tip of the scale. 

3. The convexity of the dorsal border over the eye increases as the indi- 

viduals grow more mature, and as a result the distance between the 
longitudinal ridge on the side of the rostrum and the dorsal border 
increases greatly. 

4. The wide spacing between the teeth near the tip of the rostrum decreases 

with age, and almost disappears in old males. 

Relative position of first antennas and rostrum. — The peduncle 
of the first antenna retains the same relative proportions with 
reference to the antennal scale of the second antenna throughout 
life, and never extends to the tip of the scale. Generally in 
young and middle-aged males and females the peduncle of the 
first antenna extends to about the third or fourth tooth of the 
lower border of the rostrum, but in the largest specimens, espe- 
cially the males, it reaches or almost reaches the tip of the 
rostrum. Small males which have taken on the mature male 
characteristics (young mature males) also sometimes show the 
tip of the peduncle even with the tip of the rostrum (Table II, 
No. 13). The relative position of the tip of the rostrum and 
the tip of the peduncle of the first antenna at different ages 
reminds one of the condition in the local form of Palaemon 
carcinus, although in a series of Palaemon philippinensis sly- 
ranged according to increasing body length the approximation 
of the tips of the peduncle and rostrum does not take place so 
gradually and uniformly with increasing body length as in the 
former. 

First pair of legs, — In the smallest males and females a portion 
of the propodus extends beyond the tip of the antennal scale, 
while in larger males and females a portion of the carpus is 
also seen extending beyond it (Table II). 

Chelipeds, — The chelipeds of small males and females are 
shorter than the body, and with certain exceptions this condi- 
tion persists with increasing body length, although the chelipeds 
of larger individuals show a relatively greater length compared 
with that of the body (Nos. la, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18, 
19, 20, 21, 22, 25 (?), 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39). The excep- 
tions mentioned are the large mature males (Nos. 26, 27, 28, 29, 
30, 31) and the smaller males which have taken on the mature 
characters (Nos. 3, 4, 6, 11, 13, 15, 23, 24). By mature charac- 



IX. D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 351 

ters are meant the gaping of the fingers, the proportionately lar- 
ger teeth on the fingers, the exceedingly long chelipeds, and the 
roughness of carapace, pleura, sixth abdominal somite, and 
telson. 

All specimens of P. philippinensis in our collection possess 
fingers which are shorter than the palm, the next to the smallest 
male (No. la) showing a proportion of 1:1.22 and one of the 
largest males (No. 30) a proportion of 1:1.91. In general, as 
the body grows larger the palm increases in length at a greater 
rate than the fingers. A similar but much less marked pro- 
portional increase occurs in the females. The fingers of P. phil- 
ippinensis show no signs of the long hairs or of the felted hairs 
which are characteristic of P. nipponensis and P. carcinus, 
respectively, but all specimens in the collection possess a few 
scattered tufts of hair, which do not obscure the underlying 
structures in the least. The teeth, which have been described 
above as present on the fingers of a large male, can be seen in 
the youngest males and females only with a high-power magnify- 
ing lens. They soon increase in size as the' animal grows larger 
(90 millimeters), and become visible to the naked eye. In the 
small males (No. 3 and others that have taken on the mature 
form and which for convenience I have called young mature 
males) the teeth are conspicuous, their size being in proportion 
to the length of the cheliped. Two teeth on the mobile finger 
and 1 tooth (the distal) on the immobile finger are present in 
the youngest males and females (Nos. la and 32). In females 
and "males feminises" of the size of No. 19 the small teeth back 
of the proximal tooth on the immobile finger are just beginning 
to form. The tips of the fingers curve inward at all ages and 
meet, except in the largest males and sometimes in the young 
mature males, where the immobile finger curves in much less 
and extends beyond the mobile finger. In small males, in "males 
"feminises," and in all the females with the possible exception 
of No. 39, the fingers do not gape when closed, but in young 
mature males and especially in the old males the gaping is 
conspicuous. A keellike cutting edge is found on both fingers 
of all males and females. This is rather high and sharp in 
young males (including "males feminises" and young mature 
males of smaller size) , but it decreases in height markedly with 
increasing body length in the young mature males and less 
rapidly in the "males feminises" and females. In the large 
males Nos. 30 and 31 and the older young mature males Nos. 
23 and 26, the keel is reduced to an inconspicuous raised line 
which can be seen only with a magnifying lens. The tubercles 



352 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

mentioned in the description of the large male as being present 
along the outer and inner sides of the cutting edge of the mobile 
finger and along the inner side of the immobile finger cannot be 
seen in the smallest males (Nos. la and 2) nor in any of the 
females except No. 39, in which they are slightly developed. 
In the smallest young mature male (No. 3) they show slightly, 
becoming better developed in specimens of larger size (Nos. 4, 
6, 11, 13, 15, 23). "Males feminises," when sufficiently large 
(Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27), 
show the tubercles, but in one of these. No. 17, the row on the 
outer border of the cutting edge of the mobile finger is re- 
presented by only 2 tubercles. In No. 18 this row is not present, 
but the inner row on each finger is well developed, while in 
Nos. 7, 8, 9, and 10 only very few tubercles along the inner 
border of both fingers are seen. Numbers 14, 16, 20, 21, 22, 
24, and 25 show the characteristic 2 rows on the mobile and 
1 row on the immobile finger. 

The palm in specimens of all sizes and sexes is similar in shape 
to that of the larger male already described. In young speci- 
mens the fingers are a little shorter than the palm (1: 1.22 in 
No. la), but as the body length increases the palm grows faster 
than the fingers, until in the oldest male the fingers are only 
a little more than half the length of the palm. It is probable 
that smaller specimens than those in our collection would show 
the fingers equal to, or even shorter than, the palm. 

The carpus, which is cylindrical in cross section and a little 
shorter than the propodus in all our specimens, increases grad- 
ually in diameter, passing from the distal to the proximal end. 
The palm is always shorter than the carpus, but a comparison 
of lengths at different ages indicates, in general, that the palm 
grows a little faster than the carpus, although considerable 
variability is seen in a series arranged according to the body 
length. 

The relative lengths of the merus and carpus are shown in 
Table II, where the specimens are arranged according to increas- 
ing body length. Here again much variability appears, but if 
the young mature males are separated the variability is not so 
marked. The* proportions given in Table II show clearly that, in 
general, the merus of the male does not increase in length as 
fast as the carpus. This condition is not evident in the small 
number of females we have in the collection. A similar and no 
less striking increase in the proportion of the merus to the car- 
pus may be seen in the specimens of P. ritsemae de Man examined 



IX. D. 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 353 

by Coutiere,^^ and I believe that large series of P. idae Heller ^^ 
and P. rtidis Heller ^^ will show the same thing. The merus, 
which is flattened dorsoventrally along the proximal part, be- 
comes almost cylindrical in cross section and of greater diameter 
at the distal part. As in other palaemons, the merus grows more 
rapidly than the ischium. While Table H shows that there is 
some variability in the proportion between the merus and ischium 
when a series of specimens is arranged according to increasing 
body length, it may also be seen that when the measurements for 
young mature males are separated from the rest this variability 
is much reduced. 

The description of the shape of the ischium given for the 
largest male applies to specimens of all ages and sexes. 

The chelipeds of young specimens show spines on the palm 
and anterior part of the carpus, but the "linear spaces'' are not 
distinguishable. The covering of spines increases as the animals 
become larger, but it is not until they have reached about the 
middle size that the spines become apparent on the fingers and 
ischium. The **linear spaces" then show clearly. 

Third, fourth, and fifth legs. — The third legs are missing in 
specimen la. One-quarter and two-fifths of the propodus extend 
beyond the tip of the antenna! scale in the fourth and fifth legs, 
respectively. The measurements for the propodus of the fifth 
leg are 0.16 millimeter in diameter at the middle and 7 milli- 
meters in length. In No. 16 the third, fourth, and fifth legs ex- 
tend with two-thirds, two-fifths, and one-fourth of the propodus, 
respectively, beyond the antennal scale. The propodus of the 
fifth leg is 0.7 millimeter in diameter at the middle and 17 milli- 
meters in length. A large specimen measuring 133 millimeters 
(not indicated in Table H) shows one-fourth of the propodus 
of the third leg extending beyond the antennal scale. In this 
specimen the dactylus of the fourth leg extends beyond the scale, 
while in the fifth leg merely the tip of the dactylus overreaches 
the scale. The propodus of this leg is 19 millimeters in length, 
and 1 millimeter in diameter at its middle point. 

Telson. — The armature of the telson varies with the size, but 
the difference may be due to wear. In a young female 47 
millimeters long (Plate II fig. 21) the tip of the telson is long, 
the extemolateral spines are well developed, and the interno- 
lateral spines are very long, with almost three-fourths of their 

'*Ann. Sci, Nat., Zool. (1900), 11, 314. 

"^^ Sitzungsber. Akad. d. Wiss., math.-nat. Klasse, Wien (1862), 45, 416. 

"Reise der Osterreichischen Frigatte Novara (1868), 2, 115. 



354 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

length reaching beyond the tip of the telson. This condition 
figured by Ortmann.^^ j^ older specimens (Plate II, fig. 2k), 
however, the tip, the externolateral spine, and the internolateral 
spines are proportionally much shorter. 

Character of surface. — All females and all ''males feminises," 
with the exceptions of Nos. 20 and 22, present no areas of spi- 
nules on the carapace, telson, or abdominal somites. Nos. 20 
and 22 are slightly rough to the touch along the anterior part 
of the carapace. All of the young mature males and the old 
males show the characteristic areas of spinules described above 
for the largest male specimen. 

Eggs. — The eggs of P. philippinensis, when preserved, measure 
about 1 by 1.3 millimeters. 

Color of living specimen. — Palaemon philippinensis is not 
brilliantly colored. The surface is translucent, showing an 
underlying ground color of gray which is usually punctated 
on the dorsal and lateral regions of the abdomen and carapace 
with fine brownish red dots. The telson is usually bright 
brownish red in color, although not conspicuously so. The fol- 
lowing striking pigment marks which may be seen through the 
translucent carapace are characteristic of the species (Plate II, 
fig. 2m) : 

1. Two usually brownish black lines running longitudinally on each side 

of the dorsal median line of the carapace. 

2. A conspicuous T-shaped dark pigment mark seen on the posterior part 

of each gill cover. 

3. Usually a dark, obliquely placed pigment mark immediately back of the 

hepatic spine. 

The first and second antennae are marked with brownish red 
and show no blue color. Along the ventral border of the pleura 
of the fourth and fifth abdominal somites is a purple band. The 
first, third, fourth, and fifth legs are translucent and punctated 
with reddish brown dots, while the chelipeds are dark in color 
and marked longitudinally with dark greenish bands. The color 
of the pigment varies somewhat in different specimens and also 
probably in the same specimens at different times. The color 
disappears almost entirely after preservation. In the young 
mature males and sometimes in the adult males a covering of 
brownish sediment often obscures the color, but the sediment 
may be rubbed off, leaving the markings visible. 

Localities. — We have in our collection 31 males and 8 females, 
all but one of which were taken in San Juan River (usually 

^^Zool Jahrb.^ Systematdk (1891), 5, Tafel XLVII, Fig. 4. 



IX, D. 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 355 

fresh) which empties into Pasig River near Manila. The one 
specimen j,ust mentioned was captured in an estero (brackish 
water) emptying into Pasig River in the city of Manila. It is 
very probable then that P. philippinensis might be taken in 
considerable numbers in brackish water. 

Palaemon sundaicus Heller. Plate II, figs. 3 and 3a-/. 

There is in our collection a fairly complete series of a 
palaemon which may be distinguished in life and sometimes in 
the preserved condition from other species found near Manila 
by the beautifully marbled or tortoise-shell-like markings on its 
chelipeds. This form is probably Palaemon sundaicus Heller," 
although there are certain differences which will be mentioned 
below. The young specimens in our collection agree very well 
with the descriptions of de Man and Coutiere for P. sundaicus, 
but our series contains a number of much larger males exhibit- 
ing characters which have not been described by Heller, de 
Man,3* or Coutiere.^^ I regret that I have not been able to see 
the paper of Hilgendorf.** 

A study of the females and the young males in our series 
shows how closely they resemble specimens of like size described 
by the authors mentioned above. The shape, length, and dental 
formula of the rostrum and also the relative lengths of the 
different segments of the chelipeds are strikingly similar. In 
our collection the males reach a larger size than the females, 
the former ranging from 59.5 to 108 millimeters, the latter from 
53.5 to 89 millimeters. Unfortunately, both de Man and Coutiere 
had small collections, the individuals of which were mostly fe- 
males, and in all cases the males which they examined were no 
larger than the smallest males in our series. 

The fingers of the chelipeds in all of our males except the 
smallest are covered with felted hair which increases in thickness 
as the animals become larger. This does not seem to be true 
of any of the males described by de Man or Coutiere, although 
it must be mentioned that all of our specimens bearing this 
felt are larger than any specimens described by these authors. 
Another difference is that in our series we have males of medium 
size (young mature males) in which the fingers gape widely 
and in which the relative length of the segments of the chelipeds 

^^ Sitzungsber. Akad. d, Wiss., mafh.-nat. Klasse, Wien (1862), 45, 415. 
'' Zoologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in Niederlandisch Ost-Indien 
(1892), 2, 437. 

'"Ann. Sci, Nat, Zool (1900), 11, 332. 

'"Land und Siisswasser-Dekapoden Ostafrikas (1899), 130. 



356 '^h^ Philippine Journal of Science i^u 

differs considerably from the specimens described by de Man 
and by Couti^re. 

The specimens listed in Table III were all seen by me while 
they were still alive. Judging from certain characteristic color 
markings, especially the pattern on the chelipeds, which were 
present in specimens of all sizes and sexes, one could not fail 
to include them under one species. Even the young mature males 
(Nos. 15 and 20) with the exceptionally long chelipeds showed 
the characteristic markings. 

Notwithstanding the differences between our large males and 
the smaller males described by de Man, I do not feel justified 
in establishing a new species until larger collections of the Javan 
form are made. 

While I have not been able to see any figures or specimens 
of the American species, Palaemon acanthurtts Wiegmann,^^ 
except Ortmann's ^^ drawing of the telson which agrees well with 
young individuals of this species, the descriptions indicate that 
it is a larger form, although I believe our series does not include 
the largest specimens to be found. The proportion of the palm 
to the fingers in old males and the shape of the rostrum are 
different, but the coat of felted hairs on the fingers of the males 
is present in both. I believe that Palaemon acanthurus Wieg- 
mann and the form under consideration are closely related, and 
I should not be surprised if, when further collections of Palaemon 
sundaicMs from Java are made, older males with more mature 
characters are brought to light which will ally the Javan species 
closer to Palaemon acanthurus. 

Rostrum and antennal scales. — The position of the tip of the 
rostrum with reference to the tip of the antennal scale does 
not vary much in our specimens. In both males and females the 
tip may be even with, extend slightly beyond, or fail slightly 
to reach, the distal end of the scale. It is possible, however, 
that in larger males the rostrum may not extend so far forward. 

Curvature and dental formula of rostrum. — There is little 
difference in the shape of the rostrum in the males and females 
of all ages. The distal third is turned upward somewhat, and 
there is in nearly every case a gentle convexity over the eye. 
Usually there are 3 rostral teeth on the carapace, the fourth 
being over the edge of the orbit, and rarely are there 2 or 4 
on the carapace. The rostral ridge divides the lateral surface 
of the rostrum into an upper and a lower area which are of 

''Arch, /. Naturgesch. (1836), 1, 150. 

''Zool Jahrb., Systematik (1891) 5, Tafel XLVII, Fig. 5. 



IX, D. 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 357 

about equal width. Usually those teeth which are near the distal 
end of the upper border are separated from one another more 
than those posterior to them. The first tooth is nearly always 
separated from the second tooth by a distance which is con- 
siderably greater than the distances separating the teeth 
immediately anterior to them. The dental formula for the 

specimens in the collection is — — * ^ ' ' , but the large 

4, 5, b, 7 

majority of the females show a dental formula of — *^ — . 

First pair of legs. — The first legs extend beyond the tip of the 
antennal scale in all specimens; in the youngest, only the 
propodus is seen beyond it, but in larger specimens more of 
the first legs overreaches the scale, and finally in the largest 
individuals as much as one-third of the carpus extends beyond it. 

Chelipeds. — The chelipeds in this species are approximately 
equal. All the females have chelipeds which are shorter than 
the body, and the same is true of practically all the males until 
they reach a length of about 77 millimeters. Beyond this size 
the chelipeds are usually longer than the body, and in certain 
specimens, Nos. 15, 16, and 17, which I consider to be young 
mature males, they are relatively long. In the largest female, 
No. 38, the tip of the merus extends beyond the antennal scale, 
while in the smallest female. No. 25, three-fourth of the carpus 
overreaches the scale. One of the largest males. No. 20, shows 
more than one-half of the merus beyond the scale, while in the 
smallest male only four-fifths of the carpus extends beyond it. 

It will be seen, if reference is made to Table III, that the 
fingers of all individuals are shorter than the palm, except in 
Nos. 1 and 2, which are the smallest males in the series. In 
the case of the males the palm seems to grow much faster than 
the fingers, so that an individual 88 millimeters long (No. 14) 
has a palm one and two-thirds times as long as the fingers. One 
of the young mature males. No. 20, shows the palm to be one 
and three-fourths times as long as the fingers. The largest males 
in the series have chelipeds which are shorter than the body 
length except in the case of No. 23. At first sight I considered 
these specimens to be "males feminises,*' but upon examining 
them more closely I find that they have well-developed spines 
on the carapace and abdominal somites and I am of the opinion 
that these individuals are old mature males whose chelipeds 
are regenerating. The palm of the largest male. No. 24, is a 
little more than one and one-half times the length of the fingers. 



358 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



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IX, D, 4 



Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 



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362 ^^^^ Philippine Jour^ial of Science 1914 

The fingers and palm are more nearly of the same length in 
the females, the palm being one and two-fifths times as long 
as the fingers in the largest individual. All of the male in- 
dividuals, except the three smallest (Nos. 1, 2, 3), have both 
fingers of the chelipeds covered with felted hair, a condition 
which is not found in the females. The fingers of both males 
and females are slender, and each has a rather low cutting edge, 
extending from the teeth to the tip. The youngest males (Nos. 
1 and 2) and all the females, except No. 25, show 2 teeth on 
the mobile and 1 tooth on the immobile finger. In No. 25 only 

1 tooth is seen, and this is situated on the mobile finger. The 
males, Nos. 3 to 13 and 22 to 24, inclusive, show 2 teeth on the 
mobile finger and 2 on the immobile, but in the young mature 
males the teeth on the immobile finger are increased in number 
by the addition of 2, 3, or even 4 confluent teeth, which are 
situated between the most proximal of the two teeth just men- 
tioned and the joint, a condition which is characteristic of 
mature males in some other species at least. 

The palm is almost cylindrical, that of the smallest measuring 

2 by 2.5 millimeters at its middle and that of the large male, 
No. 20, measuring 4.5 by 5 millimeters at a similar point. 

The carpus is cylindrical in cross section, and increases grad- 
ually in diameter passing from the proximal to the distal end. 
It is shorter than the propodus and longer than the palm, but it 
does not increase in length so fast as does the palm. In the 
mature males there is a slight swelling of the carpus a little 
posterior to the distal end. 

The proportion of the merus to the carpus ranges from 1 : 1.33 
to 1 : 1.77, and the measurements indicate that the carpus grows 
faster than the merus. The latter is slightly longer than the 
palm in the young but slightly shorter in old individuals. It is 
always shorter than the carpus and longer than the fingers. The 
merus, which is flattened dorsoventrally along the proximal part, 
becomes almost cylindrical and of greater diameter at the distal 
part. 

As in other palaemons, the merus grows faster than the 
ischium, so that the proportion between the ischium and merus 
increases with increasing body length. In the young mature 
males this increase is especially evident. The ischium is flattened 
dorsoventrally, the upper and lower surfaces being divided into 
two regions by a median longitudinal groove. 

Third, fourth, and fifth legs, — The third, fourth, and fifth legs 
extend with their dactyli beyond the tip of the antennal scale 
in young individuals of both sexes. In older individuals as much 



IX, D, 4 Co ivies: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 363 

as one-fifth or one-third of the dactyli may extend beyond. The 
propodus of the fifth leg (No. 1) measures 0.5 millimeter in 
diameter at its middle and 8.75 millimeters in length. Similar 
measurements for Nos. 24, 25, and 38 are 0.8 by 15, 0.3 by 7.5, 
and 0.6 by 13 millimeters, respectively. 

Telson. — Specimens in which the telson has not been worn 
show the intemolateral spines extending about two-thirds of 
their length beyond the acute median spine. The externolateral 
spines are short and of about the same length as the median 
spine. In some specimens the tip of the telson is worn and the 
intemolateral spines are considerably shortened. 

Character of surface. — The carapace and abdominal somites of 
all females and males (Nos. 1 to 13, inclusive) are smooth to the 
touch, and show no spines under a lens. Male specimens larger 
than these have patches of spinules on the carapace, pleura of 
abdomen, tergum of sixth somite, upper surface of uropods, and 
the telson. These spinules are especially numerous on the young 
mature males, and the surface is distinctly rough to the touch. 
The surface of the first pair of legs is smooth, except in the old 
males where the ischium and part of the merus are covered with 
a few spinules. The spines on the chelipeds make their appear- 
ance at an early age. Specimen 1 shows a few rather indistinct 
rows of spines on the palm and distal half of the carpus. The 
area of spines increases with the body length, so that in No. 4 
it covers the proximal end of the finger, the palm, the carpus, 
and the distal half of the merus. In No. 8 the condition is 
similar except that the ischium also is covered. Young mature 
males, as an example. No. 20, show a few spines at the proximal 
end of the fingers and about 12 longitudinal rows of medium- 
sized spines, which are distributed on the inner, ventral, and 
dorsal surfaces of the palm. The outer surface of the palm is 
covered with innumerable very small spines, which are not 
arranged regularly in rows. A similar condition exists on the 
carpus, merus, and ischium. The dorsal and ventral "linear 
spaces'' are visible especially on the palm, carpus, and merus. 
In middle-sized specimens the "linear spaces" are more con- 
spicuous. The third, fourth, and fifth legs are smooth in all but 
the largest males, where the propodus, carpus, and sometimes the 
met*us are covered with very minute spinules. 

Eggs. — The eggs of this species when preserved are almost 
spherical, and average 0.5 by 0.46 millimeter. 

Color of the living specimens. — The general surface of the 
body owes its color mainly to the layer of pigment cells under 
the transparent chitinous covering. The color is not always the 



364 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

same in any one individual. It may range from green to blue 
or even to brick red, and in old specimens these colors may be 
partially obscured. No T-shaped, L-shaped, or diagonal mark- 
ings are seen under the sides of the carapace, but in living speci- 
mens the chelipeds are conspicuously marked, so as to appear like 
tortoise shell (Plate II, fig. 3c). These markings, which are 
probably the same as the marbled markings spoken of by de Man, 
sometimes persist temporarily after preservation, but usually dis- 
appear as do all other colors mentioned. The uropods are colored 
a conspicuous red, and there is a purple spot on the postero- 
lateral portion of the exopodite. The internal flagella of the first 
pair of antennae are marked on their dorsal surface with bright 
yellow, and similar yellow spots are also seen on the uropods 
and telson. The color notes which have just been given apply 
to both sexes, but there are certain markings which distinguish 
the males from the females. A cream-colored transverse band 
on the tergum of the third abdominal somite is present in all 
the females of this species, but in the males it is much reduced in 
size or almost absent. This band is found in some other species 
which are described below. In the females the ventral border of 
the pleura of the fourth and fifth somites has a blood-red color 
which is absent in the males. 

Localities. — We have in our collection 73 females and 24 males. 
Most of these were collected in Obando River flowing into Manila 
Bay near Manila (brackish water) ; some were taken in San 
Francisco River (usually fresh), which is a branch of Pasig 
River; others were obtained from an estero (often brackish) 
emptying into Pasig River within the city of Manila. Nos. 2, 
6, 7, 9, 12, 17, 19, and 21 (Table III) are from San Francisco 
River. 

Palaemon lanceifrons Dana. Plate II, figs. 4 and 4a. 

The collection contains several palaemons which agree well 
with Dana's ^® description of Palaemon lanceifrons. The fingers 
of the chelipeds are about equal to the palm in most specimens, 
although in the old mature males (Dana's specimen was evidently 
a rather old male) the fingers are considerably shorter than the 
palm and are two-fifths of the length of the propodus. (Plate 
II, figs. 4 and 4a.) The propodus is a little longer than the 
carpus in all cases and a little slenderer. Characteristic tubercles 
(not mentioned in Dana's description), teeth, and thick hair are 

'•United States Exploring Expedition, Crustacea (1852-1854), 13, 589. 



IX, D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 365 

present on the fingers. These structures are described below 
in a description of a local form of this species. 

The dental formula is — ' ^ J » and the shape and size 

d, 4, 5 

of the head and rostrum agree very well with Dana's figure. 

The rostrum never extends beyond the antennal scale, and is 

decidedly convex over the eye in older specimens. 

The general surface of the body is sometimes dark and some- 
times light. The color is due partly to closely set brownish 
pigment spots, which often have a dark reddish tinge, and in 
addition to this ground color there are patches of yellowish cream 
flecks scattered over the surface. Usually the tips of the uropods 
and the telson have a reddish brown color. The characteristic 
markings of this species (Plate II, fig. 5g) are an almost straight 
diagonal mark, an inverted V-shaped mark, and 2 marks shaped 
like an inverted L. These are often bluish in color, and may 
always be seen more or less clearly on the sides of the carapace. 
The horizontal limb of the anterior inverted L extends poste- 
riorly from the anterior border of the carapace, ventral to the 
spines. The posterior inverted L is situated back of the anterior 
inverted L, and its horizontal limb is on a level considerably 
higher than that of the former. The diagonal mark, which 
really lies on the tissues beneath the carapace and is seen on 
account of the transparency of the latter, extends from the point 
where the horizontal and vertical limbs of the posterior L meet 
to the posterior margin of the carapace. Finally, the inverted 
V-shaped mark lies directly above the anterior L. The first and 
second antennae are never colored blue, but are usually marked, 
especially in the male, with reddish brown transverse bars. The 
second legs or chelipeds are mottled in a manner somewhat sim- 
ilar to that of Palaemon sundaicus, but the coloring is reddish 
brown and greenish cream, and does not resemble tortoise shell 
in appearance. 

Palaemon lanceifrons Dana, judging from our specimens, 
is distinct from Palaemon idae Heller, The carpus is always 
shorter than the propodus, and the proportion is about the 
same throughout the series. Furthermore, the chelipeds of 
P. lanceifrons are thicker and the rostrum is broader. 

I agree with de Man's statement that P. lanceifrons is distinct 
from P. sundaicus. The shape of the rostrum, the shape of the 
different. The color markings and the tubercles on the fingers, 
fingers, and the distribution of the hair on the fingers are 



366 "^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

which are seen in our specimens of P. lanceifrons, are absent in 
P. sundaicus. 

Palaemon lanceifrons is not the young of Palaemon philip- 
pinensis. The latter has differently shaped fingers, there is no 
thick coating of hair on them, the eggs are much larger, and the 
color markings are different. 

De Man's *° suggestion that Palaemon lanceifrons Dana is 
possibly identical with Palaemon dispar von Martens receives 
considerable support from my observations. I believe that the 
former is very closely related to the latter, the only differences 
being found in the shape of the rostrum, the number of proximal 
teeth on the fingers, the number of distal tubercles on the fingers, 
and the shape of the tip of the immobile finger. Further col- 
lections and an actual comparison of specimens of the two species 
may show them to be identical. 

There are 9 males and 24 females of this species in the col- 
lection; they were all purchased in a Manila market. Nearly 
all the females bear eggs. These measure from 0.5 to 0.7 by 
0.6 to 0.8 millimeter. 

A local form of Palaemon lanceifrons Dana, collected in San 
Juan River near Manila, differs slightly from the specimens just 
described. Except for minor differences, the chelipeds have the 
same proportions and general characteristics. The rostral for- 
mula is practically the same, but the rostrum is slightly longer 
and is less convex over the eye. 

Rostrum and antennal scale. — The rostrum extends about as 
far forward as the antennal scale, but in some cases fails to 
reach it or extends beyond it a very short distance. 

Curvature and dental formula of rostrum. — The shape of the 
rostrum does not vary much, but it must be added that there are 
not many individuals in the collection and that they do not 
show a very great range in size. The tip of the rostrum of old 
and middle-aged specimens turns up slightly, but in the young 
it is straight. The rostrum usually has its origin rather far 
forward on the carapace, but in Nos. 5, 7, and 8 (Table IV) 
it arises from about the middle of the same. Usually, there are 
2 teeth on the carapace, and the 4 distal teeth at the tip of the 
rostrum are more widely separated than the rest. The first and 
second teeth are more widely separated than those immediately 
anterior to them. The lateral surface of the rostrum is divided 

^•^ Zoologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in Niederlandisch Ost-Indien 
(1892), 2, 419. 



IX. D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 367 

into an upper wider and a lower narrower region by the usual 
ridge. The dental formula varies somewhat I — ' ^' a ^ — )* 

First pair of legs, — In young males about one-half of the pro- 
podus, in the middle-aged males the whole of the same segment, 
and in the old males the tip of the carpus extends beyond the 
antennal scale. 

Chelipeds. — The chelipeds of the young specimen, No. 2, are 
equal in length, but in all the rest of the specimens in which 
the chelipeds are present they are unequal in length. This 
inequality seems to increase with age, and it seems probable 
that it is not due to injury and regeneration. Only in the mature 
males, Nos. 7 and 8, are the chelipeds as long as the body. In 
the youngest male only two-fifths of the carpus extends beyond 
the antennal scale, while in the mature males from one-fourth 
to one-third of the merus may be seen beyond it. 

The fingers of the youngest male, No. 1, are longer than the 
palm, slightly older specimens show the fingers to be a little 
shorter than the palm, and the old mature males have fingers 
which are much shorter than the palm. In specimen 8 the 
proportion of the fingers to the palm is 1:1.66 (left cheliped) 
and 1:1.44 (right cheliped). Thick hair is not present on the 
fingers of the youngest specimens, Nos. 1 and 2, but it makes 
its appearance on both fingers in slightly older individuals. The 
mature males have a thick coating of hair, which covers all but 
the tip of the mobile finger. The immobile finger bears a small 
patch of hair, which is limited to a narrow region extending 
as far forward as the middle of the finger on both sides of 
the cutting edge. Four broad and inconspicuous tubercles bear- 
ing a few stiif hairs are present along the inner side of the 
cutting edge of the immobile finger. These are situated on the 
swollen distal half, and are only seen in the mature males, Nos. 
7 and 8. The mobile fingers of the specimens just mentioned 
have 3 long low tubercles along the inner side of the cutting 
edge. They are situated on the distal half of the finger. The 
keel of the cutting edge is well developed but low in the young 
and middle-aged individuals, and it becomes reduced to a raised 
line in the mature males. The youngest male. No. 1, shows 2 
teeth on the mobile finger and 1 tooth on the immobile finger, but 
these may be seen only through a strong lens. In specimen 
3, the beginnings of 1 or 2 confluent teeth posterior to the large 
tooth of the immobile finger are present. In the mature males, 
Nos. 7 and 8, there is an indication of the beginning of a 

129877 4 



368 



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370 ^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

third confluent tooth and the first or most anterior confluent 
tooth is almost separated from those back of it. The large 
tooth of the immobile finger measures 1 millimeter in height, 
and the teeth of the mobile finger are about half as high 
(No. 8). 

The palm is cylindrical in cross section, and is always shorter 
than the carpus. The proportion of the palm to the carpus 
in the smallest specimen is 1:2, and in the largest mature male 
the length of the palm is contained about one and one-third 
times in that of the carpus (No. 8). 

The carpus reaches it greatest diameter some distance posterior 
to the distal end in mature males, and is cylindrical in cross 
section. In all of our specimens it is shorter than the propodus, 
but only slightly so in the immature specimens (Nos. 1-6). 

The proportion of the merus to the carpus ranges from 
1:1.37 to 1:1.76. The former is always longer than the fingers, 
and it is longer than the palm except in the mature males 
(Nos. 7 and 8). 

Third, fourth, and fifth legs, — In the smallest male the 
dactylus of the third leg, one-fourth of the propodus of the 
fourth, and one-half of the propodus of the fifth leg extend 
beyond the antennal scale. The propodus of the fifth leg meas- 
ures 8 millimeters in length, and has a width of 0.33 millimeter 
at its middle point. One-half of the propodus of the third 
leg extends beyond the tip of the antennal scale in the largest 
male, and one-third of the same segment of the fourth and 
fifth legs overreaches the scale. The measurements for the 
propodus of the fifth leg are 11.5 by 0.5 millimeters. 

Telson. — The telsons of the two largest males and the smallest 
male are damaged. The tip in uninjured specimens is sub- 
acute, the externolateral spines fail to reach the tip of the telson 
by a distance equal to their own lengths, and the internolateral 
spines extend with three-fifths (No. 7) and two-thirds (No. 1) 
of their lengths beyond the tip. 

Character of the surface, — The carapace and abdominal 
somites of all specimens except the two largest males, Nos. 7 and 
8, are smooth. The last-mentioned mature males have the usual 
spinules on the pleura of the abdomen, the tergum of the sixth 
somite, the uropods, the telson, and the carapace. No spines can 
be seen on the legs of the smallest specimen. The surface of the 
first legs is smooth in all individuals except in the two largest 
males, where a few spines may be seen on the ischium. The 
chelipeds of No. 1 are smooth, and in No. 2 a few spinules 
may be seen on the immobile finger, the palm, and the car- 



IX, D. 4 Coivles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 371 

pus, but these are only visible under rather high magnification. 
In older specimens the spines are larger and cover the proximal 
part of the immobile finger, the palm, the carpus, the merus, 
and the ischium. The spines on the chelipeds are inconspicuous, 
being broad, low, and subacute. ''Linear spaces" cannot be 
distinguished. Very minute spinules may be seen, with the aid 
of a lens, on the propodus, carpus, and merus of the third, fourth, 
and fifth legs. 

Eggs, — There are no females of this form in the collection. 

Color of the living specimens. — The color of these specimens 
agrees with that of the typical Palaemon lanceifrons Dana, the 
pigment marks on the sides of the carapace being plainly visible. 

Locality, — All of these specimens were captured in San Juan 
River near Manila. 

Palaemon lanceifrons Dana var. montalbanensis var. nov. Plate II, 
figs. 6 and 6a4, 

I have collected from the water supply of the city of Manila 
at Montalban 72 specimens of a form which I consider to be 
a variety of Palaemon lanceifrons Dana and one which in some 
respects is very similar to Palaemon elegans de Man. It is char- 
acterized by the decided convexity and shortness of the rostrum, 
by the fingers being much shorter than the palm in large speci- 
mens, and by the presence of tubercles in older males along 
the sides of the cutting edge of the fingers. 

This variety, which I have called P. I, var. montalhayiensls, 
differs from P, lanceifrons as originally described by Dana in 
the following particulars: The number of teeth on the dorsal 
and ventral borders of the rostrum is less, the rostrum does not 
extend so far forward, and the carpus is considerably shorter than 
the propodus even in young specimens. 

Palaemon lanceifrons var. montalbanensis, while very similar 
to P. elegans de Man, differs as follows : The number of teeth on 
the dorsal and ventral borders of the rostrum is less ; the teeth at 
the distal end of the dorsal border of the rostrum are spaced more 
widely ; the chelipeds are unequal in length except in the young ; 
the relative length of the fingers and palm of the chelipeds is 
different; the segments of the chelipeds are thicker; and the 
tubercles along the sides of the cutting edge of the fingers are 
distributed differently. Judging from the 37 males and 35 fe- 
males in our collection, the mature females are much smaller 
than the old males. 

The following description applies to the large male listed as 
No. 12 in Table V. This specimen, which measures 65.5 milli- 



372 ^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

meters in length, has a rostrum which reaches the tip of the 

peduncle of the first antenna. The dorsal border of the rostrum 

begins at the middle of the carapace, but in this region and for 

some distance forward it is without teeth. The ventral border 

curves upward moderately, the tip extends directly forward, 

and the ridge along the side of the rostrum divides the blade 

into a wide upper and narrow lower area. The rostral formula 

9 
is ^, and the proximal and distal teeth of the dorsal border 

are more widely separated than those between them. On the 
ventral border the 2 teeth are situated well back from the tip. 

The slender first pair of legs extends with the whole of the 
propodus beyond the antennal scale. 

The chelipeds which are decidedly unequal in length extend 
with from one-third to one-half of the merus beyond the scale, 
and are both considerably longer than the body. Of the two 
chelipeds, the left is the longer, measuring 87 millimeters from 
the tip to the proximal end of the ischium; the right measures 
75 millimeters, and is slenderer. The description which fol- 
lows applies to the left cheliped : The immobile finger curves in 
less sharply and extends farther forward than the mobile finger. 
It is considerably more than half as long as the palm (1 : 1.68), 
and is distinctly swollen along its distal half. The keel of the 
cutting edge is reduced to a raised line, but a short distance in 
front of the proximal end of the finger there is a well-developed 
triangular tooth measuring 1.5 millimeters in height, which 
meets the cutting edge of the mobile finger and aids in preventing 
the fingers from closing. Posterior to the tooth just mentioned 
is a row of 3 much smaller confluent teeth (4 in specimen 14). 
All of these teeth are obscured by a thick growth of hair, which 
is limited to a narrow region on both sides of the cutting edge 
as far forward as the middle of the finger. Along the inner 
side of the cutting edge of the distal portion of this finger is 
a row of 5 broad, low, and inconspicuous tubercles, which bear 
a few stiff hairs. The sharply curved mobile finger is covered, 
except at the tip, with a dense coat of hair and is not swollen. 
The keel of the cutting edge is reduced as in the case of the 
immobile finger. Along the cutting edge are 2 teeth, measuring 1 
millimeter in height, which curve slightly posteriorly. The palm 
is cylindrical in cross section and considerably shorter than the 
carpus (1 : 1.26). The carpus, which reaches its greatest dia- 
meter some distance back from the distal end, is much shorter 
than the chela (1:1.28), while the merus, which is only slightly 



IX, D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 373 

flattened at the posterior end, is much shorter than the carpus 
(1:1.57). The dorsal and ventral surfaces of the ischium 
each present a median longitudinal groove. The lengths, in 
millimeters, of the parts just described are as follows: Propodus, 
33.5; finger, 12.5; palm, 21; carpus, 26; merus, 16.5; ischium, 
11; total, 87. 

The telson of this specimen ends in a subacute spine. The 
extemolateral spines do not extend to the end of the telson, and 
the internolateral spines extend with about half their length 
beyond the tip. (See below, description of telson of smaller 
specimens.) 

Patches of poorly developed spines are present on the an- 
terior part of the carapace. Similar spines are seen on the 
ventral and lateral parts of the pleura, the dorsal surface of 
the sixth somite, and the exposed parts of the dorsal and ventral 
surfaces of the uropods and the telson. These spines are espe- 
cially numerous on the last three structures named. The is- 
chium of the first legs and the distal segments of the third, 
fourth, and fifth legs are covered with very fine spines, which 
are scarcely stronger than stiflf hairs. The immobile finger, 
palm, carpus, merus, and ischium of the chelipeds are armed 
with short blunt spines, which are larger in size and fewer in 
number on the inner than on the outer surface of these seg- 
ments. The mobile finger is spineless. "Linear spaces" cannot 
be seen. 

Rostrum and peduncle of first antenna. — An examination of 
the 72 specimens in our collection shows that the rostrum may 
extend as far as the tip of the peduncle of the first antenna, 
may extend slightly beyond it, or may fail to reach it. In no 
case does the rostrum extend to the tip of the antennal scale, 
and there is no indication that the rostrum decreases in pro- 
portional length with reference to the peduncle of the first 
antenna. 

Curvature and dental formula of rostrum, — There is little 
variation in the shape of the rostrum, but in the old males the 
convexity of the dorsal border is much more pronounced than in 
the females or young males. The tip does not turn up, the ros- 
trum begins about halfway back on the carapace, and 1 or 2 
teeth have their origin on the carapace. In all specimens the 
distal teeth of the dorsal border are more widely separated 
from one another than the teeth immediately posterior to them, 
and in the old males the first 2 teeth on the carapace are slightly 
more separated than those which immediately follow. The ridge 



374 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

along the side of the rostrum divides the blade into an upper 

and lower region, the former being the wider of the two in 

specimens of all ages. The dental formula is very constant 

„ /8, 9, 10\ 

m all specimens V o"^ — f' 

First pair of legs. — The first pair of legs in young males and 
mature females extends with the tip of the propodus beyond 
the antennal scale, but in the large males the whole propodus 
is seen beyond the scale. 

Chelipeds. — The chelipeds of the smallest males and all the 
females are approximately equal. An examination of Table V 
shows that in the males the inequality between the chelipeds in- 
creases with the increase in body length and that the difference 
in length is most marked in those specimens which show mature 
characteristics (Nos. 7, 8, 12). While it is difficult to determine 
whether this unequal length is the result of injury and regenera- 
tion or whether this condition is always characteristic of un- 
injured middle-aged and old males, the fact that none of the 
specimens in the collection shows chelipeds of such unequal length 
that there can be no doubt that the smaller one is regenerating 
indicates that the inequality is characteristic. The chelipeds 
of the females (Nos. 15, 16, 17), the "males feminises'* (Nos. 
9, 11, 13), and the young immature males are shorter than the 
body (Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) . Young mature males and old mature 
males have the chelipeds longer than the body (Nos. 7, 8, 10, 12) . 
In the smallest males, one-half of the carpus extends beyond 
the antennal scale, while in the largest males one-third of the 
merus may be seen beyond. The females do not show a great 
range in size, and a small fraction of the carpus only extends 
beyond the antennal scale. 

The fingers of the youngest male. No. 1, are longer than the 
palm, and those of the youngest female. No. 15, are equal in 
length to those of the palm ; in slightly larger males and females 
the palm becomes longer than the fingers, and in some of the 
largest males the fingers are contained one and one-half times 
in the palm. All of the male individuals except the smallest 
one have felted hair on the mobile finger, a condition which is 
not found in the females. There is also hair on the immobile 
finger of the males, but this does not appear to be present until 
the individual has reached a considerable size (No. 6). The 
immobile finger of young mature males and old mature males 
(Nos. 7, 8, 10, 12, 14) is swollen, and bears from 5 to 8 
tubercles along the inner side of the cutting edge. The mobile 
finger of the same specimens is conspicuosly curved, and bears 



IX, D, 4 Coivles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 



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Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 



377 



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378 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

from 2 to 4 tubercles along a similar region. These characters 
do not appear in young males, **males feminises," nor females. 
The keel of the cutting edge of both fingers in young males and 
all females is well developed but low. It decreases in height 
as the body length increases, so that in the oldest males it is only 
a raised line. In the youngest males and females (Nos. 1 and 
15) no teeth can be seen on the fingers, but slightly older speci- 
mens (Nos. 2 and 16) show 2 teeth on the mobile and 1 tooth 
on the immobile finger. The condition last mentioned is char- 
acteristic of all the females of this species in our collection, ex- 
cept of No. 15, but an examination of the older males shows the 
presence of confluent teeth back of the tooth, mentioned above, 
on the immobile finger. These teeth make their first appearance 
in No. 3, being represented by 1 or 2 very small teeth, but 
with increasing body length the number increases to 3 or 4. 

The palm is cylindrical in cross section, that of one of the 
large males (No. 12) measuring 4 millimeters and that of a 
small male (No. 3) measuring almost 2 millimeters in diameter 
at the middle point. 

The carpus is also cylindrical in cross section, and in females, 
young males, and ''males feminises'' it increases in diameter 
passing from the distal to the proximal end. The same is true 
for young mature and old mature males, except that the greatest 
diameter is reached some distance posterior to the distal end. 
The carpus is shorter than the propodus and longer than the 
palm or the fingers; the palm, however, grows faster than the 
carpus. 

The proportion of the merus to the carpus ranges from 1 : 1.33 
in the smallest male to 1 : 1.64 in the largest, showing that the 
carpus increases in length faster than the merus. The latter is 
longer than the palm and is of the same length as the fingers in 
the smallest male and shorter than the palm and longer than the 
fingers in the largest. The merus, as in other species, is flattened 
dorsoventrally along the proximal part, becoming almost cylin- 
drical and of greater diameter in the distal region. 

Third, fourth, and fifth legs, — In the smallest male, the dactyli 
of the third and fourth legs and the tip of the propodus of the 
fifth leg extend beyond the antennal scale. The propodus of 
the fifth leg measures 5.5 millimeters in length and 0.1 milli- 
meter in diameter at the middle region. One of the oldest males 
(No. 12) shows one-third of the propodus of the third and fourth 
legs beyond the tip of the antennal scale, while in the fifth leg 
one-fourth of the propodus is seen beyond. The propodus of 



IX, D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 379 

the fifth leg measures 10.5 millimeters in length, and has a 
width of 0.5 millimeter at its middle point. 

Telson, — The telson of a large male has been described above. 
In young specimens the telson tip is subacute, the externolateral 
spines extend posteriorly almost as far as the telson tip, and 
the internolateral spines overreach the tip by more than two- 
thirds of their length. 

Character of the surface, — The carapace and abdominal so- 
mites of all females (Nos. 15, 16, 17), "male feminises'* (Nos. 
9, 11, 13), and young immature males (Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) 
are smooth to the touch, and show no spines under a lens. 
Young mature males and old mature males (Nos. 7, 8, 10, 12, 
14) have spines on the carapace, pleura of the abdomen, tergum 
of the sixth somite, the uropods, and the telson. The surface 
of the first pair of legs is smooth, except in the old males where 
the ischium presents a few feeble spinules. No spines can be 
seen on the chelipeds of the smallest male and female specimens 
(Nos. 1 and 15). Very minute and feeble spinules, which can 
only be seen under a rather high power lens, are present on the 
palm, carpus, and merus of specimens Nos. 2 and 16. The 
spines are more conspicuous in specimens Nos. 3 and 17. In 
the medium-sized and large males, the spines become better 
developed than in any of the females. Specimen 4 and all indi- 
viduals of greater body length have spines on the ischium in 
addition to the spines on the palm, carpus, and merus. Speci- 
mens 7 to 14, inclusive, have also a few spines on the immobile 
finger. The spines in this species are not conspicuous, being 
broad, low, and subacute in old males. The **linear spaces" 
cannot be distinguished. There are very minute spines present 
on the merus, carpus, and propodus of the third, fourth, and 
fifth legs, but these can only be seen in the old males. 

Eggs, — The eggs of this variety when preserved measure from 
0.5 to 0.7 by 0.7 to 1 millimeter. Those of P. lanceifrons measure 
from 0.5 to 0.7 by 0.6 to 0.8 millimeter. The eggs of both are 
smaller than those of Palaemon elegans de Man, which measure 
1 to 1.1 by 1.4 to 1.5 millimeters. 

Color of the living specimens. — The color of the general sur- 
face of the body is similar to that of Palaemon lanceifrons Dana. 
The pigment marks which are so characteristic of the carapace 
of the latter are plainly seen. 

Localities, — There are 37 males and 35 females of this variety 
in our collection; all of them were collected below the dam at 
Montalban near Manila. 



380 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

Palaemon lar Fabricius. Plate II, figs. 7 and la-h. 

The widely distributed Palaemon lar Fabricius is represented 
in our collection by a large number of specimens, most of which 
were collected in Mindoro. 

Rostrum and penduncle of the first antenna. — The rostrum in 
our specimens usually extends to a point slightly beyond or 
slightly behind the tip of the peduncle of the first antenna, but 
in one case it reaches to the tip of the antennal scale. In males 
possessing mature characters (chelipeds longer than the body 
and fingers gaping widely and with heavy teeth) the rostrum 
does not extend as far forward with reference to the tip of the 
antennal scale as in the younger, immature individuals. 

Cu7^vature and dental formula of rostrum, — In the youngest 

specimens the tip of the rostrum is straight and there is almost 

no convexity of the dorsal border of the rostrum, but older 

specimens show a slight upward curve of the tip and a gentle 

convexity over the eye. The first 2 rostral teeth are found on 

the carapace, and usually are separated from one another by 

a greater distance than are those farther forward. Frequently, 

the third tooth lies partly on the carapace. The lateral ridge 

on the rostrum divides the surface into an upper wider and a 

lower narrower region. The number of teeth does not vary 

7 8 
through a very great range, the dental formula being 5- -q— ;<• 

Z, o, 4 

First pair of legs. — The whole of the propodus extends beyond 
the tip of the antennal scale in all the specimens, and in most 
individuals this distance is increased by from one-fifth to one- 
third of the carpus. 

Chelipeds. — The chelipeds of immature specimens are approx- 
imately equal in length except in cases where one cheliped is re- 
generating. Some of the mature males have chelipeds which are 
about equal in length, but as a rule there is considerable inequal- 
ity. Here again, as in many other palaemons, it is impossible 
to determine from preserved specimens whether the inequality 
is the result of injury or whether it is a normal, characteristic 
condition. An interesting case is shown in Plate II, fig. 76, 
where one of the chelipeds is considerably longer than the other 
but the palm of the former has a smaller diameter and the fingers 
are more weakly developed. Our collection does not include 
the oldest mature males which may attain a body length of almost 
200 millimeters. Specimens 10 and 13 are young mature males, 
and their chelipeds are longer than the body. The younger im- 
mature males, the ''males feminises*' (No. 12, Table VI), and the 



IX, D. 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 381 

females have chelipeds which are shorter than the body. In the 
youngest individuals, as a rule, the propodus and part of the car- 
pus extend beyond the antennal scale, with increasing size the tip 
of the merus is seen beyond, and finally in the largest of our males 
from one-third to one-half of the merus overreaches the scale. 

The fingers of all individuals of this species in our collection 
are shorter than the palm, in the young they are only slightly 
shorter, but in the largest specimens the length of the fingers 
is contained one and one-half times or more in the length of the 
palm. A few stiff hairs are present on the fingers, but there is 
no dense felt such as is seen in some other species. Young 
males, **males feminises,*' and all the females show no gaping of 
the fingers, but in the old males the gape is very wide and the 
immobile finger extends a little beyond the mobile finger. There 
is no keel on the cutting edge of the fingers in the old males, 
but in other individuals it is present. Four or 5 small proximal 
teeth and 1 larger distal tooth are seen on the mobile finger of 
young males, "males feminises," and all females, but in mature 
males the smaller teeth become reduced to 2 or 3 long inconspicu- 
ous tubercles and the large tooth becomes very much larger. On 
the immobile finger 1 tooth is present in the youngest males and 
females, but in older individuals (Nos. 7 to 13, inclusive) a 
second smaller and proximal tooth appears. These 2 teeth are 
well developed in the old males (figs. 7a and 76). 

The palm of the oldest males is almost cylindrical in cross 
section, but in younger individuals it is flattened laterally. 

The carpus of young individuals is almost as long as the palm 
and longer than the fingers, but with increasing body length 
the palm becomes much longer than the carpus and even the 
fingers show a greater length than the latter. The cylindrical 
carpus is much wider at its distal than at its proximal end. 

The merus is always longer than the carpus or the fingers. 
It is equal in length to the palm in young individuals, but much 
shorter in old specimens. The proportion of the merus to the 
carpus is very constant, varying from 1:0.75 to 1:0.93. The 
merus is flattened dorsoventrally at its proximal end, and in 
old individuals is much enlarged at its distal end. 

Third, fourth, and fifth legs. — The tip of the dactylus of the 
third pair of legs extends slightly beyond the tip of the antennal 
scale in young specimens (No. 2). The dactylus of the fourth 
pair of legs fails to reach the tip of the scale by a short distance, 
and the dactylus of the fifth pair of legs extends slightly beyond 
the end of the carpus of the chelipeds. The propodus of the 



382 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



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IX, D, 4 



Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 



383 




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384 ^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

right fifth leg measures 0.5 millimeter in diameter at its middle 
point, and is 7 millimeters long. In old specimens (No. 13) the 
tip of the dactylus of the third leg extends slightly beyond the 
antennal scale, the tip of the dactylus of the fourth leg fails 
slightly to reach the tip of the scale, and one-fifth of the propodus 
of the fifth leg extends beyond the tip of the peduncle of the 
second antenna. The diameter of the propodus of the right fifth 
leg at the middle point is 1.5 millimeters, and its length is 17 
millimeters. 

Telson. — The tip of the telson (specimen 81 millimeters long 
and not listed in the table) is subacute, the externolateral spines 
fail by their own length to reach the level of the telson tip, and 
the internolateral spines extend with three-fifths of their entire 
length beyond the tip of the telson. 

Character of the surface, — All specimens of Palaemon lar in 
our collection have smooth bodies. Even the largest males show 
no signs of the patches of spines which are found on the carapace, 
pleura of the abdominal somites, tergum of the sixth somite, 
uropods, and telson of mature males in some other species. The 
first legs are smooth in small specimens, but in medium-sized and 
large individuals the ischium is armed with short, heavy, in- 
conspicuous spines. The chelipeds are well supplied with 
strongly developed subacute spines, which are arranged in 
rather definite longitudinal lines. These spines are found on all 
segments, and those on the inner side are the largest. Two 
sets of "linear spaces'* can be distinguished in all middle-sized 
and large specimens. One set is found on the outer lateral sur- 
face of the palm, carpus, and merus, the other is found along 
the ventral surface of the same segments. The third, fourth, 
and fifth legs of young individuals have well-developed spines 
on the propodus, but the remaining segments are smooth. With 
increasing size more of the segments become spiny, until in the 
old males with mature chelipeds the dactylus, propodus, carpus, 
merus, and ischium have a coating of spines. 

Eggs. — The average size of the preserved eggs of the single 
female specimen is 0.5 by 0.6 millimeter. 

Color of the living specimen. — The carapace, abdomen, and 
telson of the male vary in color, being grayish brown, olive, or 
very dark blue. The uropods are usually olive or dark blue, 
with reddish brown around the edges. Very distinct orange- 
colored spots are seen on the sides of the abdomen at the junc- 
tions of the terga and pleura, except in the case of the third 
segment. There are no T- or L-shaped markings on the carapace. 
The first pair of legs is blue, tinged in places with pink; the 



IX, D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philipphie Islands 385 

chelipeds are olive to a very dark blue, and show in places brown 
mottled markings; and the walking legs show a mixture of 
gray, blue, and brown. The color of the female is similar to 
that of the male, except that the ventral edges of the pleura 
are of a cream color. The colors are brighter in young than in 
old individuals. 

Localities, — The collection contains 96 males and 1 female from 
Port Galera, Mindoro, 1 male from the settling basin of the 
Manila water works near San Juan del Monte, Luzon, Philip- 
pine Islands, and 5 males from Guam, Mariana Islands. The 
single specimen from the settling basin was collected by A. L. 
Day, and those from Guam by R. C. McGregor. 

Palaemon jaroensis sp. nov. Plate III, figs. 8 and Sa-k. 

The work of Coutiere^^^ on Palaemon lepidactyhis Hilgendorf 
and that of von Martens *^ on Palaemon grandimanus Randall 
indicate that there may be striking differences in the shape and 
proportion of the chela in a given species. The variability, 
especially of the former species, renders it difficult to determine 
whether or not one is dealing with a new species when examining 
specimens which are quite similar in certain respects to Palae- 
mon lepidactylus, but which come from new localities. 

The individuals of one series of specimens in our collection, 
although not showing much variability, remind one of Palaemon 
lepidactylus Hilgendorf.*' After a careful examination I have 
decided that they belong to a new and distinct species which is 
closely related to Palaemon placidus de Man,^^ Palaemon hilgen- 
dorfi H. Coutiere, and Palaemon lepidactylus Hilgendorf. This 
species to which I have given the name Palaemon jaroensis is 
represented in our collection by 23 specimens, of which 6 males 
and 2 females are perfect so far as the chelipeds are concerned. 
While there is considerable difference between the chelipeds of 
the females and those of the males, this is probably sexual. 
There is but little variability in the shape, proportions, and other 
characteristics of the large cheliped of the male specimens, and 
the same is true of the small cheliped, but there is a constant 
difference in the proportional length of the segments of the large 
cheliped when compared with those of the small cheliped of the 
same individual. 

"Mnn. Sci. Nat, Zool, (1900), 11, 272. 
*^Arch. /. Naturgesch. (1868), 34, 45. 

*^ Monatsher, Preussischen Akad. d. Wissensch. Berlin (1879), 838. 
" Zoologische Ergebnisse einer Reise in Niederlandisch Ost-Indien 
(1892), 2, 483. 



386 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



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IX, D. 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 387 

The following description applies to the largest male (No. 6, 
Table VII), which is 72 millimeters long. The rostrum almost 
reaches the tip of the peduncle of the first antenna and has the 

formula - . It is convex over the eye, dipping sharply ante- 

Li 

riorly and then extending horizontally at the tip. The teeth 
on the carapace are more widely separated than those imme- 
diately anterior to them, and the first one is situated a little 
more than two-thirds of the distance from the posterior edge 
of the carapace to the border of the orbit. 

The first pair of legs extends with two-fifths of the carpus 
beyond the antennal scale. 

The chelipeds are decidedly unequal in size and length but 
similar in shape, a condition which is found in all the males 
of P. jaroensis in our collection and one which may be charac- 
teristic of all middle-aged and old males of this species. In 
the case of the larger cheliped, which measures 96 millimeters 
in length, one-third of the merus extends beyond the antennal 
scale. The mobile finger curves sharply, while the immobile 
finger is practically straight, and when their tips meet a con- 
siderable space is seen between them. Along the proximal por- 
tion of the cutting edge of the immobile finger are 6 blunt, fairly 
well-developed teeth which are not situated upon a raised ridge. 
The 4 nearest the palm are confluent. Following the 6 teeth 
is a space, and distal to this is a series of 11 blunt teeth arranged 
at rather regular intervals along the cutting edge and extending 
almost to the tip of the finger. The most proximal one of these 
is larger than the rest. A series of 9 similar teeth are present 
along the inner side of the cutting edge, but the teeth are not 
upon the latter. There is no large tooth corresponding to the 
one on the cutting edge. The toothing on the mobile finger 
consists of 3 rather large, blunt, irregular, proximal teeth and 
2 distal series of smaller blunt teeth separated from the former 
by a space. As in the case of the immobile finger, the outer 
teeth are found on the cutting edge while the inner are not. 
There are 10 of the former and 8 of the latter, and there is no 
conspicuously large tooth at the beginning of either series.*^ 

^ An examination of the fingers on the large cheliped of smaller spec- 
imens shows that the dentition is similar, but that the number of teeth 
in the two series beyond the space may be much smaller, especially along 
the inner side of the finger, and that there is some variation in the number 
of proximal teeth. In the females very small proximal teeth are present 
and the keel of the cutting edge is well developed, but the proximal series 
of blunt teeth, so characteristic of the males, is not present on the fingers 
of either cheliped. 



388 ^^<^ Philippine Journal of Science ^^^"^ 

A thick growth of rather short hairs is present along the cutting 
edge of both fingers, and as a result the teeth described above 
are completely concealed. 

The much flattened palm (11.5 millimeters wide and 8.5 milli- 
meters thick) is longer than the fingers, the proportion of the 
length of the fingers to that of the palm being 1 :1.19 ; the slightly 
flattened carpus which is smaller in diameter and shorter than 
the palm equals the fingers in length ; and the merus is shorter 
than the carpus,^^ a condition which seems to be characteristic 
of Palaemon placidus, but not of Palaemon hilgendorfi or Palae- 
mon lepidactylus. 

The smaller cheliped measures 65.5 millimeters in length, 
and the distal end of the merus just reaches the tip of the 
antennal scale. It is similar in appearance to the large cheliped, 
but the relative lengths of the different segments are not the 
same. As in the case of the large cheliped the fingers gape, 
the mobile one curving rather sharply and the immobile one 
being practically straight. The dentition of the fingers is similar 
to that of the fingers of the large cheliped, except that the distal 
series of teeth along the inner side of each finger is made up 
of a smaller number of teeth and that there are 8 proximal 
teeth on the immobile finger instead of 6. The cutting edge of 
each finger is clothed with a heavy coat of short hairs which con- 
ceals the teeth. 

The fingers (15.5 millimeters) are longer than the palm (14.5 
millimeters), and this is true for the small cheliped of all the 
male specimens. The palm is flattened, and measures, at its 
widest point, 7.5 millimeters in width and 5 millimeters in thick- 
ness. The carpus is slightly longer than the palm, and the same 
is true for these 2 segments in the small cheliped of all the 
male specimens. As in the large cheliped the merus is shorter 
than the carpus. 

The impression one receives from comparing the large and 
small chelipeds of the same individual is that the smaller is 
merely a younger stage in the development of the larger, that 
if the specimen had lived and molted the palm of the former 
would have increased in length at a faster rate than the carpus, 
and that finally the small cheliped would have assumed the form, 
size, proportions, and general characteristics of the larger che- 
liped. It is impossible to determine, however, with the specimens 

" All the males of this species in our collection show a similar condition, 
but in the females the carpus and merus are about equal, and it is probable 
that the latter is true of young males. 



IX, D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 389 

at hand if the two chelipeds ever become more nearly alike in 
older individuals. 

The tip of the telson is acute, but the lateral spines are worn, 
and some of them are absent from the specimen under considera- 
tion. In another male specimen with a more perfect telson the 
extemolateral spines are very short and the internolateral spines 
extend beyond the tip of the telson with one-half of their length. 

The carpus, abdominal segments, and uropods are smooth, 
but the second, third, fourth, and fifth legs are well covered with 
heavy spines. In general, the spines are much like those of 
Palaemon lepidactylus Hilgendorf, except that there are no con- 
ical spines on the superior *^^ and inner surfaces of the palm 
of the cheliped and that in the place of these there are pointed, 
flattened spines, whose upper surfaces are concave and whose 
lower surfaces are convex. Also, these spines are found on the 
fingers as in the case of Palaemon lepidactylus Hilgendorf. 
"Linear spaces'' are present on the palm, carpus, and merus of 
both chelipeds. 

The third, fourth, and fifth legs are stout in comparison with 
those of most other palaemons. There is little difference in the 
length of these legs ; the fifth is the shortest. One-third of the 
propodus of the third leg and the tip of the dactylus of the fourth 
leg extend beyond the tip of the antennal scale, but the fifth leg 
extends only slightly beyond the tip of the peduncle of the second 
antenna. The propodus of the fifth leg measures 9 millimeters 
in length and 1.1 millimeters in diameter at its middle point. 

The two females listed in Table VII are the only perfect ones 
in the collection. The right and left chelipeds in each specimen 
are nearly the same in size and shape. No distal teeth are pres- 
ent, but there is a well-developed keel on the cutting edge of 
both fingers, and this keel is partially concealed by a sparse 
growth of hair. One female, which is not listed in Table VII, 
carries eggs, and the measurements of these average 0.7 by 0.5 
millimeter. 

The 18 males and 5 females of this new species were taken in 
Hibucawan River, near Jaro, Leyte, by Alvin Seale and Urbano 
Villamor. 

Palaemon lepidactylus Hilgendorf. Plate III, figs. 9 and 9a-6. 

A rare species known as Palaemon lepidactylus Hilgendorf is 
represented in our collection by 2 male specimens. Both indi- 
viduals are rather small, and one has the chelipeds missing ; the 

48 a That is, the border which is continuous with the immobile finger. 



390 '^he Philippine Journal of Science i^^4 

uninjured individual has these appendages well developed. The 
body length of the latter is 58.5 millimeters and the carapace 
length, 18.5 millimeters ; the other has a body length of 66 milli- 
meters and a carapace length of 20 millimeters. The following 
description applies to the smaller specimen : 

The rostrum extends slightly beyond the middle segment of the 
peduncle of the first antenna, and the first tooth on the dorsal 
border is 7 millimeters posterior to the anterior edge of the 
carapace. Five teeth are situated on the carapace, and these 
are more widely separated from one another than those anterior 
to them. The dorsal border dips anteriorly, showing only a 
slight convexity over the eye. The lateral ridges of the rostrum 
divide the lateral surface into an upper, wider region and a 
lower, narrower region. The dental formula of the specimen 

under consideration is ^, while that of the other is -^. 

Three-fifths of the carpus of the first pair of legs extends 
beyond the tip of the antennal scale. 

The chelipeds are decidedly unequal in length and different 
in form, the larger being much longer than the body. One- 
half of the merus of the larger (left) and one-fifth of the merus 
of the smaller extend beyond the antennal scale. The slightly 
gaping fingers of the large cheliped are much longer than the 
palm, the length of the mobile finger being 25 millimeters and 
that of the palm 16 millimeters. The toothing of the fingers 
agrees well with Coutiere's description and figures. At the 
proximal end of the immobile finger close to the articulation of 
the mobile finger with the palm are 4 rather indefinite teeth on 
a short ridge, which is a continuation of the cutting edge. Fol- 
lowing this is a short space along the cutting edge which is 
without teeth. At the end of the space is a well-developed obtuse 
tooth, beyond which a distinct keel is seen extending to the tip 
of the finger. Along the inner side of this keel, but not arising 
from it, is a series of 16 anteriorly directed, acute teeth which 
are placed at somewhat regular intervals. On the outer side of 
the keel is another series of 14 teeth similar to the one just men- 
tioned, but the teeth have their origin from the side of the keel. 
At the proximal end of the mobile finger are 3 blunt teeth, the 
posterior 2 of which meet the short raised ridge of the immobile 
finger. The mobile finger extends beyond the immobile finger. 

The oval palm, which is much wider than the carpus, measures 
16.5 millimeters in length, 10.5 millimeters in width, and 6 milli- 
meters in thickness. The carpus (17 millimeters) is slightly 



ix,L\4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 391 

longer than the palm, and is much reduced in diameter at its 
posterior end. The merus equals the carpus in length, while 
the ischium measures 8.5 millimeters. 

A ''linear space'* is seen along the outer surface of the merus, 
carpus, and palm. The spines on the posterior, outer region 
of the palm are scalelike and oval in shape, and each spine is 
rather closely applied to the palm. Toward the anterior end of 
the palm the spines become more pointed, and on the fingers 
they curve at the tip, their upper surfaces being decidedly con- 
cave and their lower surfaces convex. On the superior border 
of the palm (the border continuous with the immobile finger) 
are 2 rows of stout conical spines, and these spines are longer 
than any of the others. Similar shorter spines are distributed 
sparsely over the inferior inner surface of the palm, and these, 
toward the superior region, grade into spines like those of the 
outer surface of the palm. Smaller spines of similar shape and 
distribution to those of the palm are found on the carpus, merus, 
and ischium. 

The smaller cheliped (right) has slender widely gaping fingers, 
the mobile one of which measures 15.5 millimeters in length. 
Along the cutting edge of each finger is a dense growth of stiff 
hairs, but no teeth, tubercles, or keel can be seen. 

The short oval palm measures 7 millimeters in length, 6 milli- 
meters in width, and 4 millimeters in thickness. The carpus is 
not so wide (5 millimeters) as the palm, but is somewhat longer 
(9 millimeters). The merus (11 millimeters) is considerably 
longer than the carpus, and the ischium measures 6 millimeters. 

The spines are much smaller than those of the larger cheliped, 
but they have a similar shape and distribution. "Linear spaces" 
are present. Patches of spines, which are characteristic of 
supposedly mature individuals in many species of palaemons and 
which are found on the carapace and abdomen, are not present 
in our two specimens. 

In each specimen the tip of the telson is truncated, but this 
is probably the result of wear. The internolateral spines extend 
beyond the tip of the telson, a condition which is undoubtedly 
true of uninjured specimens. As usual, the externolateral spines 
are short. The inner ramus of the uropods extends poste- 
riorly slightly farther than the outer ramus. 

The third, fourth, and fifth legs are rather stout as com- 
pared with most other species of palaemons. The fifth leg is the 
shortest and the slenderest, although there is but little difference 
between the three. One-half of the propodus of the third leg 



392 The Philippine Journal of Science i^h 

and the tip of the dactylus of the fourth leg extend beyond the 
tip of the antennal scale, but the fifth leg barely reaches it. 
The propodus of the fifth leg measures 7 millimeters in length, 
and at its middle point it is 1 millimeter in thickness. 

Both specimens are males; they were collected in a small 
mountain stream near Sisiman, Bataan Province, Luzon, by 
Tomas Banguis. 

Palaemon latidactylus Thallwitz. Plate III, figs. 10 and lOa-h, 

This species is represented in our collection by 2 young mature 
male specimens (Nos. 1087 and 1484)*^ from the region of 
Manila, which agree very well with Thallwitz's *" original de- 
scription and with the description of de Man.** There are also 
2 male specimens (Nos. 73 and 128), collected in the region of 
Manila, which J believe belong to the same species but which 
I consider to be "males feminises;'' 2 females (Nos. 371 and 593) 
from the Manila water supply; 1 male (No. 1485) from the 
Manila water supply, which I hesitate to include under this 
species; 2 specimens (Nos. 1499 and 1500), one of which is an 
old male and the other a young male from Jaro, Leyte; 3 
specimens (No. 1451) from Agusan River, Mindanao; and a 
young mature male (No. 71) from Samar, which differs only 
slightly from Thallwitz's original description. 

I believe, as do Thallwitz and de Man, that the specimens 
from Manila diagnosed by von Martens *^ as Palaemon grandi- 
manus Randall are probably identical with Palaemon latidactylus 
Thallwitz. On the other hand, it is very questionable if von 
Martens's Manila specimens belong to Randall's Palaemon grandi- 
manus. Miss Rathbun's notes on Randall's type specimens and 
her photographic reproduction of an old male from the Honolulu 
market indicate that von Martens's Manila specimens belong to a 
different species."^^ The following description applies to an old 
male (No. 1484) collected from the settling basin of the Manila 
water supply: 

It is 66 millimeters in length (carapace 20.5 miUimeters), 
and the rostrum extends to the tip of the peduncle of the first 
antenna. There are 16 teeth on the dorsal border of the rostrum, 

** In this description the numbers referred to are museum numbers. 
*^ Abhandlungen und Berichte des Koniglichen Museums zu Dresden 
(1891), 17. 

*^ Abh, Senckenbergischen Naturforsch. Ges, (1900), 25, 802. 

"^Arch. /. Naturgesch, (1868), 34, 45. 

""Bull Z7. S, Fish Comm, (1903), 23, pt. 3, 923. Published in 1906. 



IX, D. 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Isla7ids 393 

of which 4 are situated on the carapace. The first and second 
teeth, and in some other specimens also the second and third, 
are more widely separated from one another than the rest. 
Anteriorly the dorsal border dips, but there is scarcely any con- . 
vexity over the eye. On the lower border are 3 teeth, sometimes 
4 in other specimens, and the tip of the rostrum does not turn 
upward. The posterior part of the lateral ridge on the rostrum 
should be shown slightly higher up than it is in the figure (Plate 
III, fig. 8). One-sixth of the carpus of the first pair of legs 
extends beyond the antennal scale, and the outer maxillipeds 
reach slightly beyond the peduncle of the second antenna. 

The chelipeds are decidedly unlike in form and unequal in 
length, the larger being much longer than the body. One-sixth 
of the merus of the larger and one-third of the carpus of the 
smaller cheliped extend beyond the antennal scale. Measuring 
in a straight line from the articulation of the mobile finger (large 
cheliped) to the tip of the same, the length is 20 millimeters. 
This finger is strongly curved inward, it is compressed laterally 
throughout its extent, and crosses the tip of the immobile finger 
when the fingers are closed. Near the proximal end of the mobile 
finger, along the cutting edge, are 3 small, closely set teeth, 
which are followed distally by 2 somewhat larger teeth. Beyond 
these, 5 teeth are seen which gradually decrease in size, until 
near the tip the last one is nothing more than an inconspicuous 
tubercle. The immobile finger is strongly compressed laterally, 
its outer surface is decidedly concave near the palm, and its 
proximal end is much wider than that of the mobile finger, about 
2:1. Near the proximal end of the cutting edge is a com- 
paratively large tooth, which curves inward ending in an acute 
tip. This is followed by 7 smaller teeth, which become almost 
like tubercles near the tip of the finger. A few scattered hairs 
may be seen on both fingers, but at the proximal end of the mobile 
finger and on its lower surface there is a small dense patch of 
hairs. 

The palm, which is strongly compressed, measures 30 milli- 
meters in length, 12.5 millimeters in width at its widest point, 
and 6.5 millimieters in thickness in the same region. From these 
figures it will be seen that the palm is one and one-half times as 
long as the finger and that the ratio of the thickness of the 
palm to the greatest width is about 1 : 2. 

The carpus, which is practically cylindrical in cross section and 
much narrower than the palm at its distal end, measures 25.5 
millimeters in length, thus being shorter than the palm. 



394 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

The merus varies in the shape of its cross section at different 
points, and measures 19 millimeters in length. It is much longer 
than the greatly compressed ischium, which is only 7.5 milli- 
meters along its longest border. 

There is a considerable growth of hair on the ventral edge of 
the palm and ischium. A few hairs are found near the ends 
of the carpus and merus, but for the most part the palm, carpus, 
merus, and ischium are without hairs. Closely set sharp spines 
are present on the inferior and lateral surfaces of the proximal 
end of the mobile finger, but the remainder of the finger is 
smooth. Similar closely set spines are present on the inferior 
border of the palm. These grade into much smaller and more 
widely separated teeth on the inner surface and, on the outer 
surface, into widely separated, very minute spines. A few rather 
heavy spines are located along the outer surface of the anterior 
border of the palm, where the mobile finger articulates. The 
spines on the carpus are widely separated, and on the inner 
surface they are fairly well developed. There are practically 
no spines on the upper and outer surfaces of the merus and 
ischium, but on the lower and inner surfaces they are very close 
set and well developed. 

"Linear spaces'' cannot be seen, but a longitudinal depression 
on the outer and inner surfaces of the palm along a line connect- 
ing the articulation of the mobile finger with the proximal end 
of the palm is very conspicuous. 

The smaller cheliped (left) has slender, widely gaping fingers; 
the mobile one measures 12 millimeters in length, and the im- 
mobile one is slightly shorter. Along the cutting edge of both 
fingers is a dense growth of stiff hairs and a well-developed keel. 
Near the proximal end of the immobile finger is a short portion 
of the cutting edge, which shows indication of breaking up into 
3 or 4 teeth. This is followed distally by a short space at the 
end of which is a small tooth, but beyond the latter no teeth nor 
tubercles can be seen. Three small teeth are visible at the 
proximal end of the mobile finger. The short oval palm measures 
7.5 millimeters in length, 4.5 millimeters in width, and 3.1 milli- 
meters in thickness. The carpus is not so wide (4 millimeters) 
as the palm, but it is considerably longer (10 millimeters). The 
merus (9.5 millimeters) is slightly shorter than the carpus, and 
the ischium measures only 6 millimeters in length. 

Unlike the larger cheliped, the fingers, palm, and carpus are 
free from spines, but the lower surface of the merus and ischium 
are armed with a few spines similar to those on the large cheliped, 
but smaller. Patches of small spines are present on the anterior 



IX, D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 395 

part of the carapace in the dorsal and lateral regions, but they 
are not present on the abdomen nor on its appendages. 

The telson ends in an acute spine; the extemolateral spines 
do not extend so far posteriorly as the tip of the telson, but 
the internolateral spines overreach it by one-half of their length. 
The 2 rami of the uropods extend the same distance posteriorly. 

Some of the walking legs of this specimen are missing, but 
in the other old male (No. 1087) they are intact. In the case 
of No. 1087, the third, fourth, and fifth legs are of equal length 
but slenderer than those of Palaemon lepidactylics. The third 
leg just reaches the tip of the antennal scale. One-fifth of the 
propodus of the fourth leg and the dactylus of the fifth leg extend 
beyond the peduncle of the second antenna. The propodus of 
the fifth leg measures 8.75 millimeters in length, and at its middle 
point it is 0.5 millimeter in diameter. 

The old male, No. 1484, which has been described in detail 
above, was collected in the settling basin of the Manila water 
supply by A. L. Day; the old male, No. 1087, was collected by 
Alvin Seale from Laguna de Bay, near Manila, Luzon. 

Two other male specimens, Nos. 128 and 73, collected in the 
region of Manila, differ in the size of the body and the form of 
the large cheliped from the individual described above. These 
specimens have a somewhat greater body length, the gape be- 
tween the fingers of the chela is less, the mobile finger is not 
curved so sharply, the width of the immobile finger at the 
proximal end (Plate III, figs. 10c and lOd for No. 128 and No. 
73, respectively) is not so great, and there is a more extensive 
armature of spines on the outer surface of the palm. I consider 
these specimens, although they are larger than the young mature 
males, to be "males femenises'' or at least specimens in which 
the mature male form of the chela has not yet developed. Unlike 
No. 1484, the patches of spines on the carapace are feebly de- 
veloped, a condition which indicates immaturity. 

The 3 specimens (No. 1451) from Mindanao are very similar 
to the young mature male. They have about the same body 
length (one specimen is a little smaller), and the large chela 
(Plate III, fig. lOe, No. 1451x) is still well armed with spines 
on the outer surface, but it is approaching more nearly the shape 
and proportions of the mature male form. The specimen (No. 
71) from Samar is smaller than the specimens from Mindanao, 
but the large chela has taken on the mature form and pro- 
portions. I consider it to be a young mature male. 

One of the specimens from Leyte (No. 1500) measures 86.5 
millimeters in length (carapace, 27 millimeters). It is an old 



396 ^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science iqh 

mature male and the largest one in the collection. Unfor- 
tunately, the fingers on the large cheliped are broken. The palm 
measures 35 millimeters in length, 15 millimeters in width, and 
8 millimeters in thickness, indicating that with increasing age 
the palm becomes wider in proportion to the length (1 : 2.33) 
and thicker in proportion to the width (1:1.80). The patches 
of spines on the carapace are better developed than in any of 
the rest of our specimens, but as in the latter they are absent 
from the abdomen. The superior portion of the outer surface 
of the palm is absolutely smooth. 

The other specimen from Leyte (No. 1499) is of interest be- 
cause it is a very young male, possibly a '*male feminises.'* An- 
teriorly, the rostrum dips only slightly, and there are no patches 
of spines on the carapace or abdomen. The large chela is similar 
in shape to that of specimen 128, but it is smaller. The palm 
is well covered with fine spines, and the gape between the fingers 
is small. There is no gape between the fingers of the small chela 
and no thick growth of hair. Furthermore, the slender fingers 
are only slightly longer than the narrow palm, which is no wider 
than the carpus. 

The largest female. No. 593, measures 68 millimeters in body 
length, the carapace and abdomen are smooth, and the chelipeds 
are alike. There is no gape between the fingers which lack a 
thick growth of hair and no teeth on the distal two-thirds, but 
there is a well-developed keel on the cutting edge of the latter. 
The fingers are shorter than the palm, which is compressed and 
slightly wider than the carpus. 

Finally, specimen 1485, an old male from the water supply of 
the city of Manila, is one which, owing to lack of material, I do 
not feel justified in classifying at the present time. It measures 
91 millimeters in body length, dense patches of spines are 
present on the anterior part of the carapace, the abdomen is 
smooth, and the rostrum is practically like that of Palaemon 
latidactylus. The large cheliped in respect to the distribution 
of spines and the toothing of the fingers is like that of Palaemon 
latidactylus, but the shape of the chela is different. The fingers, 
which are only slightly shorter than the palm, gape considerably. 
The immobile finger is comparatively narrow at its proximal 
end, and the mobile finger is not curved sharply. In the case 
of the smaller cheliped, the palm has about the same width as 
the distal end of the carpus, the fingers gape only moderately, 
and the growth of hair on them is not so great as in specimen 
1484. Further collections may justify the establishment of a new 
variety of Palaemon latidactylus. If the view of Henderson and 



IX, D. 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 397 

Matthai is correct concerning some species of Macrobrachium, this 
specimen may be a polymorphic form of Palaemon latidactylits. 

Specimens 73, 128, and 371 were purchased in a Manila market 
by the author, and it is supposed that they were collected in 
Pasig River, near Manila ; No. 593 was taken from the filter of 
the Bureau of Science, which receives its water from the Manila 
water supply; No. 1485 was collected by A. L. Day from the 
settling basin of the Manila water supply; Nos. 1499 and 1500 
were collected by Alvin Seale and Urbano Villamor in a small 
river at Jaro, Leyte; the 3 specimens. No. 1451, were collected 
by E. H. Taylor in a natural canal connected with Agusan River, 
Mindanao. 

Palaemon sp. Plate III, figs. 11 and lla-c. 

Two old male palaemons collected from the Manila water 
supply may be representatives of a new species, although the 
specimens possess certain characters which suggest Palaemon 
esculentus Thallwitz and especially Palaemon oenone de Man.^' 
However, as I have not seen specimens of either of these species 
and as I have 2 specimens of nearly the same size only, I do not 
feel justified in describing them as a new species. 

The description which follows, except when otherwise stated, 
applies to the largest individual whose body length is 59.5 milli- 
meters and whose carapace length is 20 millimeters: The body 
length of the smaller specimen is 58 millimeters and the length 
of the carapace, 19 millimeters. The rostrum which curves down 
slightly, fails by a considerable distance to reach the tip of pe- 
duncle of the first antenna. Of the 15 almost evenly spaced 
teeth on the dorsal border of the rostrum, 7 are situated on 
the carapace, and of these the first 3 are smaller than those 
anterior to them. The first tooth is situated back of the orbit 
a little more than one-third of the distance from the orbit to 
the posterior border of the carapace. On the lower border of 
the rostrum are 2 teeth. From this description it is evident 
that the shape and dental formula of the rostrum and the arrange- 
ment, size, and position of the rostral teeth very closely resemble 
those of Palaemon oenone and not so closely those of Palaemon 
esculentus. The rostrum of the smaller specimen is similar to 

14 
the description given above, but the dental formula is only -^ 

with the seventh tooth directly over the posterior edge of the 
orbit. 

"A6/i. Senckenbergischen Naturforsch. Ges, (1900), 25, 784. 



398 "^he Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

One-half of the carpus of the first pair of legs extends beyond 
the antennal scale, and the distal segment of the outer maxillipeds 
extends beyond the peduncle of the second antenna. 

The chelipeds are decidedly unlike in form and unequal in 
length, the larger being much longer than the body. One-third 
of the merus of the larger and two-thirds of the carpus of the 
smaller cheliped extend beyond the antennal scale. Measuring 
in a straight line from the articulation of the mobile finger (large 
cheliped) to the tip of the same, the length is 25.5 millimeters. 
This finger is strongly curved inward, it is slightly compressed 
near the tip, and it crosses the tip of the immobile finger when 
the fingers are closed. Near the proximal end of the mobile 
finger, along the cutting edge, are 5 low blunt teeth, followed 
distally by a space at the end of which there is a rather large 
subacute tooth. Beyond this, the cutting edge, which runs more 
and more toward the outer surface of the finger as the tip is 
approached, bears 14 low tubercles, which gradually decrease in 
height toward the distal end of the finger. The immobile finger, 
which is almost straight when seen in side view, curves inward 
slightly and, although compressed laterally, is not concave on 
its outer surface. It is one and one-half times as wide as the 
mobile finger at the proximal end. There is a conspicuous 
distally directed tooth on the cutting edge at the proximal end 
of the immobile finger, and between this tooth and the articulation 
of the mobile finger is a short low ridge, which possibly in older 
specimens may be broken up into small confluent teeth. Along 
the cutting edge, distal to the conspicuous tooth, 13 tubercles may 
be seen, which gradually decrease in size as the tip of the finger 
is approached. A few scattered hairs are present on both 
fingers, and the elongated, anastamosing, longitudinal grooves 
described by de Man as characteristic of Palaemon oenone can 
be seen easily with a low-power lens. 

The palm, which is strongly compressed, measures 26 milli- 
meters in length, 12 millimeters in width at its widest point, 
and 7 millimeters in thickness in the same region. From these 
figures it will be seen that the mobile finger (measured as de- 
scribed above) is almost equal in length to the palm and that 
the ratio of the thickness of the palm to the greatest width is 
about 1:1.71. The palm decreases suddenly in width near its 
proximal end where it is clothed, especially on its superior and 
inferior borders, by a thick feltlike growth of hairs. On the 
rest of the palm no hairs can be seen. 

The short, much infiated carpus, which is cylindrical in cross 
section and much smaller in diameter than the width of the distal 



IX, D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 399 

two-thirds of the palm, measures 15.5 millimeters in length, thus 
being a little more than one-half as long as the palm. There 
is a fairly thick coating of long hairs over the entire carpus. 

The shape of a cross section through the merus differs at 
different points. When seen from above, the outer border is 
almost straight and the inner border forms a line shaped like 
an elongated S. The merus, which is covered with a thick coat- 
ing of long hairs on its inferior, inner, and superior surfaces, 
measures 18 millimeters in length, and is much longer than the 
greatly compressed ischium. The latter is only 7 millimeters 
in length along its longest border. 

Anteriorly directed, closely set, flattened spines which give 
only a sensation of slight roughness when the finger is rubbed 
over them are present upon the inferior border of the palm. On 
the inner and outer lateral regions and the superior border these 
are even smaller in size. These spines extend about halfway 
out on the fingers, but beyond this the latter are smooth so far 
as spines are concerned. Spines similar to those of the palm are 
present on the carpus, merus, and ischium, but they are better 
developed, and on the inner surfaces of these members they are 
comparatively long and sharply pointed. No ^'linear spaces" can 
be detected. 

The large cheliped of the smaller specimen differs mainly from 
that of the longer specimens in the shape and size of the fingers 
and in the proportion of the width of the palm to its length. 
The mobile finger is much less strongly curved, and the palm is 
narrower in proportion to its length. 

The smaller cheliped (left) of the large specimen has widely 
gaping fingers; the mobile one measures 15.5 millimeters in 
length, and the immobile one is slightly shorter. Along the cut- 
ting edge of both fingers is a dense growth of stiff hairs and a 
slightly developed keel. Near the proximal end of the mobile 
finger are 5 low blunt teeth followed by a short space, at the 
end of which there is a larger and more acute tooth; beyond 
this no tubercles or teeth can be seen. At the proximal end of 
the immobile finger is a short ridge on the cutting edge, remind- 
ing one of a similar structure on the large cheliped ; in the former, 
however, it shows indication of breaking up into small teeth. 
Beyond this ridge and very close to it is a large anteriorly di- 
rected tooth similar in shape to the one on the immobile finger 
of the large cheliped. As in the case of the mobile finger, there 
are no tubercles or teeth beyond the large tooth just mentioned. 
The palm measures 10.5 millimeters in length, 5 millimeters in 
width, and 4 millimeters in thickness. The carpus is not so 



400 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 

wide (4 millimeters) as, and is considerably shorter (8.5 milli- 
meters) than, the palm. The merus (9.5 millimeters) is slightly 
longer than the carpus, and the ischium measures 6 millimeters 
in length. 

The fingers are smooth, the palm is armed with a few minute 
spines, and the carpus, merus, and ischium have fairly well- 
developed spines on their inner and lower surfaces. Along the 
inner surfaces of the carpus, merus, and ischium is a consider- 
able growth of rather long hairs, and on the superior and inner 
surfaces of the posterior end of the palm is a patch of felted 
hairs similar to that on the large cheliped. The small cheliped 
of the smaller specimen is essentially like that of the large 
specimen, except that it is smaller, that the palm is relatively 
shorter, and that the patch of felted hair is absent. 

The telson of the large specimen ends rather bluntly, a condi- 
tion which is undoubtedly the result of wear ; the externolateral 
spines are very short, and the internolateral spines extend beyond 
the telson tip for a considerable distance. The outer and inner 
rami of the uropods are of equal length. 

Patches of small spines are present on the anterior part of 
the carapace in the dorsal and lateral regions, but are not present 
on the abdomen or its appendages. 

The third legs are slightly longer than the fourth, and the 
latter are slightly longer than the fifth. They are all slenderer 
than those of Palaemon lepidactylus and they are about the same 
size as those of Palaemon latidactylus. One-fifth of the propo- 
dus of the third leg and the tip of the dactylus of the fourth leg 
extend beyond the antennal scale, but the fifth leg extends with 
the dactylus only beyond the peduncle of the second antenna. 
The propodus of the fifth leg measures 8 millimeters in length, 
and at its middle point it is 1.0 millimeter in diameter. Both 
specimens were collected by R. C. McGregor from the filter of 
the Bureau of Science, which receives its water from the Manila 
city water supply. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

(All the illustrations are of natural size unless otherwise stated. Drawings by Jos6 K. Santos.) 

Plate I 

Fig. 1. Palaemon carcinus Fabricius. Old male, 320 millimeters long. 
1*. Left cheliped of same specimen. 
1^, Telson of female, 116 millimeters long. x6. 
I''. Middle-aged male, 245 to 250 millimeters long, 
i"*. Full-grown female, 248 millimeters long. 
i^ Left cheliped of young male, probably mature, 240 millimeters 

long, 
i'. Left cheliped, full-grown female shown in fig. 1'^. 
1^. Young female, 115 millimeters long. 
f\ Right cheliped of same specimen, 
i*. Young male, 100 millimeters long. 
IK Right cheliped of same specimen. 

Plate II 

Fig. 2. Palaemon philippinensis sp. nov. Old male, 144 millimeters long. 

No. 31. 
2". Left cheliped of same specimen. 
2^, Mobile finger of same, showing outer surface and cutting 

edge. X 2. 
2^ Immobile finger of same left cheliped, showing outer surface 

and cutting edge. x2. 
2^. "Male feminise," 114 millimeters long. No. 19. 
2*. Left cheliped of same. 
2'. Immobile finger of same. x3. 
2^. Mobile finger of same. x2.5. 
2". Left cheliped of young mature male, 111.5 millimeters long. 

No. 13. Measurements given in Table II apply to right 

cheliped. 
2\ Young male, 39.5 millimeters long. No. 1 (a). x2. 
2K Right cheliped of same. x2. 
2^, Tip of telson of male, 117 millimeters long, x 10. 
2\ Tip of telson of young female, 47 millimeters long. X34. 
2"\ Pigment marks on the carapace of Palaemon philippinensis 

sp. nov. 
3. Palaemon sundaicus Heller. Young mature male, 90 millimeters 

long. No. 15. 
3". Left cheliped of the same, markings faded after preservation. 
S"", Female, 79 millimeters long. No. 36. 
S"". Left cheliped of same, showing markings. 
3'^. Young male, 66.5 millimeters long. No. 2. 
5% Left cheliped of same, showing markings. 
3\ Tip of telson of young male. No. 7. 

401 



402 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9h 

Fig. 4. Palaemon lanceifrons Dana. Mature male, 62.5 millimeters long. 
No. 6. 
V. Right cheliped of same. 

5. Palaemon lanceifrons Dana (local form). Mature male, 63.5 milli- 

meters long. No. 7. 
5*. Left cheliped of same. 
5". Right cheliped of same. 

5*". Mobile finger of left cheliped (fig. 5"), inner aspect. X 3. 
5^. Immobile finger of same, inner aspect. X3. 
5^ Young male, 49 millimeters long. No. 1. 
5*. Right cheliped of same. 
5*^. Pigment marks on carapace of Palaemon lanceifrons Dana, 

the local form and Palaemon lanceifrons Dana var. montal- 

banensis var. nov. X2. 

6. Palaemon lanceifrons Dana var. montalbanensis var. nov. Old male, 

65.5 millimeters long. No. 12. 
6*, Right cheliped of same. 
6^. Left cheliped of same. 

6^ Immobile finger of left cheliped, inner aspect. x3. 
6**. Mobile finger of same, inner aspect. X 3. 
(?'*. Female, 45.5 millimeters long, with eggs. 
6^. Cheliped of same. 

6^. Young male, 51 millimeters long. No. 3. 
6^\ Cheliped of same. 
6K Tip of telson of young male, 43 millimeters long. xl6. 

7. Palaemon lar Fabricus. Old male, 114 millimeters long. No. 10. 

?*. Right cheliped of same, inner aspect. 

7^. Left cheliped of same, outer aspect. 

7\ Young male. 

7^. Left cheliped of same. 

7*. Chela of specimen of about the same size as the one shown 

in fig. 7^ X3. 
7\ Young male. 
7^. Left cheliped of same. 
7". Tip of telson of young male. x8. 

Plate III 

Fig. 8. Palaemon jaroensis sp. nov. Old male, 72 millimeters long. No. 6. 
5*. Right cheliped of same, outer aspect. 
8^. Left cheliped of same, outer aspect. 
<5^ Outline of chela of left cheliped, hair removed. 
8^. Mobile finger of left cheliped. X2. 
8^. Immobile finger of same. x2. 
8*, Mobile finger of right cheliped. X2. 
8^. Immobile finger of same. x2. 
8^\ Spines on palm of No. 6. X 2. 
8'. Spines on finger of No. 6. x2. 
8K Right cheliped of female. No. 7. 
8^. Left cheliped of same. 
9. Palaemon lepidactylus Hilgendorf. Old male, 58.5 millimeters long. 
9". Left cheliped of same, outer aspect. Carpus shown drawn 

away from palm and hence longer than stated in text. 
9^\ Right cheliped of same, outer aspect. 



IX. D, 4 Cowles: Palaemons of the Philippine Islands 403 

Fig. 10. Palaemon latidactylus Thallwitz. Old male, 6Q millimeters long. 
Museum No. 1484. 
10^, Right cheliped of same, outer aspect. 
10^. Left cheliped of same, outer aspect. 
lO"". Large chela of specimen. Museum No. 128. 
10*. Large cheliped of specimen. Museum No. 73. 
lO"". Chela of specimen. Museum No. 1451x. 
10'. Old male, 91 millimeters long. Species? Museum No. 1485. 
10^. Right cheliped of same, outer aspect. 
10^. Left cheliped of same, outer aspect. 
11. Palaemon sp. Old male, 59.5 millimeters long. Museum No. 572. 
11^. Right cheliped of same, outer aspect. 
11^. Left cheliped of same, inner aspect. 

ll"". Right cheliped of specimen, 58 millimeters long. Museum 
No. 572. 

TEXT FIGURE 

Fig. 1. Diagram of a palaemon. 



Oversized 
Foldout 



Oversized 
Foldout 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., Vol. IX, C, No. 5. 



CowLES : Palaemons of the Philippine Islands.] 




83 













Sh 









8 





8 





8 



f 



89 



Old male 72.0 mm. lonfl. 



Fifl. 8. Palaemon jaroensis sp. nov. 

No. 6. 
Flo. 8a. Right cheliped of same. Outer aspect. 
Fig. 8b. Left cheliped of same. Outer aspect. 
Fig. 8c. Outline of chela of left cheliped, hair removed. 
Fig. 8d. Mobile finger of left cheliped. X 2. 
Fig. 8e. Immobile finger of same. X 2. 




Fig. 8f. Mobile finger of right cheliped. X 2. 

Fig. 8g. Immobile finger of same. X 2. 

Fig. 8h. Spines on palm of No. 6. X 2. 

Fig. 81. Spines on finger of No. 6. X 2. 

Fig. 8j. Right cheliped of female. No. 7. 

Fig. 8ic. Left cheliped of same. 

Fig. 9. Palaemon lepidactylus. Old male 58.5 mm. long. 




10 




9a. Left cheliped of same. Outer aspect. Carpus shown 
drawn away from palm and hence longer than stated 
in text. 

Fig. 9b. Right cheliped of same. Outer aspect. 

Fig. 10. Palaemon latidactylus. Old male 66.0 mm. long. 
Mus. No. 1484. 

Fig. 10a. Right cheliped of same. Outer aspect. 

PLATE III. 



Fig. 10b. Left cheliped of same. Outer aspect. 

Fig. 10c. Large chela of specimen Mus. No. 128. 

Fig. lOd. Large cheliped of specimen Mus. No. 73. 

Fig. lOe. Chela of specimen Mus. 1451 (X). 

Fig. lOf. Old male 91.0 mm. long. Species? Mus. No. 1485. 

Fig. lOg. Right cheliped of same. Outer aspect. 

Fig. lOh. Left cheliped of same. Outer aspect. 



Fig. 11. Palaemon sp.? Old male 59.5 mm. long. Mus. No. 

572. 
Fig. 11a. Right cheliped of same. Outer aspect. 
Fig. lib. Left cheliped of same. Inner aspect. 
Fig. lie. Right cheliped of specimen 58.0 mm. long. Mus. 
No. 572. 



A NEW PHILIPPINE MALARIA MOSQUITO 

By Charles S. Banks 
{From the Entomological Section, Biological Laboratory y Bureau of Science, 

Manila, P. I.) 

In the course of investigations at Calamba, Laguna Province, 
Luzon, carried on by Drs. E. L. Walker and M. A. Barber to 
ascertain the species of mosquitoes capable of transmitting ma- 
laria, many specimens of a very interesting Myzomyia were 
bred between December 27, 1913, and April 12, 1914. 

This mosquito, in many respects, is very much like Myzomyia 
ftmesta Giles and M. rossii Giles, but differs in the wing spots 
and female palpal markings. 

A brief description of this mosquito is given by Doctors Walker 
and Barber^ and this more detailed description is given fully 
to identify the species. 

Myzomyia febrifera sp. nov. S and $ . 

General color pale gray, thorax darker laterally, abdomen 
dark, proboscis dark brown, labellse golden brown, apical third 
of palpi of female white with dark brown markings, as de- 
scribed below. Wings with 4 broad black costal spots alternating 
with cream spots, other veins with alternately black and cream 
scales. Legs wholly brown or bluish brown, with exceedingly 
minute golden brown spots or rings at articulations. 

Male. — Pale gray, head with erect black scales on occiput, 
white ones on frons, and a bifurcated tuft of white hairs be- 
tween eyes ; antennae golden brown-gray, apical segment inflated ; 
palpi porrect, basal segments thin, dark brown, apical one white 
with brown transverse and semilongitudinal bands which are 
preapical and basal ; apical segment with pale bristles on interior 
surface; proboscis dark brown; labellse pale. 

Mesonotum pale gray with a dark brown median hair-line 
expanding caudad before scutellum, also faint submedian and 
dorsolateral lines caudad. Pleurae pale with indistinct, longitu- 
dinal brown fasciae, golden hairs abundant on dorsum and 
sides. Scutellum dark mediad ; metanotum dark, narrow median 
fascia. 

' This Journal, Sec. B (1914), 9, 384. 

405 



406 2^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Abdomen dark unctuous brown with golden hairs equal in 
length to width of segments. Genitalia ordinary, claspers sub- 
falcate-spatulate apically. 

Legs uniformly dark brown, except coxae which are pale; all 
articulations marked by indistinct golden brown spots or rings. 

Wings pale cream with dark areas as follows: Basal third of 
costa brown (1),^ then a short cream area (2), then a long 
brown area (3), one-fifth length of wing a pale area one-half as 
long (4), a brown area equal to this (5), another pale area equal 
to this (6), a brown area two-thirds as long as this (7), and 
an apical pale area (8) . Subcosta with brown area below apical 
half of (1) and one also below (3) . First longitudinal vein with 
brown area like (1) on subcosta, but its next dark area (3) is 
interrupted just after its beginning by a pale area equal to 
(2) in length, followed by brown area two-thirds the length of 
(3) ; the remaining apical markings of this vein are like (4), 
(5), (6), (7), and (8) on costa. First submarginal cell twice the 
length of the second posterior, its forks brown, their junction 
pale, the stem brown, interrupted by pale areas at cross veins. 
Third vein pale with 2 dark spots at cross veins and 1 at apex. 
Fourth longitudinal vein with pale basal third, then dark to cross 
veins, at which it is pale, and beyond which dark nearly to 
junction of forks which is pale; beyond this point, both forks 
are dark to apices which are pale. Fifth vein pale with a small 
dark subbasal spot and a spot at forks, the anterior of which 
has 1 long and 1 short basal dark spot and a similar preapical 
one; basal three-eighths of posterior fork pale, the apical five- 
eighths dark. Sixth vein with basal one-fourth pale, then a 
short dark line, a short pale line, and the apical one-half dark. 
Marginal fringe dark brown, with pale areas at all veins except 
sixth. 

Female. — Color of head, body, legs, and wings similar to that 
of male, but wings much darker and more distinctly marked. 
White frontal tufts extended to middle of clypeus ; proboscis as 
in male but darker; palpi somewhat similar to those of M. 
rossii Giles, but apical third cream-white with an ill-defined wide 
brown ring near its middle, or subbasal in some specimens; 
middle and basal thirds of palpus separated by a narrow snowy 
ring ; basal scales erect. Antennae dark brown with golden gray 
verticels. 

* (1), (2), etc., refer to numeration of costal areas and correlate these 
with areas on other veins of wing. 



IX. D, 4 Banks: New Philippine Malaria Mosquito 407 

Length, exclusive of proboscis: $ , 3.5 millimeters; $ , 3 milli- 
meters ; length of wing, 2.75. 

Luzon, Laguna Province, Canlubang near Calamba {E. L. 
Walker and M. A. Barber). 

Type $ and $ , No. 18015, in entomological collection. Bureau 
of Science, Manila. Paratypes bear the same number. 

Time of rearing, April 2, 1914. 

This species has been proved to be a malaria carrier, hence 
its name. 



THE PHILIPPINE 

Journal of Science 

D. General Biology, Ethnology, 
AND Anthropology 



Vol. IX SEPTEMBER, 1914 No. 5 



STUDIES IN PHILIPPINE JASSOIDEA: I, SOME REMARKABLE 
TETTIGONIELLID.€ 

By C. P. Baker 

(From the College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, 

Los Banos, P. L) 

Eleven text figures 

It did not take long for Julian Valdez, after coming to these 
Islands two years ago, to bring together specimens of all of the 
Tettigoniellidse previously recorded from the Islands, and that 
from a very circumscribed region near Los Baiios, Laguna Prov- 
ince, Luzon. At the same time he discovered many more not 
yet in the Philippine list. Among the latter I find some very 
remarkable insects — a few belonging to genera or species de- 
scribed by Distant.^ 

One group of species in this new material represents a generic 
type apparently undescribed by Distant, Kirkaldy, Melichar, or 
Matsumura, and this group adds to the Philippine fauna not only 
a new genus, but a subfamily not previously known to occur so 
far east. The species of this genus are found, so far as known 
to me, only in the forests on the neighboring mountain masses 
of Maquiling and Banahao, and for this reason I am giving them 
the generic name Makilingia, 

Genus IttAKIUNGIA novum 

Small tettigoniellids, colored principally black and red, rarely 
whitish, with head much narrower than pronotum, anterior mar- 
gin very shortly sublaminate and strongly rounded in front 
between the eyes. Face rather long and narrow. Basal clypeal 
suture usually entirely obsolete. Lorae small and narrow. Lat- 

* Fauna Brit. India-Rhynchota. 
130422 409 



410 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

eral frontal margins passing close to eyes. Vertex flattish or 
concave, variously impressed or excavated, and always longer 
than half width between eyes. Ocelli placed before the line of 
anterior margins of eyes. Pronotum longer than the vertex, 
of a sexangular type in form, but anteriorly strongly, quite 
evenly, and narrowly rounded from the lateral angles to between 
the eyes, the posterior lateral margins short, the posterior mar- 
gin gently incurved, the pleural area with a strong complete 
carina. Scutellum usually large, longer than wide or wider 
than long, and with an acuminate tip, the posterior area more 
or less swollen. Tegmina normal in outline or somewhat nar- 
rowed distad, with 4 apical cells and 2 or 3 anteapicals, some- 
times with indistinct and irregular cross- veins in the costal area ; 
clavus without cross- veins, its 2 sectors joining the commissure; 
appendix very short or extending to near tip of inner apical cell. 
Armature of hind tibiae dense and heavy. Sculpturation largely 
a heavy and conspicuous puncturation. 

Type: Makilingia nigra sp. nov. 

By reason of the very distinctive form of pronotum and head, 
the strong sculpturation and coriaceous tegmina this genus un- 
questionably finds its nearest relatives among the Hylicinae — a 
group very highly developed in India. Of the described hylicine 
genera it approaches most nearly to Bhooria. Viewed from 
above, the remarkable character of the head is not apparent, 
but a side view instantly removes it from any near relationship 
with Tettigoniella. 

The species of this group are undoubtedly congeneric. They 
all conform closely to the generic type in habitus and all funda- 
mental characters. Within the group, however, are remarkable 
divergences in structural detail. It would be easy to break the 
genus into three or four groups equivalent to many of Distant's 
or Kirkaldy's "genera," although in well-founded taxonomy I do 
not see how they could be more than subgenera. 

Synopsis of species of Makilingia. 

a\ Clypeus notched at tip, the basal suture distinct at least at sides, front 
more than twice longer than wide; black, more or less whitish or 
bluish pruinose, the vertex with two triangular yellow marginal spots ; 

length 7 mm M. prninosa sp. nov. 

a'. Clypeus entire and rounded at tip, the basal suture obsolete; front much 
less than twice as long as wide. 
6\ Ocelli about as near eyes as to each other; ground color in large part 
black; scutellum wider than long. 
c\ Without red spots; deep black throughout, except the yellow legs 

and antennal scape; length 5-6 mm M. nigra sp. nov. 

c'. With red spots on vertex and elsewhere. 



IX, D, 6 Baker: Studies in Philippine Jassoidea, I 411 

rf\ Deep black, four spots on margin of vertex, and a large elongate 
spot on claval commissure red or yellow; legs yellow; length 

5-5.5 mm M. maculata sp. nov. 

d\ Vertex with four large coalescent spots about margin and three 
smaller spots basally ; pronotum black ; tegmina bronzy greenish 
with basal margin of clavus calloused red; legs reddish brown; 

length 5-5.5 mm M. colorata sp. nov. 

6'. Ocelli distinctly nearer to each other than to eyes; scutellum longer 
than wide; color very pale ochraceous with two small black mar- 
ginal spots on vertex next eyes; tegmina milky white; length 
5-5.5 mm M. pallida sp. nov. 

Makiliagia nigra sp. nov. 

Body and tegmina deep black, the legs and two basal antennal 
articles lemon yellow. Length ^ 5, $ 6 mm. 

Length of face twice the width between eyes; basal clypeal 
suture obsolete; front a little 
swollen and with disc flat- 
tened, transversely impressed 

above beneath margin of ver- / V ^xA i Ji jj^J 

tex; front coarsely sparsely )/ V Y'\ / '. 

punctate on disc, lateral mar- \ / ^ (1 ' / \ 

gins and clypeus coarsely N^^" --^^ / \ \^ iy' 



shagreened; lorse and genae 

with very large confluent ^w 



punctures. Length of vertex 




about five-sixths of the width ^^ 

between eyes, its anterior 

lateral margins slightly bi- 

sinuate ; surface coarsely 

sparsely punctate, the entire ^''-'- ^^«^^'^-^^-^-<*Bp.nov. 

lateral areas between ocelli and eyes deeply excavated, as is also 
the anterior median area. Ocelli somewhat in front of anterior 
line of eyes, an* about as far from each other as from eyes. 
Pronotum coarsely sparsely punctate, and posteriorly with in- 
distinct transverse rugae. Scutellum wider than long, longer 
than pronotum, transverse impressed line at middle very strong 
and medially widened ; posterior to impressed line the surface is 
distinctly longitudinally striolate. Tegmina opaque, coriaceous 
proximad including the clavus, the entire coriaceous portion 
strongly sparsely punctate. Last ventral segment of female 
rectangularly emarginate, the lateral posterior borders strongly 
curved. 

Luzon, Laguna Province, Mount Banahao (Julian Valdez — 
coll. Baker) , 



412 



The Philippine Jo^irnal of Science 



Makilingia pruinosa sp. nov. 

Body and tegmina deep black; legs reddish brown, femora 
except tips black, 2 basal articles of antennae yellowish. Narrow 
margin of head in front of eyes, and 2 large subtriangular spots 
near tip of vertex, yellowish ; younger specimens entirely whitish 
or bluish pruinose above, this gradually disappearing in older 
specimens. Length $ 7 mm. 

Length of face more than two and a half times the width 
between eyes, basal clypeal suture distinct at least at sides, the 
clypeus strongly notched at tip; face evenly convex, narrowly 
impressed below margin of vertex ; front and gense coarsely and 
confluently punctured, the clypeus and small area at base of 

front coarsely shagreened, the 
front with indistinct trans- 
verse glabrous stripes at 
sides. Length of vertex a 
little more than three-fourths 
width between eyes, its disc 
coarsely sparsely punctate, a 
very fine carina very near to 
anterior margin and parallel- 
ing it; a large depression be- 
tween each ocellus and the 
margin, and another medially 
situated, back of tip. Ocelli 
far in front of the line of 
anterior margins of eyes, and 
much nearer to eyes than t® 
each other. Disc of prono- 
tum strongly transversely 
rugosopunctate, the lateral margins very slightly angled at hind 
margins of eyes (not shown in drawing) . * Scutellum wider 
than long, a little more than half length of pronotum, deeply 
broadly impressed near pronotum, the posterior portion swollen 
and finely rugose. Tegmina, except apically, coriaceous and 
strongly punctate, the veins strong, inner apical cell and ap- 
pendix whitish translucent. Last ventral segment of female 
rectangularly emarginate, the lateral posterior borders straight. 
Luzon, Laguna Province, Mount Maquiling {Julian Valdez — 
colL Baker), 

Makilingia maculata sp. nov. 

Body and tegmina deep opaque black; the legs and basal 
antennal articles whitish or yellowish; front margin of head 




P'IG. 2. Makilingm pruinosa sp. nov. 



IX. D, 5 Baker: Studies in Philippine Jassoidea, I 413 

with 4 equally spaced small bright red spots; clavus largely 
occupied by an irregular elongate commissural spot, broader 
anteriorly and constricted before the posterior end, either bright 
red or bright yellow; costal area with a large translucent spot 
slightly beyond line of tip of clavus. Length 5 5, $ 5.5 mm. 

Length of face a little more than twice width between eyes; 
basal clypeal suture obsolete; front and clypeus evenly convex, 
coarsely but very uniformly shagreened throughout, scarcely at 
all impressed below margin of vertex; lorse and gense coarsely 
sparsely punctate. Length of vertex about three-fourths of 
width between eyes; entire surface evenly shallowly concave. 
Ocelli just in front of line of anterior margin of eyes, and some- 
what farther from each other than from eyes. Pronotum with 
disc coarsely shallowly irregularly punctate. Scutellum wider 
than long, nearly smooth an- , ., 

terior to the transverse me- \ ^x / 

dian fine impressed line; back /\ . --^ A )';\ |i< 

of this line greatly swollen to j ' ' 5 

a posterior transverse ridge, / \ r^\ / ( 

the surface of this posterior ^ "^ ~ \;^ /) / 

area shining and minutely \ / ./^ 

check striate. T e g m i n a / 

opaque, coriaceous basally _, -/--' \ 

where it is sparsely punctate. ^/"^ / ^^\\ ^ , 

Last ventral segment of fe- vjill_- -/ jitr^ 

male with the area of the Lz^r^ \ ■/ ^—^ 

emargination deep black, the ' -O.^T"'^ / 

emargination occupied by a ir » itr , •/• • 

^ jr ./ Pjq 3 Makihngia maculata sp. nov. 

large tooth, the lateral post- 
erior margins straight; the last ventral segment of male is very 
large, strongly swollen, the hind margin medially acute, and the 
pygofers are distally strongly twisted, though this may not be 
normal. 

Luzon, Laguna Province, Mount Maquiling and Mount Ba- 
nahao {Julian Valdez — coll. Baker). 

Makilingia colorata sp. nov. 

Head and pronotum shining black with a bronzy luster; legs 
reddish, femora yellowish ; basal articles of antennse yellow ; face 
broadly banded above, this band reddish above at margin of 
vertex shading into yellow below, the lower margin of band 
sinuate. Vertex with 4 very large coalescent shining red spots 
on anterior margin, 2 small basal spots near eyes coalescent with 
these, and 1 small separated median basal spot. Basal half of 



414 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



\ 



K 



\/ 



\/ 



tegmina bronzy greenish, black punctate, remainder blackish 
translucent, the inner apical cell and appendix paler ; inner basal 
borders of clavus shining calloused and reddish. Length s 5, 
$ 5.5 mm. 

Length of face nearly two and a half times width between 
eyes; basal clypeal suture obsolete; front and clypeus evenly 
convex, and evenly, thickly, strongly shagreened; lorse, gense, 
and pronotal pleurae below the carina, rugosopunctate. Length 
of vertex three-fourths of width between eyes ; surface broadly 
concave; all of the red marginal areas shining calloused and 
nearly smooth or slightly striate; the dark disc thickly coarsely 
punctate ; a longitudinal area outside of ocelli and reaching base 

^^ of vertex excavated; where 

this lateral depressed area 
reaches basal margin, the 
margin is cut through with a 
narrow sinus, a structure 
previously unknown in this 
family. Ocelli far in front 
of line of anterior margin of 
eyes, and farther from each 
other than from the eyes. 
Pronotum thickly and coarse- 
ly thimble-punctured. Scutel- 
lum much wider than long, 
about as long as pronotum, 
area anterior to the fine im- 
pressed transverse line 
coarsely thimble-punctured, 
behind this line slightly 
swollen and finely rugose. Last ventral segment of female 
medially rectangularly marginate, the lateral posterior margins 
straight. 

Luzon, Laguna Province, Mount Maquiling (Julian Valdez — 
coll. Baker) . 

Makilingia pallida sp. nov. 

Body pale ochraceous throughout; the tegmina milky white, 
apically narrowly margined with smoky; vertex with 2 small 
black spots on anterior margin next eyes and the ocelli black 
margined. Length ^ 5, $ 5.5 mm. 

Length of face a little more than twice width between eyes; 
basal clypeal suture obsolete ; front and clypeus finely punctured, 
the former flattened on disc; lorse, genae, and pronotal pleurae 
below the carina rugosopunctate. Length of vertex about two- 




Fig. 4. Makilingia colorata sp. nov. 



IX, D, 



Baker: Studies in Philippine Jassoidea, I 



415 




Fig. 5. MakUingia pallida sp. nov. 



thirds the width between 
eyes; sparsely coarsely punc- 
tured, the median and lateral 
areas depressed. Ocelli con- 
siderably in front of line of 
anterior margins of eyes, and 
much nearer to each other 
than to eyes. Pronotum 
coarsely and rather sparsely 
punctured. Scutellum longer 
than wide, with a transverse 
deeply excavated area next 
pronotum, the remainder 
swollen and rugoso-punctate. 
Tegmina with apical half 
pearly translucent, the basal half coriaceous and sparsely 
strongly punctate. Last ventral segment of female emarginate, 
the emargination occupied by a black tooth, the whole area of 
the emargination being black, the lateral posterior margins 
straight. 
Luzon, Laguna Province, Mount Maquiling (Julian Valdez — 

coll. Baker). 

Genus MILEEWA Distant 

Mileewa luzonica sp. nov. 

Vertex, pronotum, and scutellum ferruginous, the front margin 
of vertex and all below very pale yellowish, the tegmina washed 
with shining ferruginous. A large rectangular spot in middle 
of vertex, 2 round spots near basal margin of pronotum, a vary- 
ing and indistinct median area on posterior half of pronotum, 
lateral angles of scutellum broadly, a narrow longitudinal band 

on clavus within commissural 
margin and not reaching tip 
of clavus, a longitudinal band 
on corium bordering claval 
suture and passing into inner 
apical cell, and a band from 
base of tegmina passing to 
apex of first anteapical cell, 
black; area of apical cells 
smoky translucent. Length s 
4.5, $ 4.75 mm. 

Length of face two and one- 
fourth times width between 
PIG. 6. Mileewa luzonica sp. nov. ^y^s, basal clypeal suture dis- 




416 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

tinct, the whole surface faintly shagreened; front and clypeus 
strongly convex, the former slightly flattened on disc above. 
Length of vertex about three-fourths of width between eyes, 
surface smoothly convex. Ocelli nearly on line of anterior mar- 
gin of eyes, somewhat nearer to eyes than to each other. Pro- 
notum smooth, the pleural carina very fine but complete. Scut- 
ellum wider than long, a fine impressed transverse line at middle. 
Tegmina opaque proximad of apical cells, but not at all coriace- 
ous, and not at all punctate. If viewed squarely the hind margin 
of last ventral segment appears to be slightly incurved and with 
a median projection, the hind angles oblique; if viewed at a 
slight angle the hind margin appears to be deeply evenly emar- 
ginate. 

Luzon, Laguna Province, Mount Maquiling {Julian Valdez — 
coll. Baker). 

Mileewa luzonica var. decolorata var. nov. 

Body pale ochraceous 
throughout, the tegmina whit- 
ish subtransparent and smoky 
tipped. The quadrangular 
spot on vertex is divided into 
two along the median line. 
Pronotal spots as in M. luzo- 
nica. Length 4.5 mm. 

The face is somewhat nar- 
rower in the single specimen 
than in typical luzonica, and 

TiQ.1. MiUewaluzonicav2Lr. decolorata yB.r.Tioy. ^^C VerteX is slightly longer, 

but otherwise it is very close 
to the species, and at present must be placed with it. 

Luzon, Laguna Province, Mount Maquiling {Julian Valdez— 
coll. Baker), 

Genus UJNA St^l 

Ujna philippinensis sp. nov. 

Black, all below very pale yellowish. Vertex with 2 large 
lateral spots extending forward from eyes, 2 irregular spots 
involving the ocelli, 1 median stripe on posterior two-thirds 
which is broadened anteriorly and narrowly extended basally 
to eyes, and a narrowly triangular median spot at tip, pale yel- 
lowish. Scutellum with an indication of a median yellowish 
line anteriorly. Elytra deep smoky throughout, costal area sub- 
hyaline as far distad as apical cells, this area broadening distad 




IX, D. 5 Baker: SUidies in Philippine J assoidea, I 417 

where it is crossed by a red dash on the line of an indistinct 
oblique cross nervure. Length 4 mm. 

Front and clypeus very strongly convex and minutely sha~ 
greened, the former with 2 transverse black spots on upper 
margin. Second antennal article very large, longer than first. 
Vertex very long, narrowly rounded anteriorly, nearly smooth, 
coarsely shagreened just before tip, length once and a half the 
width between eyes, slightly impressed across ocelli. Ocelli very 
large, on the line of anterior margins of eyes and almost as far 
from median line as from eyes. Pronotum nearly smooth, the 
pleural carina complete. Scutellum wider than long, convex and 
nearly smooth anteriorly, deeply transversely foveate just behind 
middle, the posterior area 
minutely rugose. Hind mar- 
gin of last ventral segment of / \ ^\ 
female slightly incurved. ' c 'o \ \ \ !} 

Luzon, Laguna Province, / - \; 1/ \ 

Mount MsLquiling {Julian Val- ^ \ ',.;^ /{ -^ 

dez — coll. Baker). y" V P .^ _A -J^ 

This appears to be nearest \ .' I ;/ / 

to U. consors of Distant. The -, > 

genera Mileewa and Ujna are 
very small and peculiar close- 
ly related tettigoniellids. As C^ 'Z^--^- 
described by Distant they - _^^ 
seemed to be quite distinct- ...^/g; t/jna p/.iiippinen«« sp. nov. 
Mileewa with its carinate ver- 
tex and truncate tegmina, and TJjna with its carinate front and 
rounded tegmina. Both genera have only 3 apical cells in the 
tegmina. Melichar ^ describes a new species which he names 
Mileewa gillavryi, which has the head form of Mileewa, but the 
wing form of Ujna. Mileewa luzonica described herein does not 
have a distinctly carinated vertex, nor does Ujna philippinensis 
have the carinated front. However, the Mileewa is evidently 
congeneric with the type of the genus and the Ujna even shows 
the general color plan of Ujna delicatida and U. co7isors of Dis- 
tant. This leaves only the truncated tegmina on which to sepa- 
rate Mileewa. Melichar mentions the close resemblance of his 
Mileewa gillavryi to the type of Ujna, and I believe that it should 
be placed in that genus, if Ujna is to be kept separate from 
Milee^va. 

'Notes Leyden Mus. (1914), 36, 125. 



418 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



Genus TETTIGONIELLA Jacobi 

Tettigoniella whiteheadii Distant. 

Very pale ochraceous throughout ; tibiae and tarsi slightly dark- 
ened; 2 small black dots at tip of vertex, 2 spots on margin 
anterior to ocelli, 1 large median angulated black spot connected 
with basal margin of vertex by a median stripe, a variable median 
stripe on pronotum and scutellum, entire commissural margin of 
tegmina narrowly, and principal sectors of corium, dark brown 
to black. Tegmina concolorous, becoming smoky subhyaline api- 
cally. Length s 9.5, $ 11 mm. 

Length of face somewhat less than twice width between eyes. 
Face strongly swollen; the disc of front flattened, lateral areas 
with numerous transverse darker stripes, the upper angles of 

the front, and the upper 
angles of the flattened area, 
each with subtriangular black 
spots — extensions of those on 
the vertex. Face and vertex 
very finely shagreened. Head 
tumidly rounded in front, the 
anterior portion of vertex 
strongly convex, posterior 
third with a strongly im- 
pressed complete transverse 
area in which the ocelli are 
placed. Length of vertex 
somewhat more than half 
width between eyes, slightly shorter in the male; anterior 
margin slightly incurved at eyes, much more strongly so in 
the male. Ocelli just behind the line of the anterior margins of 
the eyes, distinctly long oval in shape, and twice as far from the 
median line as from the eyes. Pronotum with a few scattered 
weak punctures and with very indistinct transverse wrinkles, the 
anterior third with a deep oblique groove on either side of median 
line. Scutellum about as wide as long, large acuminate-tipped, 
a little shorter than pronutum, the sharp transverse impressed 
line near middle of disc. Last ventral segment of female some- 
what produced and strongly narrowly rounded. 

Luzon, Laguna Province, Mount Maquiling and Mount Bana- 
hao (Julian Valdez — coll Baker) . 

This species presents a remarkable superficial resemblance to 
Tettigoniella spectra var. nigrilinea St41, and specimens may be 
found under that name in collections. But apart from minor 




Fig. 9. Tettigoniella whiteheadii Distant. 



IX, D, 5 Baker: Studies in Philippine J assoMea, I 419 

differences, the head in whiteheadii is narrower than pronotum 
and the disc of front is flattened. In these characters the species 
agrees with the genus Kolla of Distant. But the chief character 
mentioned by Distant for Kolla — the curvature of the anterior 
margin of vertex beyond eyes — varies widely in the sexes of 
many species of Tettigoniella, as it does in the species described 
above. In fact, so much does it vary, that in some species, the 
female might be typical Kolla and the male Tettigoniella so 
far as this character is concerned. In Tettigoniella, likewise, 
there is a wide range of flattening of the disc of the front. 
Distant himself figures species of Tettigoniella with head dis- 
tinctly narrower than pronotum. 

Tettigoniella makilingensis sp. nov. 

Pale greenish yellow, below 
concolorous, with clypeus, 
tibiae apically, and tips of 
female valves, light green. 
Tip of vertex with a small \ ., 
black spot. Length $ 11 mm. // 

Head slightly broader than / 
pronotum. Face nearly twice 
as long as width between eyes 
and strongly swollen. Outer \ 
genal margins nearly straight. \ 

Front with disc not flattened, 
the lateral areas with numer- / 

ous darker transverse streaks. p,,. ,,. remgomeiia .nauninacnsis sp. nov. 
Face and vertex finely sha- 

greened. Vertex with a sharply impressed median line, the 
anterior areas on either side of this strongly convex. Vertex 
strongly angularly produced, nearly as long as width between 
eyes, and a little longer than pronotum. Ocelli just in front of 
line of anterior margins of eyes, about as far from eyes as from 
median line. Pronotum with a few scattering very weak punc- 
tures, anteriorly with a transverse impressed groove, this groove 
strongly roundly bent cephalad near middle, straight at the 
sides. Scutellum smooth, with a sharp transverse impressed 
line behind middle of disc; width equalling length, and this 
much exceeding length of pronotum. Tegmina whitish trans- 
lucent, apically transparent, the principal sectors of both clavus 
and corium brown and indistinctly beaded. Last ventral seg- 
ment of female with hind margin broadly evenly rounded. 

Luzon, Laguna Province, Mount Maquiling {Julian Valdez — 
coll Baker), 




420 The Philippine Journal of Science 

This species is nearest to T. quinquenotata Stal, but the latter 
is a smaller species, and apart from other differences, has the 
head narrower than the pronotum. 

Tettigoniella differentialis sp. nov. 

Pale green, legs white, vertex with a discal black spot and 
head with 2 black dots on margin in front of eyes ; tegmina semi- 
transparent with brownish veins, the milky white wings under- 
neath giving them an opaque appearance. Length $ 7 mm. 

Length of face about once and a third width between eyes. 
Outer genal margins strongly sinuate below eyes. Face strongly 
swollen, the disc of front not at all flattened; lateral areas of 
front with numerous darker transverse stripes. Face and vertex 
finely shagreened. Head tumidly rounded in front, the vertex 
strongly convex anteriorly, impressed across the base. Length 

of vertex about three-fourths 

of width between eyes, an- 

s^ terior margin slightly swollen 

\, just in front of eyes. Ocelli 

/ jx " : 1 /'^4j ij^\ just behind lines of anterior 

Y n/ Y'v /V margins of eyes, and much 

/ \ ' ( V /) ' nearer to eyes than to median 

_ ,' ^V;\ A line. Pronotum with an 

/ / evenly curved transverse im- 

. / pressed groove at anterior 

\/ one-fourth, back of this the 

Fio.li. Tettigoniella dif^ereniioMss^. no.. surface distinctly tranversc- 

ly wrinkled. Scutellum very 
short acuminate tipped, much wider than long, the width nearly 
equal t^ length of pronotum. Last ventral segment of female 
somewhat produced, the hind margin narrowly rounded. 

Luzon, Laguna Province, Mount Maquiling (^Julian Valdez — 
coll. Baker). 

This species is similar in coloration to T. unimaculata Sign., 
but the black spot on the vertex is behind the middle and much 
smaller, and the vertex is much longer. Tettigoniella unima- 
culata is referred to Kolla by Distant while T. differentialis 
could not possibly be so referred. It does not appear from the 
descriptions given that T. unimaculata of Distant is at all that 
of Signoret. Distant does not attempt to define the limits of 
variability of the species, as he determines it. Nor does it 
appear that the reference of T. kinbergi to unimaculata is at all 
final. StSl noted the resemblance, but considered them distinct. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

TEXT FIGURES 
(Drawings by C. F. Baker) 

Fig. 1. Makilingia nigra sp. nov. 

2. Makilingia pruinosa sp. nov. 

3. Makilingia maculata sp. nov. 

4. Makilingia colorata sp. nov. 

5. Makilingia pallida sp. nov. 

6. Mileewa luzonica sp. nov. 

7. Mileewa luzonica var. decolorata var. nov, 

8. (//na philippinensis sp. nov. 

9. Tettigoniella whiteheadii Distant. 

10. Tettigoniella makilingensis sp. nov. 

11. Tettigoniella differentialis sp. nov. 

421 



PHILIPPINISCHE HISTERIDEN: P 

Von H. BiCKHARDT 

{C asset, Germany) 
Eine Tafel 

Professor C. F. Baker vom College of Agriculture, University 
of the Philippines, in Los Baiios hatte die Giite mir eine kleine 
Suite Histeriden von den Philippinen su senden, die den nach- 
stehend aufgef iihrten Arten angehoren. Ich bin uberzeugt, dass 
bei grosserem Material sich noch manche weitere Art fur diese 
interessante Insel-Gruppe nachweisen lasst. 

Hololepta elongata Erichson. 

Hololepta elongata Erichson, in Klug, Jahrb. Ins. (1834), 92; Mar- 
SEUL, Monogr. (1853), 190, t. 4, f. 31. 

Ein kleines Exemplar vom Mt. Maquiling (Nr. 1959). Die 
Art ist iiber den ganzen Malayischen Archipel von Indien bis 
zu den Philippinen verbreitet. 

Apobletes tener Marseul. 

Apobletes tener Marseul, Monogr. (1860), 859, t. 15, f. 5. 

Die vorliegenden Stiicke wurden bei Los Baiios und am Mt. 
Maquiling gefunden (Nr. 1964). Auch in meiner Sammlung 
(ex coll. F. Schmidt) befinden sich mehrere Stucke von den 
Philippinen. Die Art scheint weit verbreitet zu sein. Mir 
liegen noch Exemplare vor von Java, Borneo, Sumatra und 
Formosa. 

Apobletes feriatus Lewis. 

Apobletes feriatus Lewis, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (1902), VII, 10, 224. 

Die Philippinischen Stucke stamen vom Mt. Maquiling (Nr. 
1962). Lewis vergleich die Art mit A. tener Mars, und A. 
schaumi Mars. Wenn ich die Exemplare richtig bestimmt habe, 
so ahneln die Tiere — abgesehen vom Sternum — ^viel mehr A. corti- 
calis Lew. Sie sind von dieser Art verschieden durch ausge- 
dehntere, aber noch feinere Punktierung des Halsschildes, darch 
andere Punktierung des Propygidiums und durch ein geandertes 
Pygidium. 

' Proof read by C. F. Baker. 

423 



424 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Apobletes fictitius Lewis. 

Apobletes fictitius Lewis, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1885) V, 16, 206. 

Apobletes difficile SCHM., Ent. Nachr. (1889), 15, 334. 

Apobletes platysomoides Lewis, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1891), VI, 

8, 382. 
Apobletes semperi Lewis, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1891), VI, 8, 382. 

Diese Art ist von Professor Baker nicht gefunden worden. 
Ich besitze jedoch die Type von A. difficile Schm. von den Philip- 
pinen. Auch diese Art ist weit verbreitet und in meiner Samm- 
lung durch Stiicke von Borneo, Mentawei, und Sumatra vertreten. 

Platysoma (Platylister) charrali Marseul. 

Platysoma {Platylister) charrali Marseul, Monogr. (1861), 146, t. 3, 
f. 6. 

Ein Stlick dieser seltenen Art, die bisher nur von Borneo 
bekannt war, fand Professor Baker auf den Mt. Maquiling auf 
Luzon (Nr. 1958). Der Lateralstreif des Halsschildes setzt 
sich zuerst kraftig, dann feiner, am Hinterrand (Basis) fort. 

Platysoma (Platylister) corticinus sp. nov. 

Oblong-ovatus, subparallelus, subeonvexus, niger, nitidus. 
Fronte cum clypeo antice concavo, stria transversa subrecta. 
Pronoto stria laterali antice interrupta. Elytris striis dorsalibus 
1. et 2. integris, 3. late interrupta, 4. apicali punctiformi obsoleta 
vix notata, ceteris subhumeralibusque nullis. Propygidio later- 
ibus fortiter ocellato-punctato, pygidio minus f ortiter sed densius 
punctato, margine tenui elevato. Mesosterno antice emarginato, 
stria marginali in medio late interrupta. Tibiis omnibus 4- 
dentatis. 

Long., 4.75-5.5 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Baiios (Baker Nr. 1648 et 1957). 

Die Korperf orm ist langlich oval, fast parallelseitig. Die Stirn 
ist nur vorn, der Clypeus vollstandig concav. Der Stimstreif 
ist fein. Der Lateralstreif des Halsschildes ist etwas gesch- 
wungen, dem Rande vorn und hinten mehr genahert als in der 
Mitte der Seite; am Vorderrand hinter den Augen ist er unter- 
brochen. Der 4. Dorsalstreif fehlt meist ganz, zuweilen ist 
er durch einen undeutlichen apicalen Punkt angedeutet. Das 
Propygidium ist an den Seiten mit kraftigen Augenpunkten 
massig dicht besetzt, die Mitte ist fast glatt. Das Pygidium ist 
dichter und etwas feiner punktiert, es hat einen ziemlich schar- 
fen erhobenen Aussenrand. Der Randstreif des Mesosternums 
ist vorn breit unterbrochen. Von den 4 Zahnchen der Hinter- 
schienen ist das basale Zahnchen sehr klein und leicht zu iiber- 
sehen. 



IX. D. 6 Bickhardt: Philippinische Histeriden, I 425 

Die neue Art ist mit P. abruptus Er. und ramoicola Mars, nahe 
verwandt, sie gleicht diesen Spezies in Grosse und Habitus voU- 
kommen. Sie unterscheidet sich von beiden durch das dichter 
und f einer punktierte Pygidium ; von abruptus f erner durch den 
unterbrochenen Lateralstreif des Halsschildes und den ebenfalls 
unterbrochenen Mesosternalstreif. Von ramoicola ist die Art 
ausserdem verschieden durch den breit unterbrochenen 3. 
Dorsalstreif. 

Platysoma (Platylister) ovatum Erichson. 

Platysoma ovatus Erichson, in Klug, Jahrb. Ins. (1834), 1, 108; 
Marseul, Monogr. (1853), 257, t. 7, f. 1. 

Auch diese Art ist iiber den Malayischen Archipel weit ver- 
breitet. Die vorliegenden Stucke wurden in Los Baiios (Nr. 
1643) gefunden. 

Platysoma (Platylister) abruptum Erichson. 

Platysoma abruptum Frichson, in Klug, Jahrb. Ins. (1834), 1, 109; 

Marseul, Monogr. (1853), 257, t. 7, f. 2; (1861), 142, t. 3, f. 2. 
Platysoma gorhami Lewis, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1889), VI, 3, 

278; (1893), VI, 11, 418. 

Die beiden mir vorliegenden Exemplare von Los Baiios (Nr. 
1649 und 1650) entsprechen sowohl der Beschreibung des Plor 
tysoma gorhami Lew. wie auch der des Platylister abruptum Er., 
die ich sowohl nach Erichson wie nach Marseul verglichen habe. 
Lewis hat bei Beschreibung seines gorhami off enbar vergessen, 
die Art mit abruptus zu vergleichen ; dies hat seinen Grund darin, 
dass er die Art als eine afrikanische ansah (er gibt 1889 als 
Fundort Zansibar an, berichtigt dann 1893 in Philippinen) . 
P. gorhami Lew. ist identisch mit P. abruptum Er. 

Platysoma (Platylister) striatiderum Marseul. 

Platysoma striatiderum Marseul, Monogr. (1853), 270, t. 7, f. 15. 

Diese .Art gehort wegen des erhaben gerandeten Pygidiums 
zur Untergattung Platylister Lew. Sie wurde von Professor 
Baker bei Los Baiios aufgefunden (Nr. 1640). 

Auch die folgenden Arten miissen wegen des gerandeten Py- 
gidiums in die Untergattung Platylister gestellt werden : P. bir- 
manum Mars., jobiense Mars., pini Lew., sesquistriatum Mars., 
contiguum Mars., emptum Mars. 

Platysoma (s. str.) luzonicum Erichson. 

Platysoma luzonicum Erichson, in Klug, Jahrb. Ins. (1834), 1, 111; 
Marseul, Monogr. (1853), 265, t. 7, f. 10. 

Mehrere Stucke von Los Banos (Nr. 1645). 

130422 2 



426 Tf^^ Philipinne Journal of Science i»i4 

Platysoma (s. str.) uniforme Lewis. 

Platysoma uniforme Lewis, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1894), VI, M, 
176. 

Die bei Los Baiios (Nr. 1642) gefundene Art scheint hierher 
zu gehoren. Das basale Rudiment des 3. Dorsalstreifs ist 
sehr undeutlich und nur bei seitlich auffallendem Licht schwach 
wahmehmbar. Der 5. Dorsalstreif ist kiirzer als von Lewis an- 
gegeben, er erreicht nicht die Mitte der Fliigeldecke sondern 
nur etwa zwei Funftel derselben. 

Platysoma (Cylistosoma) dufali Marseul. 

Platysoma dufali Marseul, Abeille I (1864), 310. 
Platysoma scitutum Lewis, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (1889), VI, 3, 
280. 

Der Diagnose von Marseul und auch der von Lewis ist noch 
hinzuzufiigen, dass die Augenpunkte auf dem Propygidium viel 
grosser sind als auf dem Pygidium. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Banos (Baker Nr. 1651). 

Liopygus diopsipygus Marseul. 

Apobletus diopsipygus Marseul, Ann. Mus. Geneva (1879), 14, 259. 

Ein kleines Exemplar von Los Baiios (Nr. 1646). Die Art 
wurde bisher gefunden in Java (Teijbodas) , Perak und Sumatra ; 
sie scheint weit verbreitet zu sein. 

Santalus philippinarum sp. nov. 

Elongatus, parallelus, convexus, niger, nitidus, fronte sub- 
convexa, stria frontali antice recta; mandibulis curvatis, basi 
extus marginatis. Thorace ciliato; striis lateralibus basin at- 
tingentibus, versus basin convergentibus, interna antice integra, 
in angulo antico rotundato. Elytris stria subhumerali interna, 
dorsalibus 1.-3. integris, 4. antice vix abbreviata vel integra, 5. 
ultra medium abbreviata. Propygidio pygidioque sat fortiter 
punctatis. Mesosterno stria marginali antice integra obsoleta. 
Tibiis anticis 3-dentatis. 

Long., 8 mm. 

Philippinen. 

Der Korper ist langlich parallelseitig, oben massig gewolbt. 
Der Stirnstreif ist vorn nahezu grade. Die Mandibeln sind 
ziemlich stark gekriimmt, aussen nahe der Basis gerandet, auf 
der Oberseite flach, kaum concav. Die Lateralstreifen des Hals- 
schildes erreichen die Basis und convergieren nach hinten. Der 
innere Lateralstreif ist vorn im flachen Bogen stumpfwinkelig 
zum Vorderrand des Halsschildes gebogen (bei dem verwandten 
piraticus Lew. geht der innere Lateralstreif weiter nach vorn 



IX, D, 5 Bickhardt: Philippinische Histeriden, I 427 

und biegt dann spitzwinkelig gerundet nach hinten zum Vor- 
derrand des Halsschildes um; ferner verlaufen bei dieser Art 
die Lateralstreifen parallel zu einander oder nahern sich gar 
vorn mehr einander als hinten) . Der 5. Dorsalstreif reicht bis 
zur Mitte der Fliigeldecke nach vorn oder noch etwas dariiber 
hinaus, er ist parallel zur Naht. Das Propygidium ist ziemlich 
kraftig und massig dicht, das Pygidium kaum feiner und dichter 
punktiert. Der Marginalstreif des Mesosternums ist vorn nicht 
unterbrochen, aber undeutlich. 

Das typische Exemplar wurde am Mt. Maquiling auf Luzon 
von Professor Baker erbeutet (Nr. 1644). Ein Stiick meiner 
Sammlung, Mindoro (ex coll. Schmidt), das irrtiimlich als S, 
congruens Mars, bestimmt war,^ gehort unzweifelhaft hierher, 
trotzdem die Mandibeln etwas langer und starker concav sind. 
Es wird das andere Geschlecht ( $ ) sein. 

Die bekannten Arten der Gattung Santalus Lew. lassen sich, 
wie folgt, auseinanderhalten. Sie sind samtlich in meiner 
Sammlung vertreten. 

Tabelle der Santalus Arten, 

a\ Die Fliigeldecken haben einen kraftigoa Nahtstreif und 2 subhumeral- 

streifen (Indien, Birma) S. latitibius Mars. 

a'. Die Fliigeldecken haben keinen Nahtstreif. Der aussere Subhumcral- 

streif fehlt (hochstens ist eine punktformige Andeutung an der 

Schulter vorhanden). 

6*. Der aussere Lateralstreif des Halsschildes ist nach hinten abgekurzt, 

er erreicht nicht die Basis. 

o\ Die Vorderschienen haben 4 Zahnchen, das Zahnchen nachst der Basis 

ist klein und undeutlich. Der 4. Dorsalstreif ist an der Basis 

um etwa ein Drittel verkiirzt (Lombok) S. congruens Mars. 

c'. Die Vorderschienen haben 3 Zahne; der 4. Dorsalstreif der Fliigel- 
decken ist vollstandig oder an der Basis ganz wenig abgekiirzt. 
cT. Die Korperform ist oval; das Propygidium ist ziemlich krftftig 
und massig dicht punktiert (Indien, Ceylon). S. orlentalis Payk. 
d^ Der Korper ist oblong; das Propygidium ist ausserst fein und 
seicht punktuliert (glatt erscheinend) , elongatulus Mars. 

(Indien) S. parallelus Redt. 

6". Der aussere Lateralstreif des Halsschildes reicht biz zur Basis. 

€\ Das Propygidium und Pygidium sind glatt; hochstens finden 
sich seitlich einige flache Punkte. (Die Mandibeln haben 
eine lange, fein ausgezogene Spitze.) (Celebes.) 

S. mandibular is Schmidt. 
e\ Das Propygidium und Pygidium sind punktiert. 
/\ Der Korper ist oblong, seitlich schwach gerundet. Die 
Hinterschienen sind weniger stark verbreitert. 

^ Zu diesser Art kann das Stiick nicht gehoren, denn die Vorderschienen 
haben nur 3 Zahne, der aussere Lateralstreif des Halsschildes erreicht die 
Basis und der 4. Dorsalstreif ist langer. 



428 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

g^. Die Lateralstreifen des Halsschildes sind parallel, der 
Zwischenraum ist weit. Das Mesosternum ist vorn 
deutlich und vollstandig gerandet (Celebes). 

S. rupestris Mars. 

fir'. Die Lateralstreifen des Halsschildes convergieren nach 

hinten, ihr Zwischenraum ist vorn an den Vorderecken 

beinahe doppelt so breit als hinten nahe der Basis. Das 

Mesosternum ist in der Mitte des Vorderrandes nicht, 

Oder obsolet, gerandet (Celebes) S. tabelUo Mars. 

/^ Der Korper ist langgestreckt, cylindrisch, fast parallelseitig. 

Die Hinterschienen sind sehr stark verbreitert. 

h^. Die Lateralstreifen des Halsschildes sind parallel, der 

4. Dorsalstreif convergiert etwas mit der Naht der 

Flugeldecken nach vorn (Timor).... S. piraticus Lew. 

/i'. Die Lateralstreifen des Halsschildes convergieren nach 

hinten. Der 4. Dorsalstreif verlauft parallel zur Naht 

(Philippinen) S. philippinarnm Bickh. 

Hister (Atholus) bakeri sp, nov. 

Ovatus, convexus, niger, nitidus; antennis pedibusque rufo- 
piceis; fronte plana, stria semihexagona valida antice recta; 
pronoto stria lateral! interna unica antice interrupta hamata, 
marginali lateribus et antice integra; eljrtris striis subhumera- 
libus nullis, dorsalibus 1.4 integris, 5 suturalique dimidiatis, 
crenatis. Propygidio pygidioque sparse punctatis. Mesosterno 
antice obtuso, stria marginali integra; tibiis anticis dilatatis 
4-dentatis. 

Long., 4.5 mm. 

Philippinen. 

Die K5rperform ist oval, ziemlich stark gewolbt, die Ober- 
seite ist glanzend schwarz. Die Fiihler und Beine sind rotbraun. 
Die Stirn ist eben, der Stimstreif ist vorn ganz gerade und sein 
Innenrand ist etwas (massig) eingedruckt. Das Halsschild 
hat einen Lateralstreif, der an der Basis und vorn verkiirzt ist, 
an der Vorderecke endigt dieser Streif in einem einv^arts gebo- 
genen Hakchen. Der Marginalstreif reicht ununterbrochen um 
Vorder- und Seitenrand herum. Die Flugeldecken haben 4 
vollst^ndige Dorsalstreifen, der 5. und Nahtstreif reichen etwa 
bis zur Mitte der Flugeldecken nach vorn. Das Propygidium 
und Pygidium sind ziemlich fein und weitlaufig punktiert, gegen 
die Spitze wird die Punktierung des Pygidiums feiner und dich- 
ter. Das Prostemum hat keine Streifen. Das Mesosternum ist 
vorn zugerundet und mit einer kraftigen Randlinie versehen. 
Die Vorderschienen haben 4 Zahnchen, von denen der grossere 
Spitzenzahn dreieckig vorgezogen ist. 

Die neue Art ist mit Atholus torquatus Mars, am nachsten 
verwandt. Die Korperform ist aber oval, starker gewolbt, die 



IX, D. 5 Bickhardt: Philippinische Histeriden, I 429 

Oberseite ist nicht punktiert, der Stirnstreif ist vorn ganz gerade 
(bei torquatus schwach einwarts gebogen), der Nahtstreif der 
Fliigeldecken ist etwas ktirzer. Das Pygidium ist ebenso punk- 
tiert wie das Propygidium. 

Professor Baker fand die Art bei Los Bafios (Nr. 1639). 

Epierus nasicomis sp. nov. Tafel I. 

Ovalis, convexus, niger, nitidus; antennis pedibusque rufis; 
fronte antice in medio cornuta, circa impressa. Thorace sub- 
laevi, stria marginali integra; elytris striis dorsalibus 1.-5. su- 
turalique integris (3 internis partim obsoletis). Propygidio 
pygidioque subtiliter sparsum punctulatis. Prosterno bistriato, 
striis utrinque modice divergentibus, lobo magno antice obtuso ; 
mesosterno antice subrecto, stria marginali integra. Tibiis an- 
ticis breviter multispinosis. 

Long., 2.20 mm. 

Philippinen. 

Die neue Art ist die einzige der Gattung Epierus mit einem 
regelrechten Kopfhorn. Am Vorderrand der Stirn, wo Stirn 
und Epistom zusammenstossen, steht gerade nach vorn gerichtet 
ein wohlausgebildetes Horn. Unmittelbar daneben und dahin- 
ter ist die Stirn etwas eingedruckt, ebenso ist der Clypeus con- 
cav. Von den 6 vollstandigen Riickenstreifen der Fliigendecken 
sind die 3 inneren (einschliesslich des Nahtstreif ens) auf der 
Scheibe sehr fein und nur durch Punktreihen angedeutet, sie 
sind oft nur bei schrag auffallendem Licht, zusehen. Das Pro- 
pygidium und das Pygidium sind sehr fein (das letztere noch 
feiner als das erstere) und sparlich nadelstichartig punktiert. 
Diese Kehlplatte des Prosternums ist sehr gross und vorn quer 
abgestutzt. Das Mesosternum ist am Vorderrand fast gerade, 
das Prosternum ist mit seiner geraden Basis unmerklich in das 
Mesosternum eingelassen. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Baiios (Baker Nr. 1647). 

Paromatus (s. str.) sp. 

Zwei Stiicke aus Los Baiios (Nr. 1641) ohne Auszeichnung 
auf dem Pygidium, jedoch mit in toto flach eingedriicktem ersten 
Abdominal-segment lassen sich unter den bekannten Arten der 
Gattung nicht unterbringen. Dass die Gattung dringend der 
Revision bedarf sehe ich vorlaufig von einer Beschreibung ab. 



TAFELERKLARUNG 

Tafel I. Epierus nasicornis sp. nov. 



431 



BiCKHARDT ; HiSTERIDEN, I.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., IX, D, No. 5. 




TAFEL r. EPIERUS NASICORNIS SP. NOV. 



NEUE FULGORIDEN VON DEN PHILIPPINEN: IP 

Von L. Melichar 
(Briinn, Atiatria) 

Eine Tafel 
DERBIN^E 
Zoraida flavicomis sp. nov. 

3 : Blassgelblich, Augen braun, Kopf r5tlich. Die langen 
Fiihler flach, zusammengedriickt, gelblichweiss, fiusserst fein 
braun gekSmt, die Rander rotlich, an der Spitze eingekerbt, in 
der Einkerbung die kurze schwarze Borste eingef iigt. Pronotum 
fast weiss, der Vorderrand rotlich, Schildchen gewolbt, die LSngs- 
kiele undeutlich, auf dem Metanotum 2 braune Punkte. 
Hinterleib blassgelblich, auf dem 4. oder 5. Ruckensegmente 
jederseits 2 braune Fleckchen, die Spitze (Genitalapparat) 
rotlich, Deckschuppen rot. Fltigeldecken hyalin, der Costalrand 
rotlichgelb, der ^usserste Rand, die Apikalrandadern und samt- 
liche Adem pechbraun. Die ersten 3 Apikaladern besitzen 
einen runden braunen Punkt, aus welchem sie verdunnt und 
farblos zum Apikalrande Ziehen. Fliigel kurz, rudimentftr. 
Unterseite und Beine blassgelb, Hinterschienen mit einem Dome 
hinter der Mitte. 
$ unbekannt 

Lange des Korpers, 4 mm. ; der Fltigeldecken, 10 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Baiios und Mount Maquiling (2 Exem- 
plare in meiner Sammlung, C. F. Baker.) 

Zoraida puncticosta sp. nov. 

$ : Blass grUnlichgelb, Augen braun. Das 2. Fuhlerglied 
lang, zusammengedriickt, an der Spitze eingekerbt, in der Ein- 
kerbung die Ftihlerborste eingelenkt, blassgriin, mit feinen brau- 
nen Kornchen besetzt, die Spitze rotlich, Kopf und pronotum 
blassgriin, letzteres in der Mitte nicht gekielt. Schildchen mit 
mehreren braunen Flecken und Punkten und zwar 2 Langsstriche 
an der Basis, 2-3 Punkte an den Seiten, 2 Punkte an der Apikal- 
spitze und von diesen jederseits eine schiefe Querlinie zur Flii- 
geldeckenbasis. Hinterleib griinlich, auf den Seiten des 4. 

* Proof read by C. F. Baker. 

483 



434 ^'/^^ Philiqypine Journal of Science 1914 

Rlickensegmentes jederseits 2 braune einandergenaherte Mac- 
keln, die Mitte des Bauches pechbraun. Flugeldecken lang, 
hyalin, der Costalrand gelblich, die Costalrandader an der Basis 
von 2 schwarzen Linien begrenzt, dann bis zur Spitze mit klein- 
eren und grosseren schwarzen Punkten besetzt; die Adern 
gelblich. Fliigeln sehr klein, rudimentar. Beine blassgelblich, 
Schenkel an der Spitze auf der Unterseite mit einem braunlichen 
Fleck, Hinterschienen mit einem Dome hinter der Mitte, die 
Spitze desselben dunkel. 

S unbekannt. 

Lange des Korpers, 4 mm.; der Flugeldecken, 11 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (1 Exemplar, C. F. Baker), 

Zoraida dorsopimctata sp. nov. 

S : Korper gelblichbraun. Die langen flachen Fiihler pech- 
braun, fein gekornt. Pronotum schmutzigweiss, die Seiten 
braun. Schildchen gewolbt, mit 3 deutlichen Langskielen, die 
Scheibe mehr oder weniger dunkel. Auf dem Hinterleibsrucken 
befinden sich jederseits 3 Reihen von schwarzen Punkten, welche 
nach hinten zur Mittellinie konvergieren. Die Rander der Ge- 
nitalsegmente schwarz. Metanotum stark kugelig gewolbt, 
pechbraun. Bauch pechbraun, Brust schmutziggelb, an den 
Seiten braun gefleckt. Flugeldecken hyalin, am Costalrande 
gelblichbraun, nicht gefleckt, die Adern braun, auf den Apikal- 
adern keine dunklen Punkte vor dem Apikalrande, letzterer 
sowie der Hinterrand schmal braun gesaumt. Fliigel kurz, rudi- 
mentar. Beine schmutziggelb, die Schienen dunkler, die Basis 
der Hinterschenkel schwarzlich. Hinterschienen mit einem 
Dome hinter der Mitte. 

$ unbekannt. 

Lange des Korpers, 5 mm. ; der Flugeldecken, 11.5 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (1 Exemplar, C. F. Baker), 

Genus NEOCAMMA novum 

Der Gattung Carnma Distant sehr ahnlich. Die Costalmem- 
brane ist breit, so breit wie die nachste Zelle, aber nicht an der 
Basis wie bei Camma (dilatata Dist.) vorgewolbt, der Scheitel 
klein, dreieckig, die Stirne von der Seite betrachtet gerundet 
aber nicht vorgewolbt, so dass die Wangen sehr schmal sind. 
Die Stirnrander einander beriihrend, an der Clavusbasis diver- 
gierend, ein kleines Stirndreieck bildend. Clypeus bedeutend 
langer als die Stirne, in der Mitte und an den Seiten fein gekielt. 
Die Fiihler unter den halbkugeligen, am Unterrande schwach 
gebuchteten Augen eingelenkt, den Stirnrand weit liberragend. 



IX. D, 6 Melichar: Neue Fulgoriden von den Philippinen: II 435 

das 2. P^uhlerglied fast dreimal so lang als breit, cylindrisch, 
Fiihlerborste apikal eingefugt. Pronotum in der Mitte schmal, 
nach aussen erweitert, Schildchen gewolbt, mit 3 Langskielen, 
die Seitenkiele etwas furchenartig vertieft. Metanotum dreiek- 
kig, gewolbt, in der Mitte mit einer Langsfurche Flugeldeeken 
lang, schmal, in der Mitte am breitesten. Der Verlauf der 
Adern wie bei Camma, die Radialzelle ist aber nicht so breit wie 
bei Camma. Die Flugel ungefahr halb so lang wie die Flugel- 
deeken, lanzettlich, nach hinten nicht erweitert, mit einer Ader 
in der Mitte welche nach beiden Seiten kurze Aste zum Vor- 
beziehungsweise Hinter-rande sendet, nach innen zu eine kurze 
Gabelader. Beine grazil, Hinterschienen mit einem Dome hin- 
ter der Mitte. 

Von der Gattung Camma Dist., durch die an der Basis nicht 
erweiterte Costalmembrane der Flugeldeeken, die langeren 
Fiihler und die lanzettlich geformten Flugel, sowie die mit einem 
Dome versehenen Hinterschienen verschieden. 

Typ. gen. Neocamma trifasciata sp. nov. 

Neocamma trifasciata sp. nov. Tafel I, Fig. 1-4. 

$ : Korper gelblichbraun ohne Zeichnung. Fliigeldecken 
hyalin mit 3 braunen Querbinden, der Costal- und Apikalrand 
mit braunen Flecken. Der nervus radialis ist rotlich, die iibri- 
gen Adern braunlichgelb. Beine gelblich. 

$ unbekannt. 

Lange des Korpers, 2.75 mm.; der Fliigeldecken, 7 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Mount Maquiling (1 Exemplar, C. F. Baker). 

Genus ACANTHOCERA novum 

Kopf samt Augen klein, der Scheitel als kleines Dreieck an der 
Basis erkennbar, die Stirne von der Seite betrachtet gerundet, 
nicht vorgewolbt, die Wangen daher schmal, die Stirne von 
vome linear, die Rander zusammenschliessend bis zur Spitze, 
Augen halbkugelig, die Fuhler die Augen iiberragend, das 2. 
Fiihlerglied mehr als doppelt so lang wie breit, cylindrisch, an 
der Aussenseite mit einem breiten Zahne versehen, wodurch sich 
diese Gattung von alien anderen bekannten Gattungen unter- 
scheidet. Clypeus gross, breit, in der Mitte und an den Seiten 
undeutlich fein gekielt. Rostrum die Hinterhiiften iiberragend. 
Pronotum in der Mitte sehr schmal, die hintere stumpfwinkelige 
Ausbuchtung fast den Vorderrand erreichend, die Seiten blat- 
tartig erweitert. Schildchen breiter als lang, vor der Spitze 
quer eingedriickt, mit 3 undeutlichen Langskielen. Fliigeldek- 
ken lang, schmal, hinter der Mitte am breitesten; das Geader 



436 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

ist aus der Abbildung ersichtlich. Fliigel kaum halb so lang 
wie die Fliigeldecken, ziemlich breit, hyalin. Beine grazil, Hin- 
terschienen nicht bedornt. 

Typ. gen., Acanthocera punctifrons sp, nov. 

Acanthocera punctifrons sp. nov. Tafel I, Figs. 5-8. 

$ : Blassgriin, Augen braun, auf der Stirne 5 schwarze Punkte, 
welche sich auf die Stimrander ausdehnen und daher auch 
von der Seite sichtbar sind. Fliigeldecken hyalin, mit gelblich- 
braunen Adern und zahlreichen hell braunlichgelben Makeln, 
hinter der Basalzelle, an der Teilungsstelle des nervus radialis 
und hinter der Clavusspitze eine dunkle pechbraune Makel. 
Hinterleib, Unterseite und Beine blassgriin, auf der Aussenseite 
der Vorderschienen an der Basis und in der Mitte je ein 
schwarzer Punkt. 

$ unbekannt. 

Mnge des Korpers, 2 mm.; der Fliigeldecken, 6 mm. 

Luzon, Laguna, Los Baiios (1 Exemplar, C. F, Baker), 

Fenuahala maculipennis sp. nov. 

$ : Schmutzig gelblichweiss. Scheitel dreieckig, doppelt so 
breit wie der Querdurchmesser des Auges, die Seiten gescharft 
und aufgerichtet, mit sensiblen Organen besetzt Stirne schmal, 
die Rander nur in der Mitte einander beriihrend, nach oben 
und unten divergierend. Von der Seite betrachtet gerundet, die 
Wangen kaum die Halfte des Langendurchmessers des Auges 
breit. Fuhler in der unteren Wangenecke eingelenkt, den Unter- 
rand des Auges erreichend, das 2. Fiihlerglied doppelt so lang 
wie breit, cylindrisch. Clypeus breit, gewolbt, nicht gekielt. 
Pronotum schmal, seitlich verbreitert. Schildchen mit 3 Kielen, 
die seitlichen schwach gebuchtet. Auf den Wangen eine braun- 
liche undeutliche Makel, in den hinteren Scheitelecken ein schwar- 
zer Punkt, sonst mit weissem Sekret mehr oder weniger be- 
deckt. Fliigeldecken lang, hyalin, mit zahlreichen rauchbraunen 
zusammenfliessenden Makeln, vor der Apikalspitze dort